Trondheim, Norway

Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in the city of Trondheim, Norway. NTNU is the second largest of the eight universities in Norway, and, as its name suggests, has the main national responsibility for higher education in engineering and technology. In addition to engineering and the natural and physical science, the university offers advanced degrees in other academic disciplines ranging from the social science, the arts, medicine, architecture and fine art.The current rector is professor Gunnar Bovim. Wikipedia.

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Storli P.-T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Houille Blanche | Year: 2017

The paper presents two novel concepts for increasing energy storage capacity at Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) plants that are planned, being constructed or already exist. Both concepts make use of compressed air, but unlike other storage technologies that utilize compressed air, the air is not intended as the energy storage itself, it is a working fluid for moving water. By using compressed air, it is possible to utilize storage volumes that are positioned below the original upper reservoir in PHS plants. The two concepts presented here uses this principle, one by inflatable air bags positioned below the lower reservoir level, and the other by excavation of underground reservoirs that serve as the increased storage volume. The necessary operation comes at an efficiency penalty, but the energy storage reservoir will have an increase in size, without any new dam being built or existing water levels rise. This makes it ideal for retrofitting at existing PHS plants, which would increase the energy storage capacity as well as making it possible to install additional power generating capacity. © Société Hydrotechnique de France, 2017.

Olsen N.R.B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
River Sedimentation - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on River Sedimentation, ISRS 2016 | Year: 2017

Numerical modeling of antidune formation and propagation is described. The numerical model is based on the 2D width-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, solved with a finite volume method using the k-epsilon turbulence model. The sediments are computed with the Engelund-Hansen formula and the convection-diffusion equation for suspended sediments. A non-orthogonal grid follows the moving bed and water surface. The results from the numerical model are compared with two physical model studies of downstream migrating antidunes. The computed dune lengths correspond reasonably well with the laboratory measurements. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Vik M.L.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Landscape Research | Year: 2017

In both the European Landscape Convention and academic literature there is a widespread idea that public participation in landscape matters increases landscape democracy. Based on theories promoting self-mobilisation as the ultimate form of public participation, the article studies and discusses efforts rooted in local communities related to questions of democracy. Fieldwork was carried out in two different communities characterised by such efforts. The author first discusses the efforts within the context of a Nordic conception of landscape practices, encompassing all forms of landscape management and use, and then discusses the democratic nature of different practices. The findings indicate that aspects of democracy are threatened when local self-mobilisation efforts develop politically. To broaden the current understanding of landscape democracy, the author advocates the need to extend the scientific understanding of modern landscape practices to include those carried out with the intention to undertake landscape changes and improvements. © 2017 Landscape Research Group Ltd.

Wheeler M.L.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Limon J.J.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Underhill D.M.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Underhill D.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2017

Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut). Recent research is dramatically expanding our understanding of the mechanisms by which our immune systems interact with these organisms in health and disease. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about where and how the immune system interacts with common fungi. © 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Svingen B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

A predictive governor based on an embedded, online transient simulation was commissioned at Tonstad power plant in Norway in December 2014. This governor controls each individual turbine governor by feeding them modified setpoints. Tonstad power plant consists of 4 × 160 MW + 1 × 320 MW high head Francis turbines. With a yearly production of 3888 GWh, it is the largest in Norway. The plant is a typical high head Norwegian plant with very long tunnels and correspondingly active dynamic behaviour. This new governor system continuously simulates the entire plant, and appropriate actions are taken automatically by special algorithms. The simulations are based on the method of characteristics (MOC). The governing system has been in full operational mode since December 19 2014. The testing period also included special acceptance tests to be able to deliver FRR, both on the Nordic grid and on DC cable to Denmark. Although in full operational mode, this system is still a prototype under constant development. It shows a new way of using transient analysis that may become increasingly important in the future with added power from un-regulated sources such as wind, solar and bio.

Lokke A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Chopra A.K.,University of California at Berkeley
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2017

A direct finite element method is presented for nonlinear earthquake analysis of interacting dam-water-foundation rock systems. The analysis procedure applies viscous damper absorbing boundaries to truncate the semi-unbounded fluid and foundation-rock domains and specifies at these boundaries effective earthquake forces determined from the design ground motion defined at a control point on the free surface. The analysis procedure is validated numerically by computing the frequency response functions and transient response of an idealized dam-water-foundation rock system and comparing with results from the substructure method. Because the analysis procedure is applicable to nonlinear systems, it allows for modeling of concrete cracking, as well as sliding and separation at construction joints, lift joints, and at concrete-rock interfaces. Implementation of the procedure is facilitated by commercial finite element software with nonlinear material models that permit modeling of viscous damper boundaries and specification of effective earthquake forces at these boundaries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tobben J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017

This paper concerns the net effects of promoting renewable energies on value added and disposable income in Germany, as well as their distribution among regions and income brackets. Since its entry into force, the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has stimulated tremendous investments in renewable energy capacities by guaranteeing investors a fixed price per kWh as well as a preferred feed into the grid over electricity from conventional sources. The policy measures are financed by a surcharge on electricity prices. In recent years, a controversy has arisen about potentially negative regional and social distribution effects. In this paper, multiregional price and quantity input-output models with endogenous heterogeneous households are used to trace the indirect impacts of the EEG on value added and disposable income through the complex network of regional value chains. Our findings suggest that the generation of electricity from renewable sources itself leads to small positive impacts on industries, but leads to a significant drain on household income and has regressive distributive effects. However, investment in new capacities may possibly transform these negative impacts into a positive direction for the majority of households. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Trivedi C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Cervantes M.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Competitive electricity prices and reduced profit margins have forced hydraulic turbines to operate under critical conditions. The demand for extended operating ranges and the high efficiency of the turbine runners have forced manufacturers to produce lightweight runners. A turbine runner sometimes experiences resonance when a forced (flow-induced) excitation frequency approaches the runner's natural frequency, resulting in failure. The cost of structural failure after commissioning is prohibitive. To attain a reliable and safe runner design, understanding of the structural response to flow-induced excitations is important. High amplitude pressure pulsations cause fatigue loading of the blades, which develop cracks over time. The amplitudes are dependent on the flow conditions, type of turbine and stator/rotor vane combinations. The structural response is dependent on the material properties, flow-induced damping and natural frequencies. Moreover, in a hydraulic turbine, changes in flow velocity from less than 1 m s−1 to over 40 m s−1 create challenges in predicting the response. The main objective of this article is to review the studies conducted on fluid-structure interactions within hydraulic turbines. Several aspects are reviewed, such as flow-induced excitation, added mass effect, hydrodynamic damping, and blade flutter. Both experimental and numerical studies are discussed in this article. This review also discusses the consequences of an increased number of transient cycles, such as load variation, start-stop and total load rejection, on the turbines and the fatigue loading. Finally, an attempt is made to highlight the important requirements for prospective fluid-structure analysis to fill current gaps in the literature. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Ege S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Land Use Policy | Year: 2017

It is generally believed that tenure security has improved due to the programme of land certification. In this paper I argue the opposite. Tenure security concerns three different rights: possession, renting and latent rights. Rights of possession are believed to have improved, but the evidence is weak and conflicting. Land rentals are expanding and farmers face high tenure insecurity. The main problem, though, is latent rights, with great insecurity and increased conflict levels. Despite rapid economic development there is considerable social malaise, an unfortunate agricultural structure, and considerable pressure for land redistribution due to unresolved land tenure issues. The paper is based on the certification literature and primary material from North Shäwa. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Hameed I.A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
2016 Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, ICDL-EpiRob 2016 | Year: 2016

The design of natural interaction with social robots is highly complex process, given the huge design space of robots in terms of appearance and behavior and the challenges arising when using face detection and speech recognition in the wild. More natural and highly autonomous interaction is necessary to foster trust and engagement and hence establishing a long-term social relationship between users and robots. In this abstract, an adaptive and interactive dialogue system is designed to exchange a chat with a user using personal information stored in his/her user profile. NLP is used to extract user's basic information, hobbies and interests for building a rich user profile. The information from the user profile is used to customize and adapt subsequent dialogues in a way to build trust and initiate comfort between users themselves and the robot. The user profile is continuously updated whenever new information is extracted in subsequent dialogues. Face detection (FD) is used to identify the user. An artificial neural network (ANN) based FD system is used to increase the system's predictability. Failure to recognize a user's face leads to creating a new user profile for the new unidentified user. NLP failure leads to storing the whole sentence and manual fixing thereafter. © 2016 IEEE.

Cristofaro A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
2016 European Control Conference, ECC 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper is focused on the design of a robust tracking controller for a class of rotationally invariant evolution partial differential equations in the presence of bounded external perturbations. Adopting spherical coordinates, the original N-dimensional setting is transformed in a 1-dimensional problem, and global practical stabilization is addressed through a regularized sliding-mode approach. Numerical simulations support theoretical results. © 2016 EUCA.

Leira B.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 | Year: 2017

A variety of different types of mechanical components are subjected both to a corrosive environment as well as alternating dynamic loading which causes fatigue crack-growth. There is a tendency to treat these phenomena as separate processes while in reality the corrosive process will also have a strong influence on the crack-growth such that the interaction between the two cannot be neglected. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Derawi M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
2016 International Conference on Bio-Engineering for Smart Technologies, BioSMART 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper deals with the holistic development of a biometric system based on acoustic ear recognition. Its main purpose is to map one aspects within acoustic ear recognition, namely the performance of the ear characteristics bands and peaks. 50 subjects have participated in experiments collecting biometric samples. The measuring device composed of a pair of headphones with an integrated microphone as sensor. Several methods have been utilized for feature extraction, and various types of distance metrics and classifiers have been employed. © 2016 IEEE.

Ervik A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2016

This is a comment on a 2014 paper by Dai and Wang. It is argued that the validation in Dai and Wang’s paper is an artifact caused by the boundary conditions of the level-set function, meaning that the effects reported in their paper have little physical relevance. Simulations are presented using Dai and Wang’s methods to illustrate this claim. Remarks are made on the choice of boundary conditions for the level-set function, as well as the frequency of reinitialization, both of which are important topics that are sometimes overlooked.Asimple criterion is proposed for determining the appropriate reinitialization frequency in simulations of highly viscous flows. © 2016 The Author(s).

