Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway

Oslo Norway, Norway

Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway

Oslo Norway, Norway
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Knudsen R.,University of Tromsø | Henriksen E.H.,University of Tromsø | Gjelland K.O.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Hansen H.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2017

The monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris poses serious threats to many Atlantic salmon populations and presents many conservation and management questions/foci and challenges. It is therefore critical to identify potential vectors for infection. To test whether hybrids of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) × brown trout (Salmo trutta) are suitable as reservoir hosts for G. salaris during winter, infected hybrid parr were released into a natural subarctic brook in the autumn. Six months later, 23.9% of the pit-tagged fish were recaptured. During the experimental period, the hybrids had a sixfold increase in mean intensity of G. salaris, while the prevalence decreased from 81% to 35%. There was high interindividual hybrid variability in susceptibility to infections. The maximum infrapopulation growth rate (0.018 day-1) of G. salaris throughout the winter was comparable to earlier laboratory experiments at similar temperatures. The results confirm that infrapopulations of G. salaris may reproduce on a hybrid population for several generations at low water temperatures (~1 °C). Wild salmon-trout hybrids are undoubtedly susceptible to G. salaris and represent an important reservoir host for the parasite independent of other co-occurring susceptible hosts. Consequently, these hybrids may pose a serious risk for G. salaris transmission to nearby, uninfected rivers by migratory individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Gjessing M.C.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Thoen E.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Tengs T.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Skotheim S.A.,Marine Harvest Sandviken Norway | Dale O.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2017

Gill diseases cause considerable losses in Norwegian salmon farming. In 2015, we characterized salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) and associated gill disease. Using newly developed diagnostic tools, we show here that SGPV infection is more widely distributed than previously assumed. We present seven cases of complex gill disease in Atlantic salmon farmed in seawater and freshwater from different parts of Norway. Apoptosis, the hallmark of acute SGPV infection, was not easily observed in these cases, and qPCR analysis was critical for identification of the presence of SGPV. Several other agents including Costia-like parasites, gill amoebas, Saprolegnia spp. and bacteria were observed. The studied populations experienced significant mortalities, which increased to extreme levels when severe SGPV infections coincided with smoltification. SGPV infection appears to affect the smoltification process directly by affecting the gills and chloride cells in particular. SGPV may be considered a primary pathogen as it was often found prior to identification of complex gill disease. It is hypothesized that SGPV-induced gill damage may impair innate immunity and allow invasion of secondary invaders. The distinct possibility that SGPV has been widely overlooked as a primary pathogen calls for extended use of SGPV qPCR in Atlantic salmon gill health management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Wiik-Nielsen J.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Gjessing M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Solheim H.T.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Litlabo A.,Aqua Pharma AS Lillehammer Norway | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2017

Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Ali S.E.,National Research Center of Egypt | Skaar I.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2017

The incidence of fish pathogenic oomycetes, Saprolegnia, has increased significantly in aquaculture since the ban of malachite green. For the efficient characterization of anti-Saprolegnia therapeutics, simple accurate methods are required. However, the current screening methods are limited by time, and none of them are confirming the viability of treated spores or hyphae. In this study, a modified fluorescence-based assay for the in vitro screening of Saprolegnia inhibitors has been developed. This method involves the use of FUN-1 viability dye combined with calcofluor white M2R, and is based on the formation of orange-red cylindrical intravacuolar structures (CIVS) in metabolically active spores, hyphae and biofilms. Heat-killed and bronopol-treated Saprolegnia spores, hyphae and biofilms exhibited diffuse bright green fluorescence which confirms complete loss of viability. For boric acid-treated spores, no germination was observed. However, tiny CIVS were observed in 50% of treated spores which indicated reduction in their viability. Our results proved that FUN-1 dye is an efficient tool to distinguish between live and dead Saprolegnia spores, hyphae and biofilms and to monitor the change in Saprolegnia viability during qualitative evaluation of potential anti-Saprolegnia compounds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Stene A.,Alesund University College Alesund Norway | Viljugrein H.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Solevag S.E.,Alesund University College Alesund Norway | Devold M.,PatoGen Analyse AS Alesund Norway | Aspehaug V.,PatoGen Analyse AS Alesund Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Viral diseases represent serious challenge in marine farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Pancreas disease (PD) caused by a salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is by far the most serious in northern Europe. To control PD, it is necessary to identify virus transmission routes. One aspect to consider is whether the virus is transported as free particles or associated with potential vectors. Farmed salmonids have high lipid content in their tissue which may be released into the environment from decomposing dead fish. At the seawater surface, the effects of wind and ocean currents are most prominent. The aim of this study was primarily to identify whether the lipid fraction leaking from dead infected salmon contains SAV. Adipose tissue from dead SAV-infected fish from three farming sites was submerged in beakers with sea water in the laboratory and stored at different temperature and time conditions. SAV was identified by real-time RT-PCR in the lipid fractions accumulating at the water surface in the beakers. SAV-RNA was also present in the sea water. Lipid fractions were transferred to cell culture, and viable SAV was identified. Due to its hydrophobic nature, fat with infective pathogenic virus at the surface may contribute to long-distance transmission of SAV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Songe M.M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Willems A.,University of Aberdeen | Sarowar M.N.,University of Aberdeen | Rajan K.,Landcatch Natural Selection Ltd Ormsary Fish Farm Lochgilphead | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

