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Hermanns R.L.,Geological Survey of Norway | Oppikofer T.,Geological Survey of Norway | Blikra L.H.,Geological Survey of Norway | Bohme M.,Geological Survey of Norway | And 7 more authors.
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment | Year: 2013

We present a classification system for hazard and risk that is posed by unstable rock slopes in Norway that might undergo catastrophic failure in future and can cause loss of life. The system is scenario-based as the intensity and rate of displacement, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass vary significantly on the slopes. In addition, for each scenario the secondary effects, such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later outburst floods, are evaluated. The hazard analysis is based on two types of criteria: 1) Structural site investigations including analysis of the development of a back-scarp, lateral boundaries and basal sliding surface. This includes a kinematic analysis for sliding and toppling based on slope orientation, persistence of main structures and morphologic expressions of the sliding surface. 2) Analysis of slope activity primarily based on slide velocity, change of deformation rates, observation of rockfall activity, and historic or prehistoric events. The analysis of consequences focuses on the potential fatalities to the rock slide scenarios and secondary effects. Based on the hazard and consequence analysis each scenario is classified in a risk matrix into category low, medium or high risk. © 2013 Sapienza Università Editrice. Source


Kvambekk A.S.,Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate | Melvold K.,Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2010

Long-term data series of ice cover on lakes and river temperatures from the mountain areas of Norway are lacking. The present study analyses the last four decades of ice data from the subalpine lake, Øvre Heimdalsvatn, and water temperature data from its outlet river, Hinøgla. These data are compared to water temperature data from three neighbouring, quite different locations, the glacier-fed rivers Leirungsåi and Sjoa, and the alpine lake, Bessvatn. The study also examines the air temperature/river temperature relationships, and the air temperature/ice freeze-up and break-up dates. During the months of July, August and September, the water temperature in Hinøgla was well correlated to the air temperature, but the correlation was poor in the remaining months due to the ice cover and snow conditions. A significant temperature increase of 2-3°C has been observed in Hinøgla in the months August-October since 1984. There were only minor changes in the duration of the ice cover season during the last 40 years, but a delay of 9 days was found in the freeze-up date and a delay of 6 days in the break-up date, although the latter was not significant. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Otero J.,University of Oslo | Otero J.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | L'Abee-Lund J.H.,Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate | Castro-Santos T.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 44 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Migrations between different habitats are key events in the lives of many organisms. Such movements involve annually recurring travel over long distances usually triggered by seasonal changes in the environment. Often, the migration is associated with travel to or from reproduction areas to regions of growth. Young anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) emigrate from freshwater nursery areas during spring and early summer to feed and grow in the North Atlantic Ocean. The transition from the freshwater ('parr') stage to the migratory stage where they descend streams and enter salt water ('smolt') is characterized by morphological, physiological and behavioural changes where the timing of this parr-smolt transition is cued by photoperiod and water temperature. Environmental conditions in the freshwater habitat control the downstream migration and contribute to within- and among-river variation in migratory timing. Moreover, the timing of the freshwater emigration has likely evolved to meet environmental conditions in the ocean as these affect growth and survival of the post-smolts. Using generalized additive mixed-effects modelling, we analysed spatio-temporal variations in the dates of downstream smolt migration in 67 rivers throughout the North Atlantic during the last five decades and found that migrations were earlier in populations in the east than the west. After accounting for this spatial effect, the initiation of the downstream migration among rivers was positively associated with freshwater temperatures, up to about 10 °C and levelling off at higher values, and with sea-surface temperatures. Earlier migration occurred when river discharge levels were low but increasing. On average, the initiation of the smolt seaward migration has occurred 2.5 days earlier per decade throughout the basin of the North Atlantic. This shift in phenology matches changes in air, river, and ocean temperatures, suggesting that Atlantic salmon emigration is responding to the current global climate changes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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