Trivedi C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2017

Hydraulic turbines include stationary and rotating components. The interaction of the components, mainly between the runner blades and distributor vanes, is critical when the frequency of the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) approaches the runner natural frequency. This causes resonance in the turbine runner and the premature failure of the blades. Several turbines have experienced such problems in the last few years. The studies indicated that the added mass effect causes change in natural frequency of the runner. In the critical conditions, when the runner natural frequency is close to the RSI frequency, hydrodynamic damping is an important parameter in controlling turbomachinery blade-forced response. A reliable technique that can predict/estimate the change in the runner natural frequency due to added mass has yet to be developed. This paper reviews the investigations conducted on fluid structure interaction (FSI) focusing on the role of hydrodynamic damping during resonance, RSI and added mass effect. In specific, the review includes: (1) role of boundary layer to improve the damping effect, (2) how nearby structure and submergence level changes the damping effect, (3) dependency on mode-shape, (4) how freestream velocity and vortex shedding helps to increase damping, (5) damping during cavitation, (6) damping variation with respect to a dimensionless β parameter and (7) damping effect during rotation. In the summary, need for the future study of FSI within the field of hydropower and how damping is important in avoiding the catastrophic failures in the early life of hydraulic turbines is discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Qvale P.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Harkegard G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2017

Widespread use of weakest-link theory for high-cycle fatigue assessment based on finite-element (FE) results is limited by the lack of suitable post-processors. By assuming the stress within each element to be a linear function of the volume, weakest-link calculations can be performed by simple operation on typical FE output. This simplified method was evaluated on FE results from five elementary components with brick element meshes of different resolution. Deviations in effective stress amplitudes were <2.5% compared with analytical solutions. In cases where analytical solutions were unavailable, solutions were compared with those of the in-house post-processor P-FAT. Deviations were around 5% for ‘fine’ meshes and increased with decreasing mesh resolutions. Deviations were always conservative and largest for materials with high fatigue strength scatter. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Haarberg G.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Materials Transactions | Year: 2017

A small but significant amount of dissolved titanium is always present in the molten cryolite based electrolyte used during electrowinning of aluminium. The fact that titanium can appear in several oxidation states may be a cause for reduced current efficiency for aluminium, although codepositon of titanium should be thermodynamically favoured. Voltammetric studies were carried out in molten Na3AlF6 - Al2O3 (sat) containing TiO2 at 1020°C. The results suggested that titanium was reduced in two steps from Ti (IV) to Ti (III) followed by reduction of Ti (III) to Ti metal. Experiments were also carried out in industrial aluminium cells. Large quantities of TiO2 were added to the electrolyte during electrolysis, and samples of electrolyte and produced metal were taken and analysed as a function of time after addition. The results suggested that titanium was codeposited at the aluminium cathode by a diffusion controlled reaction. The apparent current efficiency for titanium deposition was estimated to be higher than 90%. The valency problem seems to be less challenging when depositing liquid titanium alloys from molten fluoride electrolytes. This approach may give rise to the development of production of a valuable titanium containing alloy TiAl3. © 2017 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials.

Throndsen W.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2017

This is a study of the visions and expectations which have been put forward by experts about smart grids. Within the sociology of expectation, such visions are given performative significance, and as such these expectations can provide us with an idea of where smart grid development is intended to take us. In order to gain insight into these issues, this paper first undertakes a literature review of 40 smart grid research papers. Thereafter, the paper reviews the self-reporting of 19 smart grid demo projects within the ERA-Net research framework of the EU. The findings suggest that there are three distinct expert smart grid narratives about users, one economic, one technical, and one which consists of a social science critique. The first one seeks to facilitate for user rationality by economic incentives, whereas the second seeks largely to automate the consumption and thereby bypass the question of active users. Social science critique is found to evaluate imagined users and their potential correspondence with real ones. When actual failure of economic incentives is recorded in demo sites, the economic rationale narrative exhibits surprising resilience within the frameworks. Technical narratives reinforce the argument for bypassing the user with the aid of technology, thereby suggesting performativity at work. The discussion raises the question of the actual and perceived need for active users in the smart grid, and suggests that strategies for non-participation of end users in the smart grid are both relevant and necessary. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Eriksen P.E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Krogstad P.-A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017

An experimental investigation of the first five diameters of the wake behind a 0.9 m diameter model wind turbine with three blades has been undertaken. The measurements were performed at the turbine design condition, at which the tip speed ratio λR=6 and the tip-chord Reynolds number Rec≈105. The turbine uses the NREL S826 profile along the full length of the blades and was tested in a uniform flow with 0.24% turbulence intensity. Measurements were taken using a hot-wire probe with four wires which is able to resolve all three components of the velocity vector. In addition to the velocity vector, the rotor position was measured simultaneously. This allowed for conditional averaging of the acquired data, which enabled the periodic and turbulent structures in the flow to be separated. The analysis shows the development from a near wake with strong periodic coherent structures to the region where turbulent motions dominate and where a significant inertial subrange in the spectrum is identified. This transition is shown to be initiated by the mutual induction between the vortices which causes them to leapfrog within 1.75 diameters downstream of the rotor and merge into a single structure by 3 diameters. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

News Article | April 25, 2017

Emotional eating -- eating when you feel sad or upset or in response to another negative mood -- is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons. The findings come from researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, King's College London, University College London, and the University of Leeds. They appear in the journal Child Development. "Understanding where emotional eating comes from is important because such behavior can increase the risk for being overweight and developing eating disorders," according to the study's lead author, Silje Steinsbekk, associate professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. "If we can find out what influences the development of emotional eating in young children, parents can be given helpful advice about how to prevent it." When children eat to soothe their negative feelings, their food tends to be high in calories (e.g., sweets) so they consume more calories. If they emotionally overeat often, they are also more likely to be overweight. Emotional eating is also tied to the development of later eating disorders (e.g., bulimia and binge eating). This study sought to determine why children eat emotionally and is the first research to consider the issue in school-age children. Researchers examined emotional feeding and eating in a representative group of 801 Norwegian 4-year-olds, looking at these issues again at ages 6, 8, and 10. They sought to determine whether parents involved in the study (mostly mothers) shaped their children's later behavior by offering food to make them feel better when they were upset (emotional feeding), and whether parents whose children were easily soothed by food (those who calmed when given food) were more likely to offer them more food for comfort at a subsequent time. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires describing their children's emotional eating and temperament (how easily they became upset, how well they could control their emotions), as well as their own emotional feeding. Approximately 65% of the children displayed some emotional eating. The study found that young children whose parents offered them food for comfort at ages 4 and 6 had more emotional eating at ages 8 and 10. But the reverse was also true: Parents whose children were more easily comforted with food were more likely to offer them food to soothe them (i.e., to engage in emotional feeding). Thus, emotional feeding increased emotional eating, and emotional eating increased emotional feeding. The findings held even after accounting for children's body-mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Moreover, higher levels of negative affectivity (i.e., becoming angry or upset more easily) at age 4 increased children's risk for emotional eating and feeding at age 6. And this contributed to the bidirectional relation between emotional feeding and emotional eating. "We know that children who are more easily upset and have more difficulty controlling their emotions are more likely to eat emotionally than calmer children, perhaps because they experience more negative emotions and eating helps them calm down," notes Lars Wichstrøm, professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who coauthored the study. "Our research adds to this knowledge by showing that children who are more easily upset are at highest risk for becoming emotional eaters." The authors suggest that instead of offering children food to soothe them when they are sad or upset, parents and other caregivers try to calm youngsters by talking, offering a hug, or soothing in ways that don't involve food. "Food may work to calm a child, but the downside is teaching children to rely on food to deal with negative emotions, which can have negative consequences in the long run," adds Steinsbekk. The authors caution that because the study was conducted in Norway, which has a relatively homogenous and well-educated population, the findings should not be generalized to more diverse populations or to cultures with other feeding and eating practices without further study.

News Article | April 25, 2017

Emotional eating - eating when you feel sad or upset or in response to another negative mood - is not uncommon in children and adolescents, but why youth eat emotionally has been unclear. Now a new longitudinal study from Norway has found that school-age children whose parents fed them more to soothe their negative feelings were more likely to eat emotionally later on. The reverse was also found to be the case, with parents of children who were more easily soothed by food being more likely to feed them for emotional reasons. The findings come from researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, King's College London, University College London, and the University of Leeds. They appear in the journal Child Development. "Understanding where emotional eating comes from is important because such behavior can increase the risk for being overweight and developing eating disorders," according to the study's lead author, Silje Steinsbekk, associate professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. "If we can find out what influences the development of emotional eating in young children, parents can be given helpful advice about how to prevent it." When children eat to soothe their negative feelings, their food tends to be high in calories (e.g., sweets) so they consume more calories. If they emotionally overeat often, they are also more likely to be overweight. Emotional eating is also tied to the development of later eating disorders (e.g., bulimia and binge eating). This study sought to determine why children eat emotionally and is the first research to consider the issue in school-age children. Researchers examined emotional feeding and eating in a representative group of 801 Norwegian 4-year-olds, looking at these issues again at ages 6, 8, and 10. They sought to determine whether parents involved in the study (mostly mothers) shaped their children's later behavior by offering food to make them feel better when they were upset (emotional feeding), and whether parents whose children were easily soothed by food (those who calmed when given food) were more likely to offer them more food for comfort at a subsequent time. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires describing their children's emotional eating and temperament (how easily they became upset, how well they could control their emotions), as well as their own emotional feeding. Approximately 65% of the children displayed some emotional eating. The study found that young children whose parents offered them food for comfort at ages 4 and 6 had more emotional eating at ages 8 and 10. But the reverse was also true: Parents whose children were more easily comforted with food were more likely to offer them food to soothe them (i.e., to engage in emotional feeding). Thus, emotional feeding increased emotional eating, and emotional eating increased emotional feeding. The findings held even after accounting for children's body-mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Moreover, higher levels of negative affectivity (i.e., becoming angry or upset more easily) at age 4 increased children's risk for emotional eating and feeding at age 6. And this contributed to the bidirectional relation between emotional feeding and emotional eating. "We know that children who are more easily upset and have more difficulty controlling their emotions are more likely to eat emotionally than calmer children, perhaps because they experience more negative emotions and eating helps them calm down," notes Lars Wichstrøm, professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who coauthored the study. "Our research adds to this knowledge by showing that children who are more easily upset are at highest risk for becoming emotional eaters." The authors suggest that instead of offering children food to soothe them when they are sad or upset, parents and other caregivers try to calm youngsters by talking, offering a hug, or soothing in ways that don't involve food. "Food may work to calm a child, but the downside is teaching children to rely on food to deal with negative emotions, which can have negative consequences in the long run," adds Steinsbekk. The authors caution that because the study was conducted in Norway, which has a relatively homogenous and well-educated population, the findings should not be generalized to more diverse populations or to cultures with other feeding and eating practices without further study. The study was funded by the Research Council of Norway. Summarized from Child Development, Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity by Steinsbekk, S (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Barker, ED (King's College London), Llewellyn, C (University College London), Fildes, A (University of Leeds), and Wichstrøm, L (Norwegian University of Science and Technology). Copyright 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. All rights reserved.