Since the ban of malachite green in the fish farming industry, finding alternative ways of controlling Saprolegnia infections has become of utmost importance. Much effort has been made to elucidate the mechanisms by which Saprolegnia invades fish eggs. Little is known about the defence mechanisms of the hosts, making some eggs more prone to infection than others. One clue might lie in the composition of the eggs. As the immune system in the embryos is not developed yet, the difference in infection levels could be explained by factors influenced by the mother herself, by either transferring passive immunity, influencing the physical aspects of the eggs or both. One of the physical aspects that could be influenced by the female is the chorion, the extracellular coat surrounding the fish egg, which is in fact the first major barrier to be overcome by Saprolegnia spp. Our results suggest that a thicker chorion in eggs from Atlantic salmon gives a better protection against Saprolegnia spp. In addition to the identification of differences in sensitivity of eggs in a fish farm set-up, we were able to confirm these results in a laboratory-controlled challenge experiment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Gulla S.,Vaxxinova Norway AS Bergen Norway | Lund V.,Nofima Tromso Norway | Kristoffersen A.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Sorum H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Colquhoun D.J.,University of Bergen
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Sequence variation in a region of the virulence array protein gene (vapA; A-layer) was assessed in 333 ('typical' and 'atypical') isolates of the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. Resulting similarity dendrograms revealed extensive heterogeneity, with nearly all isolates belonging to either of 14 distinct clusters or A-layer types. All acknowledged A. salmonicida subspecies (except ssp. pectinolytica, from which no vapA sequence could be obtained) were clearly separated, and notably, all isolates phenotypically identified as ssp. salmonicida formed a distinct and exclusive A-layer type. Additionally, an array of un-subspeciated atypical strains formed several equally prominent clusters, demonstrating that the concept of typical/atypical A. salmonicida is inappropriate for describing the high degree of diversity evidently occurring outside ssp. salmonicida. Most representatives assessed in this study were clinical isolates of spatiotemporally diverse origins, and were derived from a variety of hosts. We observed that from several fish species or families, isolates predominantly belonged to certain A-layer types, possibly indicating a need for host-/A-layer type-specific A. salmonicida vaccines. All in all, A-layer typing shows promise as an inexpensive and rapid means of unambiguously distinguishing clinically relevant A. salmonicida subspecies, as well as presently un-subspeciated atypical strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Alarcon M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Harstad Norway | Thoen E.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Poppe T.T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Borno G.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Harstad Norway | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

This study describes a co-infection of Kudoa islandica (Myxozoa) and Nucleospora cyclopteri (Microsporida) in farmed lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in Norway. Several other parasites (Cryptocotyle sp., protozoan ciliates and Gyrodactylus sp.) were also found in gills. In June 2013, the mortality in a farmed lumpfish population increased to 65%. Lumpfish showed erratic swimming behaviour and loss of weight. At necropsy, nodules in the kidney were the only visible lesions. Histologically, all fish showed severe changes with gill inflammation and necrosis in the spleen, kidney and liver. Haemorrhages and necrosis were observed in some hearts. Intracellular microsporidians associated with the lesions were detected in most organs using histological examination and Calcofluor White. Kudoa spores were diagnosed in the skeletal muscle, but no inflammatory response was associated with the presence of the plasmodia. Comparison of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences showed 100% similarity to Kudoa islandica and Nucleospora cyclopteri. Kudoa islandica and N. cyclopteri have previously been described associated with lesions in wild lumpfish in Iceland. In the present case, N. cyclopteri is believed to be the main cause of systemic pathology. This is the first description of K. islandica and N. cyclopteri causing pathology in farmed lumpfish in Norway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Wiik-Nielsen J.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Alarcon M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Jensen B.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Haugland O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Mikalsen A.B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

Several different viruses have been associated with myocarditis-related diseases in the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. In this study, we investigated the presence of PMCV, SAV, PRV and the recently identified Atlantic salmon calicivirus (ASCV), alone and as co-infections in farmed Atlantic salmon displaying myocarditis. The analyses were performed at the individual level and comprised qPCR and histopathological examination of 397 salmon from 25 farms along the Norwegian coast. The samples were collected in 2009 and 2010, 5-22 months post-sea transfer. The study documented multiple causes of myocarditis and revealed co-infections including individual fish infected with all four viruses. There was an overall correlation between lesions characteristic of CMS and PD and the presence of PMCV and SAV, respectively. Although PRV was ubiquitously present, high viral loads were with a few exceptions, correlated with lesions characteristic of HSMI. ASCV did not seem to have any impact on myocardial infection by PMCV, SAV or PRV. qPCR indicated a negative correlation between PMCV and SAV viral loads. Co-infections result in mixed and atypical pathological changes which pose a challenge for disease diagnostic work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Thoen E.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway | Skaar I.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L-1 in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L-1 in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Loading Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway collaborators
Loading Norwegian Veterinary Institute Oslo Norway collaborators