Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Trondheim, Norway

Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in the city of Trondheim, Norway. NTNU is the second largest of the eight universities in Norway, and, as its name suggests, has the main national responsibility for higher education in engineering and technology. In addition to engineering and the natural and physical science, the university offers advanced degrees in other academic disciplines ranging from the social science, the arts, medicine, architecture and fine art.The current rector is professor Gunnar Bovim. Wikipedia.

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Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-06-15

Disclosed herein is a method of generating a coded data packet in dependence on a plurality of source data packets, the method comprising: determining a plurality of data packets, for generating a coded data packet, from a plurality of source data packets for encoding, wherein each of the plurality of source data packets for encoding comprises the same number of bits; generating a multiplied data packet in dependence on one or more multiplication operations between a multiplication value and bits of one of the determined data packets; and generating a coded data packet in dependence on a combination of the multiplied data packet and one or more of the other of said plurality of determined data packets that have not been multiplied; wherein the one or more multiplication operations are performed as operations in the finite field GF(p); p is greater than 2; the multiplication value is an element of the finite field GF(p); the multiplication value is not 0 or 1; and the combination of data packets is performed by bitwise XOR operations. Advantageously, the coding scheme can be almost as computationally efficient as GF(2) and the likelihood of obtained coded data packets being linearly independent is greatly increased.

Nordlandssykehuset Hf, Norwegian University of Science, Technology and University of Oslo | Date: 2014-03-21

The present invention relates to chimeric anti-CD14 antibodies and methods of using the same. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to the use of chimieric anti-CD 14 antibodies in research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. In one embodiment, the anti-CD14 antibody has a variable light chain of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a variable heavy chain of SEQ ID NO: 2 (isolated from the hybridoma clone 18D11). In another embodiment, the anti-CD14 antibody has a variable light chain of SEQ ID NO: 3 and a variable heavy chain of SEQ ID NO: 4 (isolated from the hybridoma clone Mil2).

Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Date: 2016-10-12

Disclosed herein is a computer-implemented method for simulating a response of a drug, or a combination of drugs, being used for the treatment of a disease, the method comprising a computing device performing the steps of: generating one or more models of cell responses in a biological network of cellular processes, wherein each model is a self-contained logical model that comprises a network topology with nodes, edges between nodes and parameters of the nodes for modelling obtained state data of a plurality of biological signalling entities of one or more diseased cells, wherein generating each model comprises automatically determining logical rules that define at least the parameters of the nodes such that an attractor of the model substantially corresponds to said obtained state data of the plurality of biological signalling entities of one or more diseased cells; for each of the one or more models, simulating the effect of a drug, or a combination of drugs, by determining an output of the generated model when the states of one or more nodes of the model are changed in accordance with the expected effect of the drug, or the combination of drugs, on one or more of said biological signalling entities; and determining a drug, or a combination of drugs, for the treatment of the one or more diseased cells in dependence on the outputs of the one or more models. Advantageously, a fast and inexpensive technique is provided for determining drug(s), or combinations of drugs, for the treatment of the disease.

Moser E.I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Moser M.-B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Neuron | Year: 2013

An ultimate goal of neuroscience is to understand the mechanisms of mammalian intellectual functions, many of which are thought to depend extensively on the cerebral cortex. While this may have been considered a remote objective when Neuron was launched in 1988, neuroscience has now evolved to a stage where it is possible to decipher neural-circuit mechanisms in the deepest parts of the cortex, far away from sensory receptors and motoneurons. In this review, we show how studies of place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the entorhinal cortex may provide some of the first glimpses into these mechanisms. We shall review the events that led up to the discovery of grid cells and a functional circuit in the entorhinal cortex and highlight what we currently see as the big questions in this field-questions that, if resolved, will add to our understanding of cortical computation in a general sense.

Buzsaki G.,New York University | Moser E.I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Theories on the functions of the hippocampal system are based largely on two fundamental discoveries: the amnestic consequences of removing the hippocampus and associated structures in the famous patient H.M. and the observation that spiking activity of hippocampal neurons is associated with the spatial position of the rat. In the footsteps of these discoveries, many attempts were made to reconcile these seemingly disparate functions. Here we propose that mechanisms of memory and planning have evolved from mechanisms of navigation in the physical world and hypothesize that the neuronal algorithms underlying navigation in real and mental space are fundamentally the same. We review experimental data in support of this hypothesis and discuss how specific firing patterns and oscillatory dynamics in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus can support both navigation and memory. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Igarashi K.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2015

Neural oscillations observed in local field potentials (LFP) represent gross cellular activity near the recording electrode. Coupling of oscillations in distributed brain circuits has been proposed to enhance communication across the circuits, and the plasticity in oscillatory coupling can underlie flexible task learning, but the direct evidence has been lacking. Recently, evidence for plasticity in oscillatory coupling in theta, beta and gamma bands has been obtained in memory circuits consisted of the hippocampus and its connected areas, suggesting importance of oscillatory coupling plasticity in memory processing. I hypothesize that such plasticity in oscillatory coupling could be a key mechanism for enhancing inter-regional neural communication, especially in the entorhinal-hippocampal and prefrontal-hippocampal memory circuits that underlie formation, control and retrieval of memory. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-02-2016 | Award Amount: 16.31M | Year: 2017