News Article | May 2, 2017

Parts of the ice of the Juvfonne snow patch in Jotunheimen are 7,600-years-old, which makes it the oldest dated ice on mainland Norway. "We were a little surprised to find that the ice from Juvfonne was that old," says Rune Strand Ødegård, an associate professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Manufacturing and Civil Engineering in Gjøvik. Between 9,000-10,000 years ago, the ice in this area melted as the climate warmed, which was at its warmest between 7,000-8,000 years ago. The new results from Juvfonne suggest it might be possible to find ice from the last ice age in the high-mountain areas of southern Norway. "There is likely even older ice, as this 7,600 year old ice was found at an elevation of 1,850 meters. The old ice found in Juvfonne is dated to the middle of the warm period after the last ice age, so it's really exciting to have found ice that survived the last warm period," Ødegård said. Juvfonne is a small ice field at the base of Galdhøpiggen in Jotunheimen. A tunnel is chiseled into the ice at the base of the field. A sample was taken from this tunnel and sent to the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland for carbon dating. The results came back: the ice was 7,600 years old. So far, the ice has only been dated. No other analysis has been done, as the age of the ice was unknown. "The results allow for the possibility of organic material having been frozen into the ice field for 7,000 years, which will lead to new knowledge. However, we haven't done a detailed analysis for organic material yet," Ødegård said. The results will hopefully lead to new research, and to the possibility of finding even older ice and organic material preserved under the glaciers in Jotunheimen. The most well-known archaeological find from Jotunheimen's glaciers is Norway's oldest shoe, dated to be 3,500-years-old. Researchers have been measuring the age, internal structure, mass balance and climate sensitivity of the ice in Juvfonne since 2010. Bad winters seem to have been eating away at the snow- and ice depths, although the studies show that large winter storms still help the glaciers grow. "Six years of measurements gives us too little data to say anything about long-term effects, but the development is worrying," Ødegård said.

News Article | May 4, 2017

A landmark paper claiming to show the devastating impact of microplastics on fish has been retracted after an investigation found the authors guilty of scientific misconduct. The study, published in the prestigious journal Science, claimed that fish became “smaller, slower and more stupid” when exposed to tiny plastic fragments in the marine environment. It also suggested that perch larvae favour eating plastic over their natural prey “like teenagers eating junk food”. Widespread media coverage of the work in June last year may have helped cement the case for banning microbeads in cosmetics, making the retraction particularly uncomfortable for the journal. Previously, there had been clear evidence that marine organisms swallow microplastics and that high concentrations of these fragments are harmful to fish in laboratory work. The retracted study was one of very few to explicitly show that microplastics are harmful at levels found in the marine environment. However, scientists say there is still compelling evidence to back legislation banning tiny plastic beads that are widely used in toiletries and cosmetics. The controversy centres on work that was carried at a research station on Gotland, a Baltic Sea island, by Oona Lönnstedt, a scientist based at Uppsala University. Two other Swedish marine scientists, who had worked alongside Lönnstedt at the station, noticed discrepancies between the investigation detailed in the paper and the work they had witnessed, and raised the alarm with Sweden’s Central Ethical Review Board. Lönnstedt told the investigation that the laptop storing the raw data had been stolen 10 days after the paper was published and a technical glitch meant it had not been backed up on the university server. The investigation concluded there was a “suspicion that the experiment was never conducted”, because the authors had produced “no more than weak fragments” of original data to back up their paper. Lönnstedt and her supervisor, Peter Eklöv, have continued to defend their findings, but in a statement to the journal Nature said they had requested the paper’s retraction because it would “not be trusted as long as a suspicion of misconduct remains”. Fredrik Jutfelt, a marine scientist at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and one of the academics to raise the alert about the work, said: “The paper was definitely the largest paper yet on microplastics. It was groundbreaking, showing massive behavioural effects on fish from natural concentrations.” Jutfelt and a second whistleblower, Josefin Sundin of Uppsala University, remain strongly in favour of restrictions on the release of plastics into the ocean. “Is the ban justified? Yes, definitely,” said Sundin. “The whole field doesn’t stand and fall with this paper.” Richard Thompson, professor of marine biology at Plymouth University agreed: “This paper was important … but not pivotal. There’s a body of evidence indicating the potential for a harmful effect.”

News Article | April 19, 2017

Media registration is now open for the Starmus Science and Music Festival, a seven-day event from June 18-23 in Trondheim, Norway. Journalists who would like to cover the event must apply for press accreditation at the festival's website, As an accredited journalist, you'll also have access to a daily hands-on science programme from the host university, NTNU, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. We'll open the doors to Nobel Laureates May-Britt and Edvard Moser's neuroscience laboratory, bring you to a cutting-edge salmon farm and offer tours and a chance to sleep in a zero-emissions home of the future and more. Accredited journalists can register for the science program here: https:/ . A limited number of travel stipends will be available for accredited journalists. The festival brings 46 scientists, economists and deep thinkers together for a one-on-a-kind event. Among the headliners are physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking, 10 Nobel Laureates, 10 astronauts, three of whom are moonwalkers, economist Jeffrey Sachs, filmmaker Oliver Stone and cybersecurity expert Eugene Kaspersky. Buzz Aldrin was the second person to set foot on the Moon. He and fellow moonwalkers Charlie Duke and Harrison Schmitt will open the festival with a discussion of their lunar adventures and their views on future missions to Mars. Hawking is particularly known for his work on black holes, and his efforts to link general relativity and quantum mechanics. "Starmus is an important and very unique interdisciplinary festival of people working in different fields -- astronomers, astronauts, cosmologists, physicists, philosophers, musicians, artists, and biologists who share an interest in the universe, how it began and is now, and how we may explore and use its many facets," Hawking said in a statement. The festival will also feature Norway's own Nobel Laureates, neuroscientists Edvard and May-Britt Moser from NTNU. NTNU is hosting the festival for the first time this year. May-Britt Moser will hold a lecture on brain research, dementia and Alzheimer's disease along with a new specially written musical composition performed by the Trondheim Soloists, an award-winning musical group. "I try to be a serious neuro-entertainer so everyone can learn about what happens in the brain, and what happens when people lose their memory. This time, I'll use music and video to tell this story," she said. Three previous Starmus Festivals have been held in Spain. Now the festival has moved to Scandinavia and Norway's technology capital Trondheim, with NTNU as the festival's host. Among the other presenters are economics professors Finn Kydland and Christopher Pissarides, and the Swedish neurophysiologist Torsten Wiesel. The film director Oliver Stone, known from his movies such as Natural Born Killers and Platoon, will also participate in a debate with the American broadcaster Larry King, known from CNN. Physicist Brian Cox, host of the popular series "Wonders of the Universe" at the BBC has also joined the roster, along with Jaan Tallinn, Paul D. N. Hebert, science journalist Alexandra Witze, astronaut Christer Fuglesang, Nancy Knowlton, Nick Lane, Anthony Giddens, Sue Bailey, John Delaney and astronauts Sergey and Alexander Volkov, who are father and son. The full program is available at https:/

Donato F.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Donato F.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Chowdhury A.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Lahr M.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Caroni P.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
Neuron | Year: 2015

Brain networks can support learning by promoting acquisition of task-relevant information or by adhering to validated rules, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Upon learning, local inhibitory parvalbumin (PV)-expressing Basket cell networks can switch to opposite configurations that either favor or interfere with further learning, but how this opposite plasticity is induced and relates to distinct learning requirements has remained unclear. Here, we show that PV Basket cells consist of hitherto unrecognized subpopulations, with distinct schedules of neurogenesis, input connectivities, output target neurons, and roles in learning. Plasticity of hippocampal early-born PV neurons was recruited in rule consolidation, whereas plasticity of late-born PV neurons was recruited in new information acquisition. This involved regulation of early-born neuron plasticity specifically through excitation, and of late-born neuron plasticity specifically through inhibition. Therefore, opposite learning requirements are implemented by distinct local networks involving PV Basket cell subpopulations specifically regulated through inhibition or excitation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Vietri M.,University of Oslo | Schink K.O.,University of Oslo | Campsteijn C.,University of Oslo | Wegner C.S.,University of Oslo | And 7 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

At the onset of metazoan cell division the nuclear envelope breaks down to enable capture of chromosomes by the microtubule-containing spindle apparatus. During anaphase, when chromosomes have separated, the nuclear envelope is reassembled around the forming daughter nuclei. How the nuclear envelope is sealed, and how this is coordinated with spindle disassembly, is largely unknown. Here we show that endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III, previously found to promote membrane constriction and sealing during receptor sorting, virus budding, cytokinesis and plasma membrane repair, is transiently recruited to the reassembling nuclear envelope during late anaphase. ESCRT-III and its regulatory AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase VPS4 are specifically recruited by the ESCRT-III-like protein CHMP7 to sites where the reforming nuclear envelope engulfs spindle microtubules. Subsequent association of another ESCRT-III-like protein, IST1, directly recruits the AAA ATPase spastin to sever microtubules. Disrupting spastin function impairs spindle disassembly and results in extended localization of ESCRT-III at the nuclear envelope. Interference with ESCRT-III functions in anaphase is accompanied by delayed microtubule disassembly, compromised nuclear integrity and the appearance of DNA damage foci in subsequent interphase. We propose that ESCRT-III, VPS4 and spastin cooperate to coordinate nuclear envelope sealing and spindle disassembly at nuclear envelope-microtubule intersection sites during mitotic exit to ensure nuclear integrity and genome safeguarding, with a striking mechanistic parallel to cytokinetic abscission. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Raiborg C.,University of Oslo | Wenzel E.M.,University of Oslo | Stenmark H.,University of Oslo | Stenmark H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
EMBO Journal | Year: 2015

Recent studies have revealed the existence of numerous contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes in mammalian cells. Such contacts increase during endosome maturation and play key roles in cholesterol transfer, endosome positioning, receptor dephosphorylation, and endosome fission. At least 7 distinct contact sites between the ER and endosomes have been identified to date, which have diverse molecular compositions. Common to these contact sites is that they impose a close apposition between the ER and endosome membranes, which excludes membrane fusion while allowing the flow of molecular signals between the two membranes, in the form of enzymatic modifications, or ion, lipid, or protein transfer. Thus, ER-endosome contact sites ensure coordination of molecular activities between the two compartments while keeping their general compositions intact. Here, we review the molecular architectures and cellular functions of known ER-endosome contact sites and discuss their implications for human health. Membrane contact sites, defined as sites of close apposition between two membranes, are crucial for the direct exchange of information between distinct endomembrane compartments. This review highlights the diverse functions of ER-endosome contact sites. © 2015 The Authors.

