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Gulla S.,Vaxxinova Norway AS Bergen Norway | Kristoffersen A.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Sorum H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Colquhoun D.J.,University of Bergen
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Sequence variation in a region of the virulence array protein gene (vapA; A-layer) was assessed in 333 ('typical' and 'atypical') isolates of the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. Resulting similarity dendrograms revealed extensive heterogeneity, with nearly all isolates belonging to either of 14 distinct clusters or A-layer types. All acknowledged A. salmonicida subspecies (except ssp. pectinolytica, from which no vapA sequence could be obtained) were clearly separated, and notably, all isolates phenotypically identified as ssp. salmonicida formed a distinct and exclusive A-layer type. Additionally, an array of un-subspeciated atypical strains formed several equally prominent clusters, demonstrating that the concept of typical/atypical A. salmonicida is inappropriate for describing the high degree of diversity evidently occurring outside ssp. salmonicida. Most representatives assessed in this study were clinical isolates of spatiotemporally diverse origins, and were derived from a variety of hosts. We observed that from several fish species or families, isolates predominantly belonged to certain A-layer types, possibly indicating a need for host-/A-layer type-specific A. salmonicida vaccines. All in all, A-layer typing shows promise as an inexpensive and rapid means of unambiguously distinguishing clinically relevant A. salmonicida subspecies, as well as presently un-subspeciated atypical strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Stene A.,Alesund University College Alesund Norway | Viljugrein H.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Solevag S.E.,Alesund University College Alesund Norway | Devold M.,PatoGen Analyse AS Alesund Norway | Aspehaug V.,PatoGen Analyse AS Alesund Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Viral diseases represent serious challenge in marine farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Pancreas disease (PD) caused by a salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is by far the most serious in northern Europe. To control PD, it is necessary to identify virus transmission routes. One aspect to consider is whether the virus is transported as free particles or associated with potential vectors. Farmed salmonids have high lipid content in their tissue which may be released into the environment from decomposing dead fish. At the seawater surface, the effects of wind and ocean currents are most prominent. The aim of this study was primarily to identify whether the lipid fraction leaking from dead infected salmon contains SAV. Adipose tissue from dead SAV-infected fish from three farming sites was submerged in beakers with sea water in the laboratory and stored at different temperature and time conditions. SAV was identified by real-time RT-PCR in the lipid fractions accumulating at the water surface in the beakers. SAV-RNA was also present in the sea water. Lipid fractions were transferred to cell culture, and viable SAV was identified. Due to its hydrophobic nature, fat with infective pathogenic virus at the surface may contribute to long-distance transmission of SAV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Taksdal T.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Bang Jensen B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Bockerman I.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Mcloughlin M.F.,Fish Vet Group Inverness UK | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has a significant negative economic impact in the salmonid fish farming industry in northern Europe. Until recently, only SAV subtype 3 was present in Norwegian fish farms. However, in 2011, a marine SAV 2 subtype was detected in a fish farm outside the PD-endemic zone. This subtype has spread rapidly among fish farms in mid-Norway. The PD mortality in several farms has been lower than expected, although high mortality has also been reported. In this situation, the industry and the authorities needed scientific-based information about the virulence of the marine SAV 2 strain in Norway to decide how to handle this new situation. Atlantic salmon post-smolts were experimentally infected with SAV 2 and SAV 3 strains from six different PD cases in Norway. SAV 3-infected fish showed higher mortality than SAV 2-infected fish. Among the SAV 3 isolates, two isolates gave higher mortality than the third one. At the end of the experiment, fish in all SAV-infected groups had significantly lower weight than the uninfected control fish. This is the first published paper on PD to document that waterborne infection produced significantly higher mortality than intraperitoneal injection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Jansen M.D.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Bang Jensen B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Mcloughlin M.F.,Fish Vet Group Inverness | Taksdal T.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) in the seawater phase. Since its first description in Scotland in 1976, a large number of studies have been conducted relating to the disease itself and to factors contributing to agent spread and disease occurrence. This paper summarizes the currently available, scientific information on the epidemiology of PD and its associated mitigation and control measures. Available literature shows infected farmed salmonids to be the main reservoir of SAV. Transmission between seawater sites occurs mainly passively by water currents or actively through human activity coupled with inadequate biosecurity measures. All available information suggests that the current fallowing procedures are adequate to prevent agent survival within the environment through the fallowing period and thus that a repeated disease outbreak at the same site is due to a new agent introduction. There has been no scientific evaluation of currently used on-site biosecurity measures, and there is limited information on the impact of available mitigation measures and control strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Thoen E.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Skaar I.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L-1 in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L-1 in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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