An inspiration for INVADE are the world-wide agreements on minimisation of human caused effects to climate change and energy efficiency targets set at the European Union with ambitious goals for reduction of greenhouse gas emission and for increase of renewable energy share. To enable a higher share of renewable energy sources to the smart grid and gain a traction in the market place a few critical barriers must be overcome. There is a deficiency of 1) flexibility and battery management systems 2) exploration of ICT solutions based on active end user participation 3) efficient integration of energy storage and transport sector (EVs), 4) novel business models supporting an increasing number of different actors in the grid. INVADE addresses these challenges by proposing to deliver a Cloud based flexibility management system integrated with EVs and batteries empowering energy storage at mobile, distributed and centralised levels to increase renewables share in the smart distribution grid. The project integrates different components: flexibility management system, energy storage technologies, electric vehicles and novel business models. It underpins these components with advanced ICT cloud based technologies to deliver the INVADE platform. The project will integrate the platform with existing infrastructure and systems at pilot sites in Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, Norway and the Netherlands and validate it through mobile, distributed and centralised use cases in the distribution grid in large scale demonstrations. Novel business models and extensive exploitation activities will be able to tread the fine line between maximizing profits for a full chain of stakeholders and optimizing social welfare while contributing to the standardization and regulation policies for the European energy market. A meaningful integration of the transport sector is represented by Norway and the Netherlands pilots with the highest penetration of EVs worldwide.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 9.71M | Year: 2017

The projects overall aim is to improve the health, development and quality of life of children and adults born very preterm (VPT, < 32 weeks of gestation) or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500g) approximately 50 000 births each year in Europe by establishing an ICT platform to integrate, harmonise and exploit the wealth of data from 20 European cohorts of VPT/VLBW children and adults and their families constituted from the early 1980s to the present, together with data from national registries. VPT/VLBW births have higher risks of cerebral palsy, visual and auditory deficits, impaired cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders and social problems than infants born at term and account for more than a third of the health and educational budgets for children. They may also face higher risks of non-communicable disease as they age. There is emerging evidence of reduced mental health, quality of life, partnering, family life and employment chances and wealth in adulthood. The platform will enable stratified sub-group analyses of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, neonatal complications, and otherwise rare medical conditions that cannot be studied in national population cohorts. The broad temporal, geographic, cultural and health system diversity makes it possible to study the impact of socioeconomic and organisational contexts and determine the generalisability of outcomes for VPT/VLBW populations. The RECAP platform creates a value chain to promote research and innovation using population cohorts, beginning with the integration of VPT/VLBW cohorts to the translation and dissemination of new knowledge. It will be based on a sustainable governance framework, state-of-the art data management and sharing technologies, tools to strengthen research capacity, a hypothesis-driven research agenda and broad stakeholder participation, including researchers, clinicians, educators, policy makers and very preterm children and adults and their families.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-09-2016 | Award Amount: 5.82M | Year: 2017

Tuberculosis (TB) today rivals HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. The number of TB patients has never been higher and the growing proportion of drug-resistant TB is threatening control strategies both in the developing and developed world, Eastern Europe being a particularly worrying point in case. The anTBiotic consortium aims to fuel the long-term TB clinical pipeline while immediately offering new options to clinicians when confronted with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. More specifically, the proposed studies aim to: a) Establish the proof of concept of anti-TB efficacy in humans of a pioneering, first-in-class, low-dose GSK oxaborole clinical drug candidate; b) Identify a combination of -lactam antibiotics suitable for the treatment of MDR TB orally or as a once daily intravenous or intramuscular application and c) Incorporate the best -lactam combination into an explorative salvage regimen for untreatable patients with extensively drug-resistant TB The anti-TB activity in humans will be established in a two-week EBA clinical studies that combine established (CFU, TTP) and new clinical markers (biomarkers, PET/CT). These datasets will help ascertain anti-TB efficacy in humans and generate confidence on their validity in longer-term drug combination trials. A variety of modelling approaches to predict optimal dosing will be used. Finally, we intend to use at least one of these novel anti-TB entities as part of a pioneering, non-controlled clinical trial in highly drug resistant subjects in Europe and South Africa. This final clinical intervention will hopefully be of immediate benefit to drug-resistant patients in the EU and elsewhere in addition to generating a strong precedent for further adoption worldwide.

Linder J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Robinson J.W.A.,University of Cambridge
Nature Physics | Year: 2015

Traditional studies that combine spintronics and superconductivity have mainly focused on the injection of spin-polarized quasiparticles into superconducting materials. However, a complete synergy between superconducting and magnetic orders turns out to be possible through the creation of spin-triplet Cooper pairs, which are generated at carefully engineered superconductor interfaces with ferromagnetic materials. Currently, there is intense activity focused on identifying materials combinations that merge superconductivity and spintronics to enhance device functionality and performance. The results look promising: it has been shown, for example, that superconducting order can greatly enhance central effects in spintronics such as spin injection and magnetoresistance. Here, we review the experimental and theoretical advances in this field and provide an outlook for upcoming challenges in superconducting spintronics. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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