Mesiti F.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Balasingham I.,University of Oslo
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

The recent advancements in nanotechnology have been instrumental in initiating research and development of intelligent nanomachines, in a variety of different application domains including healthcare. The stimulation of the cerebral cortex to assist the treatment of brain diseases have been investigated with growing interest in the past, where nanotechnology offers a dramatic breakthrough. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of a nanomachine-to-neuron interface to design a nanoscale stimulator device called synaptic nanomachine (SnM), compatible with the neuronal communication paradigm. An equivalent neuron-nanomachine model (EqNN) is proposed to describe the behavior of neurons excited by a network of SnMs. Sample populations of neurons are simulated under different stimulation scenarios. The assessment of the existing correlation between SnM stimulus and response, as well as between neurons and clusters of neurons, has been performed using statistical methods. The obtained results reveal that a controlled nanoscale stimulation induces apparently an oscillatory behavior in the neuronal activity and localized synchronization between neurons. Both effects are expected to have the basis of important cognitive and behavioral functions such as learning and brain plasticity. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

Von Soest T.,University of Oslo | Von Soest T.,Norwegian Social Research | Wichstrom L.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2014

Several survey studies among adolescents have shown increasing rates of depressive symptoms over the last two to three decades. We know however little about mechanisms that might explain this increase. The present study uses data from three nationwide representative surveys of 16-17 year-old Norwegian adolescents that were conducted according to identical procedures in 1992, 2002, and 2010 (response rates 97.0, 91.0, 84.3 %, respectively). At each time point, approximately 3,000 adolescents participated (48.8 % girls and 51.2 % boys). Questionnaire data on depressive symptoms and a variety of potential risk and protective factors that might explain time trends in such symptoms were assessed at all time points. The results showed that the prevalence of high scores on depressive symptoms increased significantly between 1992 and 2002 among both boys and girls. No significant changes were observed between 2002 and 2010. The increase from 1992 to 2002 among girls and boys could be partially attributed to increases in eating problems and cannabis use, while reduced satisfaction with own appearance among girls contributed as well. Although the study does not provide information about the causal direction between putative risk factors and depressive symptoms, the results provide some indication that eating problems, cannabis use, and appearance related factors may contribute in explaining secular trends in depressive symptoms. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Botero C.A.,North Carolina State University | Botero C.A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Weissing F.J.,University of Groningen | Wright J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Rubenstein D.R.,Columbia University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

In an era of rapid climate change, there is a pressing need to understand how organisms will cope with faster and less predictable variation in environmental conditions. Here we develop a unifying model that predicts evolutionary responses to environmentally driven fluctuating selection and use this theoretical framework to explore the potential consequences of altered environmental cycles. We first show that the parameter space determined by different combinations of predictability and timescale of environmental variation is partitioned into distinct regions where a single mode of response (reversible phenotypic plasticity, irreversible phenotypic plasticity, bet-hedging, or adaptive tracking) has a clear selective advantage over all others. We then demonstrate that, although significant environmental changes within these regions can be accommodated by evolution, most changes that involve transitions between regions result in rapid population collapse and often extinction. Thus, the boundaries between response mode regions in our model correspond to evolutionary tipping points, where even minor changes in environmental parameters can have dramatic and disproportionate consequences on population viability. Finally, we discuss how different life histories and genetic architectures may influence the location of tipping points in parameter space and the likelihood of extinction during such transitions. These insights can help identify and address some of the cryptic threats to natural populations that are likely to result from any natural or human-induced change in environmental conditions. They also demonstrate the potential value of evolutionary thinking in the study of global climate change. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Rudyk S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Spirov P.,University of Aalborg
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

The current experimental study describes the recovery of bitumen from Nigerian tar sand by the supercritical carbon dioxide method, which has the advantages of a substantial reduction in water consumption, an absence of chemicals, and an upgrading of the bitumen through the rejection of solids, petcokes and asphaltenes. The bitumen extraction from 50g piece of tar sand was carried out at 50, 60 and 65MPa and 110°C by pure carbon dioxide and with the addition of 10mL of fresh or salty water. The recovery decreased in the following order: with salty water, with fresh water, pure CO2. The maximum recovery of 29.6% was obtained at 50MPa with the addition of salty water declining at higher pressures. The heaviest fractions were extracted by pure carbon dioxide at 60 and 65MPa. The presence of bisnorhopane, a biomarker typical for source rocks formed in marine depositional environment, was detected in crude bitumen and all extracts by GC-MS TIC analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Heuch I.,University of Oslo | Heuch I.,University of Bergen | Hagen K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Zwart J.-A.,University of Oslo
Spine | Year: 2013

STUDY DESIGN.: A population-based, prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE.: To determine whether overweight, obesity, or more generally an elevated body mass index (BMI) increase the probability of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP) after an 11-year period, both among participants with and without LBP at baseline. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Chronic LBP is a common disabling disorder in modern society. Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between an elevated BMI and LBP, but it is not clear whether this is a causal relationship. METHODS.: Data were obtained from the community-based HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008) studies of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 8733 men and 10,149 women, aged 30 to 69 years, who did not have chronic LBP at baseline, and 2669 men and 3899 women with LBP at baseline. After 11 years, both groups indicated whether they currently had chronic LBP, defined as pain persisting for at least 3 months continuously during the last year. RESULTS.: A significant positive association was found between BMI and risk of LBP among persons without LBP at baseline. The odds ratio for BMI 30 or more versus BMI less than 25 was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.67) for men and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.03-1.46) for women, in analyses adjusted for age, education, work status, physical activity at work and in leisure time, smoking, blood pressure, and serum lipid levels. A significant positive association was also established between BMI and recurrence of LBP among women. LBP status at baseline had negligible influence on subsequent change in BMI. CONCLUSION.: High values of BMI may predispose to chronic LBP 11 years later, both in individuals with and without LBP. The association between BMI and LBP is not explained by an effect of LBP on later change in BMI. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Krokan H.E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bjoras M.,University of Oslo
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2013

Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA damage from oxidation, deamination and alkylation. Such base lesions cause little distortion to theDNA helix structure. BER is initiated bya DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes the damaged base, leaving an abasic site that is further processed by short-patch repair or long-patch repair that largely uses different proteins to complete BER. At least 11 distinct mammalian DNA glycosylases are known, each recognizing a few related lesions, frequently with some overlap in specificities. Impressively, the damaged bases are rapidly identified in a vast excess of normal bases, without a supply of energy. BER protects against cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and takes place both in nuclei and mitochondria. More recently, an important role of uracil-DNA glycosylaseUNG2in adaptive immunitywas revealed. Furthermore, otherDNAglycosylases may have important roles in epigenetics, thus expanding the repertoire of BER proteins. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Sonnewald U.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Sonnewald U.,University of Sfax
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

The central process in energy production is the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2 by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle. However, this cycle functions also as a biosynthetic pathway from which intermediates leave to be converted primarily to glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate and to a smaller extent to glucose derivatives and fatty acids in the brain. When TCA cycle ketoacids are removed, they must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, by a process termed anaplerosis. Since the TCA cycle cannot act as a carbon sink, anaplerosis must be coupled with cataplerosis; the exit of intermediates from the TCA cycle. The role of anaplerotic reactions for cellular metabolism in the brain has been studied extensively. However, the coupling of this process with cataplerosis and the roles that both pathways play in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, and fatty acid homeostasis have not been emphasized. The concept of a linkage between anaplerosis and cataplerosis should be underscored, because the balance between these two processes is essential. The hypothesis that cataplerosis in the brain is achieved by exporting the lactate generated from the TCA cycle intermediates into the blood and perivascular area is presented. This shifts the generally accepted paradigm of lactate generation as simply derived from glycolysis to that of oxidation and might present an alternative explanation for aerobic glycolysis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Berthling I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Etzelmuller B.,University of Oslo
Quaternary Research | Year: 2011

Recent accounts suggest that periglacial processes are unimportant for large-scale landscape evolution and that true large-scale periglacial landscapes are rare or non-existent. The lack of a large-scale topographical fingerprint due to periglacial processes may be considered of little relevance, as linear process-landscape development relationships rarely can be substantiated. Instead, periglacial landscapes may be classified in terms of specific landform associations. We propose "cryo-conditioning", defined as the interaction of cryotic surface and subsurface thermal regimes and geomorphic processes, as an overarching concept linking landform and landscape evolution in cold regions. By focusing on the controls on processes, this concept circumvents scaling problems in interpreting long-term landscape evolution derived from short-term processes. It also contributes to an unambiguous conceptualization of periglacial geomorphology. We propose that the development of several key elements in the Norwegian geomorphic landscape can be explained in terms of cryo-conditioning. © 2010 University of Washington.

Houle D.,Florida State University | Pelabon C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Wagner G.P.,Yale University | Hansen T.F.,University of Oslo
Quarterly Review of Biology | Year: 2011

Measurement-the assignment of numbers to attributes of the natural world-is central to all scientific inference. Measurement theory concerns the relationship between measurements and reality; its goal is ensuring that inferences about measurements reflect the underlying reality we intend to represent. The key principle of measurement theory is that theoretical context, the rationale for collecting measurements, is essential to defining appropriate measurements and interpreting their values. Theoretical context determines the scale type of measurements and which transformations of those measurements can be made without compromising their meaningfulness. Despite this central role, measurement theory is almost unknown in biology, and its principles are frequently violated. In this review, we present the basic ideas of measurement theory and show how it applies to theoretical as well as empirical work. We then consider examples of empirical and theoretical evolutionary studies whose meaningfulness have been compromised by violations of measurement-theoretic principles. Common errors include not paying attention to theoretical context, inappropriate transformations of data, and inadequate reporting of units, effect sizes, or estimation error. The frequency of such violations reveals the importance of raising awareness of measurement theory among biologists. © 2011 by The University of Chicago Press.

Brekke E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Chitre M.,National University of Singapore
International Journal of Robotics Research | Year: 2015

We propose a multi-hypothesis solution to the simplified problem of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that arises when only two measurement frames are available. The proposed solution is obtained through direct evaluation of the posterior density as given by finite set statistics. We show that hypothesis probabilities can be evaluated within reasonable accuracy by means of a closed-form expression. Consistency properties are discussed extensively. We overcome inconsistency problems of the extended Kalman filter by means of natural gradient optimization, and we demonstrate through implementations on simulated and real data that the proposed approach has better consistency properties than alternative approaches when applied to the two-frame SLAM problem. © The Author(s) 2014.

Dal L.A.,University of Oslo | Kachelriess M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We calculate the antideuteron yield in dark matter annihilations on an event-by-event basis using the herwig++ MonteCarlo generator. We present the resulting antideuteron fluxes for quark and gauge boson final states. As deuteron production in the coalescence model depends on momentum differences between nucleons that are small compared to Λ QCD, it is potentially very sensitive to the hadronization model employed. We therefore compare our antideuteron yields to earlier results based on pythia, thereby estimating their uncertainties. We also briefly discuss the importance of n>2 final states for annihilations of heavy dark matter particles. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Andersen J.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Strickland M.,Gettysburg College | Strickland M.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies | Su N.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We calculate the thermodynamic functions of Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order using the hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory reorganization of finite temperature quantum field theory. We show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T∼2-3Tc. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Langseth H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Nielsen T.D.,University of Aalborg
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2012

Recommender systems based on collaborative filtering have received a great deal of interest over the last two decades. In particular, recently proposed methods based on dimensionality reduction techniques and using a symmetrical representation of users and items have shown promising results. Following this line of research, we propose a probabilistic collaborative filtering model that explicitly represents all items and users simultaneously in the model. Experimental results show that the proposed system obtains significantly better results than other collaborative filtering systems (evaluated on the MovieLens data set). Furthermore, the explicit representation of all users and items allows the model to e.g. make group-based recommendations balancing the preferences of the individual users. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Speed J.D.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Austrheim G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Mysterud A.,University of Oslo
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Summary: Species richness of plants generally decreases along elevational gradients or peaks at intermediate elevations. Land use including grazing by wild and domestic herbivores also affects plant communities and diversity, but how grazing affects plant diversity along elevational gradients is less clear. Using a field experiment along an elevational gradient in Norway, we tested whether the impact of grazing on plant diversity interacts with elevation. Vascular plant communities were sampled following 10 years of experimental sheep grazing (decreased/ceased, maintained and increased densities of 0, 25 and 80 sheep km-2) and compared with pre-experimental baseline data. The impact of grazing on species richness (alpha diversity) was investigated at the species level, and temporal community variance was used to investigate community stability (temporal beta diversity). Spatial community variance (spatial beta diversity) at the enclosure level was used to test whether community homogenization differed between treatments. Species richness and temporal stability varied between treatments and along the elevational gradient. Where grazing was ceased, species richness declined by up 3.7 species at low elevations and increased by up to 3.5 species at high elevations, whilst where grazing was maintained or increased, changes were less extreme along the elevational gradient. Temporal stability of plant communities was highest at low elevations and lowest at high elevations where grazing was reduced. There were no clear differences in spatial homogenization between grazing treatments, although spatial species turnover increased in heathlands where grazing decreased. Synthesis. This study shows that the effect of grazing on plant diversity varies with elevation, and grazing herbivores can thus directly affect elevational patterns of plant diversity. Grazing can buffer changes in plant communities and species richness, even in the face of other environmental drivers such as climatic warming. This study shows that the effect of grazing on plant diversity varies with elevation, and grazing herbivores can thus directly affect elevational patterns of plant diversity. Grazing can buffer changes in plant communities and species richness, even in the face of other environmental drivers such as climatic warming. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Halvorsen T.G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Sorensen T.M.,University of Oslo
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2012

We propose a general formulation of simplicial lattice gauge theory inspired by the finite element method. Numerical tests of convergence towards continuum results are performed for several SU(2) gauge fields. Additionally, we perform simplicial Monte Carlo quantum gauge field simulations involving measurements of the action as well as differently sized Wilson loops as functions of β. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hansen T.F.,University of Oslo | Pelabon C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Houle D.,Florida State University
Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Short-term evolutionary potential depends on the additive genetic variance in the population. The additive variance is often measured as heritability, the fraction of the total phenotypic variance that is additive. Heritability is thus a common measure of evolutionary potential. An alternative is to measure evolutionary potential as expected proportional change under a unit strength of selection. This yields the mean-scaled additive variance as a measure of evolvability. Houle in Genetics 130:195-204, (1992) showed that these two ways of scaling additive variance are often inconsistent and can lead to different conclusions as to what traits are more evolvable. Here, we explore this relation in more detail through a literature review, and through theoretical arguments. We show that the correlation between heritability and evolvability is essentially zero, and we argue that this is likely due to inherent positive correlations between the additive variance and other components of phenotypic variance. This means that heritabilities are unsuitable as measures of evolutionary potential in natural populations. More generally we argue that scaling always involves non-trivial assumptions, and that a lack of awareness of these assumptions constitutes a systemic error in the field of evolutionary biology. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Cheng R.,University of Texas at Austin | Xiao J.,Fudan University | Niu Q.,University of Texas at Austin | Niu Q.,Peking University | Brataas A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Spin pumping and spin-transfer torques are two reciprocal phenomena widely studied in ferromagnetic materials. However, pumping from antiferromagnets and its relation to current-induced torques have not been explored. By calculating how electrons scatter off a normal metal-antiferromagnetic interface, we derive pumped spin and staggered spin currents in terms of the staggered field, the magnetization, and their rates of change. For both compensated and uncompensated interfaces, spin pumping is of a similar magnitude as in ferromagnets with a direction controlled by the polarization of the driving microwave. The pumped currents are connected to current-induced torques via Onsager reciprocity relations. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Aune D.,Imperial College London | Aune D.,University of Oslo | Aune D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Saugstad O.D.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE: Evidence suggests that maternal obesity increases the risk of fetal death, stillbirth, and infant death; however, the optimal body mass index (BMI) for prevention is not known. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of maternal BMI and risk of fetal death, stillbirth, and infant death. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception to January 23, 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Cohort studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates for fetal death, stillbirth, or infant death by at least 3 categories of maternal BMI were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 1 reviewer and checked by the remaining reviewers for accuracy. Summary RRs were estimated using a random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Fetal death, stillbirth, and neonatal, perinatal, and infant death. RESULTS: Thirty eight studies (44 publications) with more than 10 147 fetal deaths, more than 16 274 stillbirths, more than 4311 perinatal deaths, 11 294 neonatal deaths, and 4983 infant deaths were included. The summary RR per 5-unit increase in maternal BMI for fetal death was 1.21 (95%CI, 1.09-1.35; I2 = 77.6%; n = 7 studies); for stillbirth, 1.24 (95%CI, 1.18-1.30; I2 = 80%; n = 18 studies); for perinatal death, 1.16 (95%CI, 1.00-1.35; I2 = 93.7%; n = 11 studies); for neonatal death, 1.15 (95%CI, 1.07-1.23; I2 = 78.5%; n = 12 studies); and for infant death, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.09-1.28; I2 = 79%; n = 4 studies). The test for nonlinearity was significant in all analyses but was most pronounced for fetal death. For women with a BMI of 20 (reference standard for all outcomes), 25, and 30, absolute risks per 10 000 pregnancies for fetal death were 76, 82 (95%CI, 76-88), and 102 (95%CI, 93-112); for stillbirth, 40, 48 (95%CI, 46-51), and 59 (95%CI, 55-63); for perinatal death, 66, 73 (95%CI, 67-81), and 86 (95%CI, 76-98); for neonatal death, 20, 21 (95%CI, 19-23), and 24 (95%CI, 22-27); and for infant death, 33, 37 (95%CI, 34-39), and 43 (95%CI, 40-47), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Even modest increases in maternal BMI were associated with increased risk of fetal death, stillbirth, and neonatal, perinatal, and infant death. Weight management guidelines for women who plan pregnancies should take these findings into consideration to reduce the burden of fetal death, stillbirth, and infant death. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Saugstad O.D.,University of Oslo | Aune D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Aune D.,Imperial College London
Neonatology | Year: 2013

Background: The optimal oxygen saturation for extremely low birth weight infants in the postnatal period beyond the delivery room is not known. Objectives: To summarize and discuss the results of the randomized trials, constituting the NEOPROM (Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis) collaborative study, examining the effect of low versus high functional oxygen saturation targets in the postnatal period in premature infants with gestational age <28 weeks. Methods: A meta-analysis of SUPPORT (Surfactant, Positive Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial), the three BOOST II (Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting) studies and the COT (Canadian Oxygen Trial) was performed including a total of 4,911 infants randomized to either a low (85-89%) or high (91-95%) functional oxygen saturation (SpO2) within the first 24 h after birth. Results: Relative risks (RR; 95% CIs) comparing a low versus a high oxygen saturation target were 1.41 (1.14-1.74) for mortality at discharge or at follow-up, 0.74 (0.59-0.92) for severe retinopathy of prematurity, 0.95 (0.86-1.04) for physiologic bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 1.25 (1.05-1.49) for necrotizing enterocolitis, 1.02 (0.88-1.19) for brain injury, and 1.01 (0.95-1.08) for patent ductus arteriosus. RR >1.0 favors a high oxygen saturation. Conclusions: RRs for mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis are significantly increased and severe retinopathy of prematurity significantly reduced in low compared to high oxygen saturation target infants. There are no differences regarding physiologic bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury or patent ductus arteriosus between the groups. Based on these results, it is suggested that functional SpO2 should be targeted at 90-95% in infants with gestational age <28 weeks until 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. However, there are still several unanswered questions in this field. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2010.2.5-1 | Award Amount: 5.12M | Year: 2011

The proposed project aims to advance the state-of-the-art of numerical modelling of hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The primary focus and novelty of the project is the description of H transport in modern advanced materials with complex microstructures. This goal will be achieved through development of a multiscale modelling framework, which will enable the extraction and propagation of information pertaining to critical microstructural features from the nanometer level to the macro scale. The key aspect of this modelling effort is the incorporation of atomistically-derived diffusion barriers for critical H trapping sites into continuum and component level models. The gap between the atomistic and continuum hierarchies will be bridged by kinetic Monte Carlo calculations that will provide a basis for derivation of a novel set of equations for H diffusion. These equations will be applied in continuum and component models for boundary conditions representative of those that occur in service. The boundary conditions will be furnished by data collected in-service and from experimental measurements. The outcome of the modelling will be further related to degradation and reliability assessment by the determination of semi-empirical fracture criteria, which will be incorporated into the model at the component level. The modelling will be validated at all levels using advanced experimental techniques. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation framework will be demonstrated by investigating the role of microstructure in three contrasting industrial problems, which have been specified by companies involved in the development and application of advanced materials. The project represents a significant step towards a universal, engineer-oriented software tool for the evaluation of the HE susceptibility of materials and components based on real microstructural information and environmental conditions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 9.71M | Year: 2015

AQUAEXCEL2020 aims to integrate top class European aquaculture research facilities of very diverse nature, covering all relevant scientific fields for research and innovation in aquaculture, from genetics to technology through pathology, physiology and nutrition. It will put in place a user-friendly one-stop access to high-quality services and resources from 39 installations covering both established and new aquaculture species, all types of experimental systems as well as sequencing facilities. Giving a prominent place to EU aquaculture industry research needs through a strong involvement of the European Aquaculture Technology and Innovation Platform, it will enable excellent research and sustainable innovation to both public and private sector. It will benefit from the support of the ESFRI infrastructures EMBRC (Marine Biology) and ELIXIR (Life Sciences data) and bring aquaculture research specificities to their agendas. AQUAEXCEL2020 will be a key vehicle in the improvement of aquaculture research practices to the benefit of industry through finalized research and innovation, and of excellent science through the development of highly innovative methods and approaches such as Virtual Laboratories, standardized experimental fish lines and nano-sensors. It will also benefit to society through the development of methods for sustainable aquaculture, such as the use of cleaner fish to control parasites or Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture, and also through a better management of animal experiments for research according to the 3 Rs, Reduction (via e.g. capitalization of data and provision of stable experimental fish lines), Refinement (via a better control of experimental procedures) and Replacement (via e.g. Virtual Laboratories). As a whole, AQUAEXCEL2020 will provide a world-class platform for all types of fish culture research, from biology to technology, in all types of rearing systems, with all major EU fish species, including the most promising new species.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-4-19 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2008

Since the reform of the EU Common Fisheries Policy in 2002, effort has been devoted to addressing the governance, scientific, social and economic issues required to introduce an ecosystem approach to European marine fisheries. Fisheries management needs to support the three pillars of sustainability (ecological, social and economic. Fisheries Ecosystem Plans (FEPs) were developed to further the ecosystem approach in fisheries management and as a tool to assist managers consider the ecological, social and economic implications of their decisions. The FP5-funded European Fisheries Ecosystem Plan (EFEP) project developed a FEP for European waters, using the North Sea as a case study. The core concept of the Making the European Fisheries Ecosystem Plan Operational (MEFEPO) project is the delivery of an operational framework for three regional seas. This is the necessary next step in the process. Furthermore, MEFEPO will, based on the lessons learned consider how FEPs can be made operational and developed for other regional areas. MEFEPO will focus on how best to make current institutional frameworks responsive to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management at regional and pan-European levels in accordance with the principles of good governance. This will involve developing new linkages and means of allowing dialogue between the disparate groups of stakeholders, the integration of the considerable body of ecological, fisheries, social and economic research which has been developed in recent years and investigate how existing institutional frameworks need to evolve to incorporate this information and develop both dialogue between the disparate groups of marine stakeholders and develop a decision-making process which integrates a wide breadth of interests. The three areas used by MEFEPO will be the North Sea RAC, North-western Waters RAC and South-western Waters RAC areas.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 6.33M | Year: 2009

The main goal of PROSUITE is to develop a framework methodology, operational methods and tools for the sustainability assessment of current and future technologies over their life cycle, applicable to different stages of maturity. The project will apply the methodology for four technology cases with close consultation of the stakeholders involved, which includes cases from biorefineries, nanotechnology, information technologies, and carbon storage and sequestration. PROSUITE will show (i) how to combine technology forecasting methods with life cycle approaches, and (ii) how to develop and possibly combine the economic, environmental and social sustainability dimensions in a standardized, comprehensive, and broadly accepted way. PROSUITE will create a solid research basis for technology characterization, including the identification of decisive technology features, basic engineering modules for estimations of material flows and energy use, and learning curves. For the economic assessment, methods for the assessment for economic and sectoral impacts of novel technologies will be developed and combined with background data for scenario-based life-cycle inventory modelling. For the environmental assessment, state-of-the-art environment indicators will be proposed together with targeted method development for the assessment of geographically explicit land and water use impacts, metal toxicity and outdoor nanoparticle exposure. For the social assessment, a set of quantitative and qualitative social indicators will be selected via participatory approaches, setting the standard for future assessments. The use of various multicriteria assessment methods will be explored to aggegrate across indicators. The methods developed will be part of a decision support system, which will be output as open source modular software.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.5.1 | Award Amount: 5.38M | Year: 2013

According to medical semeiotics, human face is a precious revealer of key information about the healthy or unhealthy status of individuals, as a combination of physical signs and expressive features. The central idea in SEMEOTICONS is to exploit the face as a major indicator of individuals well-being for the prevention of cardio-metabolic risk and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), for which healthcare systems are registering an exponential growth of social costs.\nIn accordance to a semeiotics viewpoint, face signs will be mapped to measures and computational descriptors, automatically assessed. To this end, SEMEOTICONS will design and construct an innovative multisensory system integrated into a hardware platform having the exterior aspect of a mirror: the so-called Wize Mirror. This will easily fit into users home or other sites of their daily life (e.g. fitness and nutritional centres, pharmacies, schools and so on).\nThe Wize Mirror will collect data mainly in the form of videos, images and gas concentration signals. These will be processed by advanced dedicated methods to extract biometric, morphometric, colorimetric, and compositional descriptors measuring individuals facial signs. The integration of such descriptors will provide a Virtual Individuals Model, which will be used to compute and trace the daily evolution of an individuals wellness index.\nA well-being diary based on this index will enable users to evaluate and personally correlate the lifestyle to their wellness and health status. Suggestions and coaching messages will be also provided to foster the maintenance of a correct lifestyle or reduce noxious habits. Moreover, users will be enabled to share data in their diary with health professionals so as to receive, when needed, direct expert guidance and support. In this frame, SEMEOTICONS will carefully focus on the development of user-friendly human-computer interactions so as to foster the perception of the system usefulness and reliability.\nMedical experts will validate the system with respect to the reproducibility of measurements, the efficacy in detecting changes in well-being and cardio-metabolic status and the acceptability by the end-users.\nThe exploitation of the Wize Mirror will promote new aggregations between health and well-being actors including industry, fitness, and schools. Furthermore, significant effects towards the development of new CVD prevention strategies are expected, with positive impacts on the reduction of avoidable disease burden and health expenditures.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.4-1 | Award Amount: 15.92M | Year: 2010

Type 1 diabetes is a serious chronic disease with major health risks and heavy burden on patients and society. It is caused by massive immune-mediated loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas that can so far not be locally corrected. A cellular allotransplant in the liver can install a new beta cell mass but the size is insufficient and the procedure faces limitations of donor shortage, inaccessibility of the implants, risks of associated immunosuppression. Our consortium of research, clinical and bioindustry teams is focused on overcoming these obstacles and implementing a roadmap for translation to preclinical models and clinical trials. We will pursue three interacting tracks. First, our ability to induce beta cell progenitors and stimulate beta cell proliferation in vivo should lead us to cells and compounds that activate this process in a diabetic pancreas, thus activating endogenous beta cell regeneration. Second, we will produce human beta (progenitor) cells in vitro by derivation from stem cells as well as from reprogrammed autologous cells; their therapeutic potential will be compared to that of primary human beta cells following implantation in rodents using a site that is accessible to modulation and monitoring. Third, we will design an antibody-based therapy for inducing immune tolerance to regenerated beta cells and to a beta cell implant. Efficacy, safety and regulatory criteria will be determined for clinical implementation. Clinical protocols will be prepared by adjusting associated therapy and by adopting an accessible and controlled implant site. Clinical trials will benefit from state-of-the art biologic markers for comparative analysis of the developed forms of beta cell therapy. This program should provide proof of principle for strategies that make beta cell transplantation and beta cell regeneration realistic for large numbers of type 1 diabetic patients, and probably also for some categories of type 2 diabetes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-09 | Award Amount: 6.51M | Year: 2012

The MSY concept was included as a principle in the 2009 Green Paper on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in accordance with the global imperative to manage fish stocks according to the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). This implies a commitment to direct management of fish stocks towards achieving MSY by 2015. Attaining this goal is complicated by the lack of common agreement on the interpretation of sustainability and yield and by the effects that achieving MSY for one stock may have on other stocks and broader ecosystem, economic, or social aspects. MYFISH will provide definitions of MSY variants which maximize other measures of yield than biomass and which account for the fact that single species rarely exist in isolation. Further, MYFISH will redefine the term sustainable to signify that Good Environmental Status (MSFD) is achieved and economically and socially unacceptable situations are avoided, all with acceptable levels of risk. In short, MYFISH aims at integrating the MSY concept with the overarching principals of the CFP: the precautionary and the ecosystem approach. MYFISH will achieve this objective through addressing fisheries in all RAC areas and integrating stakeholders (the fishing industry, NGOs and managers) throughout the project. Existing ecosystem and fisheries models will be modified to perform maximization of stakeholder approved yield measures while ensuring acceptable impact levels on ecosystem, economic and social aspects. Implementation plans are proposed and social aspects addressed through active involvement of stakeholders. Finally, effects of changes in environment, economy and society on MSY variants are considered, aiming at procedures rendering the MSY approach robust to such changes. The expertise of 26 partners from relevant disciplines including fisheries, ecosystem, economic and social science are involved in all aspects of the project. Global experience is engaged from North America and the South Pacific.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.3-3 | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2012

DESIRE will develop and apply an optimal set of indicators to monitor European progress towards resource-efficiency. We propose a combination of time series of environmentally extended input output data (EE IO) and the DPSIR framework to construct the indicator set. Only this approach will use a single data set that allows for consistent construction of resource efficiency indicators capturing the EU, country, sector and product group level, and the production and consumption perspective including impacts outside the EU. The project will a) improve data availability, particularly by creating EE IO time series and now-casted data (WP5). b) improve calculation methods for indicators that currently still lack scientific robustness, most notably in the field of biodiversity/ecosystem services (WP7) and critical materials (WP6). We further will develop novel reference indicators for economic success (Beyound GDP and Value added, WP8). c) explicitly address the problem of indicator proliferation and limits in available data that have a statistical stamp. Via scientific analysis we will select the smallest set of indicators giving mutually independent information, and show which shortcuts in (statistical) data inventory can be made without significant loss of quality (WP8) The project comprises further Interactive policy analysis, indicator concept development via brokerage activities (WP2-4), Management (WP1), and Conclusions and implementation (WP10) including a hand over ofdata and indicators to the EUs Group of Four of EEA, Eurostat, DG ENV and DG JRC. Our team includes 4 UN Resource Panel members (WI, AAU-SEC, NTNU and LU-CML) and founders of the material flow analysis field (e.g. SERI). We further include TNO (global leader in EE IO via projects like EXIOPOL and CREEA), FFCUL (global top in biodiversity and ecosystem services) and RU (top player in sustainability impact assessment).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-13-2014 | Award Amount: 7.22M | Year: 2015

The overall objective of the ALION project is to develop aluminium-ion battery technology for energy storage application in decentralised electricity generation sources. ALION pursues an integral approach comprising electroactive materials based on rocking chair mechanism, robust ionic liquid-based electrolytes as well as novel cell and battery concepts, finally resulting in a technology with much lower cost, improved performance, safety and reliability with respect to current energy storage solutions (e.g. Pumped hydro storage, Compressed air energy storage, Li-ion battery, Redox Flow Battery...). The project covers the whole value chain from materials and component manufacturers, battery assembler, until the technology validation in specific electric microgrid system including renewable energy source (i.e. mini wind turbine, photovoltaic system). Thus, the final objective of this project is to obtain an Al-ion battery module validated in a relevant environment, with a specific energy of 400 W.h/kg, a voltage of 48V and a cycle life of 3000 cycles.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-07-2014 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2015

Large scale crises are affecting critical infrastructures with a growing frequency. This is a result of both basic exposure and dependencies between infrastructures. Because of prohibitive costs, the paradigm of protection against extreme events is expanding and now also encompasses the paradigm of resilience. In addition to strengthening and securing systems; system design objectives are now being set, and response planning is being carried out, to facilitate a fast recovery of infrastructure following a large scale incident. With an interconnected European society, countries and infrastructures are increasingly reliant upon their neighbours, both under normal operating conditions and in the event of an incident. Despite this, there is no common European methodology for measuring resilience or for implementing resilience concepts, and different countries and sectors employ their own techniques. There is also no shared, well-developed system-of-systems approach, which would be able to test the effects of dependencies and interdependencies between individual critical infrastructures and sectors. This increases the risk as a result of reliance on critical infrastructures, as well as affects the ability for sharing resources for incident planning due to no common terminology or means of expressing risk. The overall objective of IMPROVER is to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of combinations of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples. This implementation will be enabled through the development of a methodology based on risk evaluation techniques and informed by a review of the positive impact of different resilience concepts on critical infrastructures. The methodology will be cross sectoral and will provide much needed input to standardisation of security of infrastructure.

The direct dependence of humans on ecosystem services is by far strongest in developing regions where poverty restricts access to resources. This dependency also makes people in developing countries more sensitive to climate change than their developed counterparts. Increasing human populations deteriorates natural habitat, biodiversity and ecosystems services which spiral into poverty and low human welfare. This calls for innovative solutions that encompass the entire socio-ecological-economic system, as recognized on a global scale in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, innovative and practical solutions require downscaling to regional levels for identifying concrete sets of drivers of change. For Africa specifically, the interplay of human population growth, land use change, climate change and human well-being is a major challenge. This project focuses on the Serengeti-Maasai Mara Ecosystem and associated agricultural areas, a region in East Africa that encompasses parts of Kenya and Tanzania. The ecosystem is world-famous for key aspects of its biodiversity, such as the migration of 1.3 million wildebeest. This flagship ecosystem role will enhance the international interest in the project. In this project, internationally leading researchers from Norway, the Netherlands, Scotland, Denmark and Germany are teaming up with strong local partners in Tanzania and Kenya. The research will be organised in seven interlinked work packages: 1) assemble and integrate the so far separate Kenyan and Tanzanian relevant data on the region; 2) quantify the connections between human population growth, land use change, climate change and biodiversity change; 3) test how biodiversity change leads to changes in key ecosystem services; 4) quantify the dependence of human livelihoods on these ecosystem services. We will implement innovative ways for communication and dissemination of the results of continuous engagement by local stakeholders.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.17M | Year: 2014

ABYSS is a training and career development platform for young scientists in Geodynamics, Mineralogy, Hydrodynamics, Thermodynamics and (Bio-)Geochemistry focusing on mid-ocean ridge processes and their environmental and economic impacts. It brings together 10 European research groups internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary disciplines and 4 Associated Partners from the Private Sector. ABYSS will provide training for 12 Early Stage Researchers and 3 Experienced Researchers through a structured and extensive program of collaboration, training and student exchange. ABYSS aims at developing the scientific skills and multi-disciplinary approaches to make significant advances in the understanding of the coupled tectonic, magmatic, hydrothermal and (bio-)geochemical mechanisms that control the structure and composition of the oceanic lithosphere and the microbial habitats it provides. An improved understanding of these complex processes is critical to assess the resource potential of the deep-sea. ABYSS will specifically explore processes with implications for economy and policy-making such as carbonation (CO2 storage), hydrogen production (energy generation) and the formation of ore-deposits. ABYSS will also emphasize the importance of interfacial processes between the deep Earth and its outer envelopes, including microbial ecosystems with relevance to deep carbon cycling and life growth on the Primitive Earth. The ABYSS training and outreach programme is set up to promote synergies between research and industry, general public and policy makers. The main outcome of ABYSS will be twofold (i) develop a perennial network of young scientists, sharing a common technical and scientific culture for bridging the gaps in process understanding and make possible the exploitation of far off-shore mining of marine resources; (ii) to address the need to develop pertinent policies at the European and international level for preserving these unique environments.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008.;NMP-2008-1.2-2 | Award Amount: 2.67M | Year: 2009

This project aims at the preparation and testing of catalyst supported on structured reactors (ceramic and metallic honeycomb monoliths, metallic filters, carbon cloth) coated with nanocarbon materials (NCM), namely carbon nanofibers (CNF) and carbon nanotubes (CNT). This structured catalytic reactor will be used for catalytic water purification. Every partner responsible for testing the monoliths will focus on a different pollutant (Nitrates, organic matter) and catalytic process (hydrogenation, oxidation) depending on the particular expertise of every partner. The properties of monolithic reactor coated with NCM, e.g. thin catalyst layer and mesoporosity, enable the control of the diffusion path and enhance the diffusion of reactant to catalytic sites. The objective is to achieve, via the use of monoliths coated with NCM, an intensification of the catalytic process in terms of improved selectivity, robustness, stability and performance while reducing energy requirements and by-product generation with respect to the catalytic process using conventional reactors, as e.g. trickled bed or slurry

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 20.70M | Year: 2008

Future networks became a central topic with a large debate whether moving towards the new networked society will be evolutionary or disruptive. In the future networked society the physical and the digital worlds will merge based on the massive usage of wireless sensor networks. Objects will be able to identify and locate themselves and to communicate through radio interfaces. Self-organized edge networks will become more and more common. Virtualization and programmability will allow for providing different networking environments over the same infrastructure. Autonomic networking will deal with the increasing complexity of IandC systems. End-users empowerment will increase with his capacity of providing services and content, as well as connectivity support.\nThis new environment forces the scientific community to develop new principles and methods to design/dimension/control/manage future multi-technology architectures. The new paradigms raise new challenging scientific and technological problems embedded in complex policy, governance, and worldwide standards issues. Dealing with the diversity of these scientific and socio-economic challenges requires the integration of a wide range of research capacities; a role that Euro-NF will fulfil.\nIndeed, Euro-NF extends, in scope and duration, the successful Euro-NGI/FGI NoE that has integrated the required critical mass on the networks of the future and is now a major worldwide player in this area. The consortium has evolved in order to have an optimal coverage of the new scope. Euro-NF will therefore cover the integration of a wide range of European research capacities, including researchers and research and dissemination activities. As such Euro-NF will continue to develop a prominent European center of excellence in Future networks design and engineering, acting as a Collective Intelligence Think Tank, representing a major support for the European Society leading towards a European leadership in this area.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-8 | Award Amount: 12.42M | Year: 2013

The MIDAS project addresses fundamental environmental issues relating to the exploitation of deep-sea mineral and energy resources; specifically polymetallic sulphides, manganese nodules, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, methane hydrates and the potential mining of rare earth elements. These new industries will have significant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems, in some cases extending over hundreds of thousands of square kilometres. Scientific knowledge is needed urgently to develop guidelines for industry ensuring wealth creation and Best Environmental Practice. MIDAS will assess the nature and scales of the potential impacts including 1) physical destruction of the seabed by mining, the creation of mine tailings and the potential for catastrophic slope failures from methane hydrate exploitation, 2) the potential effects of particle-laden plumes in the water column, and 3) the possible toxic chemicals that might be released by the mining process. Knowledge of the impacts will be used to address the key biological unknowns, such as connectivity between populations, impacts of the loss of biological diversity on ecosystem functioning, and how quickly the ecosystems will recover. The information derived will be used to guide recommendations for best practice, iterating with MIDAS industry partners and the wider stakeholder community to ensure that solutions are practical and cost-effective. We will engage with European and international regulatory organisations to take these recommendations forward into legislation in a timely fashion. A major element of MIDAS will be to develop methods and technologies for 1) preparing baseline assessments of biodiversity, and 2) monitoring activities remotely in the deep sea during and after exploitation (including ecosystem recovery). The MIDAS partnership represents a unique combination of scientists, industry, social scientists, legal experts, NGOs and SMEs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.4.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2013

More than 14 million Europeans suffer from heart failure (HF), of which more than 50 % have HF with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (HFPEF, diastolic heart failure). HFPEF is the only cardiovascular disease with increasing prevalence and incidence, affecting 10-20% of the elderly and contributing substantially to hospitalizations of elderly HF patients. Currently, no medical treatment has been shown to be effective and the economic, social and personal burden of HFPEF is enormous; this disease constitutes one of the most pressing unmet clinical needs. A cardinal feature of HFPEF is exercise intolerance. The pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in HFPEF depends on multiple factors in heart, endothelium and skeletal muscles. From a pathophysiological point of view, exercise could by far outweigh any pharmacological intervention in this heterogeneous syndrome, since lifestyle dependent risk factor, physical inactivity, and physical deconditioning underlay and contribute to HFPEF. OptimEx will focus on the cardiovascular effects of exercise training as primary and secondary prevention of HFPEF. We will combine in vivo and in vitro studies in man and rats in serial experiments that will advance our understanding of fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning dose-dependent exercise-induced changes in the heart, blood vessels and skeletal muscles. This research is aimed to tackle one of the major health problems the developed world faces with its ageing societies and increasing prevalence of the HFPEF and will support sustainable health systems in EU member states through improvements in the clinical management of a common and disabling disease. The project is therefore highly relevant to improve the health of European citizens and important to promote healthy ageing and preventing disease.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.2 | Award Amount: 8.79M | Year: 2010

Due to the dynamics in business environments and the large number of changes in job roles and tasks for employees, a time-consuming development of formal learning offers and the organisational-wide provision of vocational training are barriers for the wide adoption and use of learning technologies. Especially SMEs perceive current learning technologies as insufficient to support learning-on-the-job.Thus, the overall objective of MIRROR is to empower and engage employees to reflect on past work performances and personal learning experiences in order to learn in real-time and to creatively solve pressing problems immediately. MIRROR shall help employees to increase their level and breadth of experience significantly within short time by capturing experiences of others. A prerequisite for exploring innovative solutions in this context is to rely on human ability to efficiently and effectively learn directly from tacit knowledge without the need for making it explicit.Specifically MIRROR will provide the following output:\tConceptual model of holistic continuous learning by reflection which incorporates the essential ingredients of training critical thinking, awareness of emotions, (collaborative) knowledge construction, creative problem solving and innovation.\tWithin a so-called AppSphere a bundle of real-time, interoperable learning applications that can be used within the collaborative and social work environment of the employees.\tProve of learning effectiveness through evaluation within five testbeds.MIRROR will be the first technology-enhanced learning approach that can be used in highly dynamic working situations where no teachers, no formal content, and no explicit knowledge are available. Existing research results from projects such as APOSDLE, MATURE, PROLIX will be made enriched by combining them with MIRROR applications.The MIRROR consortium brings together 15 partners of Europes TEL industry, high-quality research and testbeds.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 9.98M | Year: 2015

HYDRALAB is an advanced network of environmental hydraulic institutes in Europe, which has been effective in providing access to a suite of major and unique environmental hydraulic facilities from across the whole European scientific community. A continuation project will prepare environmental hydraulic modelling for the upcoming urgent technical challenges associated with adaptations for climate change. A multi-disciplinary approach is essential to meet these challenges. We denote the project HYDRALAB\, in recognition of the added value that will follow from our network changing to enhance the collaboration between specialists and engaging with a new range of stakeholders. The issues associated with climate change impacts on rivers and coasts are significant enough to ask the scientific community to which we open up our facilities to focus their research efforts on adaptations for climate change. We plan to issue themed calls for proposals for access to the facilities, with scientific merit as the main selection criterion, but with preference to the proposals that also address issues of adaptation to climate change impact. In HYDRALAB\, with the prospect of climate change, we will build networking activities that will also involve the wider hydraulic community in the process of generating the deliverables of the project. The first Workshop in the project will be devoted to working together with the larger European hydraulics community not directly involved in HYDRALAB. Increased emphasis will be placed by HYDRALAB\ on engagement with industry a theme that will be delivered initially through the vehicle of a focussed Workshop between HYDRALAB researchers and industry. We will work together with industry to have HYDRALAB\ become part of the innovation cycle by bringing development to market this is particularly relevant for the instruments we develop - to involve industry in our range of project deliverables.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 6.55M | Year: 2009

The broad interdisciplinary consortia assembled in the Arctic Tipping Points (ATP) project will be managed (WP1) to identify the elements of the Arctic marine ecosystem likely to show abrupt changes in response to climate change, and establish the levels of the corresponding climate drivers inducing the regime shift for these tipping elements. ATP will evaluate the consequences of crossing those tipping points, and the associated risks and opportunities for economic activities dependent on the Arctic marine ecosystem. Historical records of Arctic climate change and projections of future changes in Arctic sea climate and ice systems are compiled (WP2), and time series of Arctic ecosystem components analysed using novel statistical tools to detect regime shifts and ecological thresholds and tipping points, and evaluate their sensitivity to climatic forcing (WP3). Experimental manipulations and comparative analyses across broad climatic ranges will be used to detect climatic thresholds and tipping points of Arctic organisms and ecosystems, using genome-wide analyses to develop genomic markers of climate-driven stress useful as early-warning indicators of the proximity of tipping points (WP4). A biological-physical coupled 3 D model will be used to generate future trajectories of Arctic ecosystems under projected climate change scenarios and to identify their consequences for the Arctic ecosystem (WP5). The impacts of abrupt changes in the Arctic ecosystems for activities of strategic importance for the European Arctic and the associated impacts on employment and income will be elucidated, and policies and legislative frameworks to adapt and mitigate these impacts will be analysed (WP 6). The effectiveness of possible alternative, post-Kyoto policies and stabilization targets in avoiding climate-driven thresholds in the Arctic ecosystem will be examined, and the results and projections will be conveyed to policy makers, economic sectors and the public in general (WP7).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.4.2 | Award Amount: 7.59M | Year: 2010

The GaLA motivation stems from the acknowledgment of the potentiality of Serious Games (SGs) for education and training and the need to address the challenges of the main stakeholders of the SGs European landscape (users, researchers, developers/industry, educators). A foundational fault issue in this context is the fragmentation that affects the SG landscape.\nGALA aims to shape the scientific community and build a European Virtual Research Centre (VRC) aimed at gathering, integrating, harmonizing and coordinating research on SGs and disseminating knowledge, best practices and tools as a reference point at an international level. The other two key focuses of the project are (1) the support to deployment in the actual educational and training settings and (2) the fostering of innovation and knowledge transfer through research-business dialogue.\nThe NoE organizations aim to integrate their activities and resources in a long-term view structuring the activities along 3 major axes:\n\n\tResearch integration and harmonization.\no\tStrong integration among leading researchers, users and business;\no\tStrong concern on the current standards of education, in order to favour a real uptake and scaling of the educational games initiatives.\no\tAddress sustainability.\n\n\tJoint research activities.\no\tIdentify key issues and address them through multidisciplinary teams (putting always the users learners and teachers - and stakeholders in the centre of the focus) that will be iteratively explored;\no\tPromote Research and Development team forces organized in thematic areas - that will do focused research (e.g. joint PhD and MSc projects on hot SG research projects, joint project proposals) and continuously inform the project about the latest developments in technology and education;\n\n\n\tSpreading of excellence.\no\tDissemination of the NoE achievements as a flagship EU initiative in the TEL area\no\tStrong coordination with EU TEL activities, offering a specialized focus and expertise on SGs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2015

Demand for highly trained scientists with a deep understanding of wave propagation in complex media, and capable of exploiting this knowledge to develop imaging tools for seismology and acoustics, is very high in the Earth and environmental sciences. Wave-based imaging serves to map spatial and temporal variations in the structure of the Earths interior, of the oceans and atmosphere; it is used to monitor faults and volcanoes and detect natural-resource reservoirs. It is relevant to other disciplines, medical imaging being one of its most widespread applications. Todays Earth scientists are faced with a set of questions that require the application of wave-based imaging at unprecedented resolution. WAVES aims at fostering scientific and technological advances in this context, stimulating knowledge exchange between seismologists and acousticians, and researchers in the public/private domains. A unique strength of our network resides in the participation of novel physical acoustics laboratories, managed by beneficiaries/partners of WAVES, with a strong record of experimental research on inter-disciplinary and seismology-related topics. WAVES will train young scientists working in academia or industry in how to use this resource effectively, re-introducing the laboratory into the ideas-to-applications pipeline. Experimental work will serve to develop new theory, addressing topics of current interest such as acoustic time-reversal, scattering-based imaging. A truly multidisciplinary network, WAVES will apply these new ideas in a number of contexts: medical elastography is used as a tool to implement novel analogue models of seismic faults; wave sources are localized by a bio-inspired system making use of very few receivers, etc. Through WAVES, a critical mass of expertise will consolidate, defining the study of acoustic/elastic wave propagation and wave-based imaging/monitoring as an independent discipline, rich in applications of intellectual and societal relevance.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SEAC-1-2015 | Award Amount: 1.79M | Year: 2016

Nowadays we are lucky to have many exciting new technologies available, like Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp), Mobile Computing (MobiCom) and the Internet of Things (IoT); in the following, we shall refer to them collectively as UMI. These technologies are so modern and powerful that can be both an educational means and end, thus fostering innovation and supporting promising scientific careers. The broad aim of the project is to investigate the introduction of UMI technologies in education. By carefully exploiting state of the art technologies in order to design educational tools and activities, the project aims to offer novel educational services, implement innovative pedagogies and enhance students and teachers creativity, socialisation and scientific citizenship. We intend to put these technologies in practice, so as to enhance the level of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education young girls and boys are receiving and at the same time make attractive the prospect of pursuing a career in domains pervaded by UMI. Inspired by M. Weisers idea, a tranquil environment for educational activities will be provided, where technology itself will not star but support the stakeholders of education, including, the educational community (teaching institutions, students, professors, tutors, etc), the industry (UMI companies, VET providers, publishers, etc), career consultants and educational authorities and policy makers. To this end, communities of practice (CoP) will be formed dynamically around UMI projects implemented at schools, including representatives of all necessary stakeholders. In this project we aim to develop an integrated yet open training framework for upper high school students.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-22-2015 | Award Amount: 5.74M | Year: 2016

Major depressive disorder, dementia, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse affect a substantial part of the European older population. Over 70% of Europeans reside in cities, and this percentage will increase in the next decades. Urbanization and ageing have enormous implications for public mental health. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities for the design of policies, clinical and public health interventions that promote mental health. The overall aim of the MINDMAP project is to identify the opportunities offered by the urban environment for the promotion of mental wellbeing and cognitive function of older individuals in Europe. The project will advance understanding by bringing together longitudinal studies across cities in Europe, the US and Canada to unravel the causal pathways and multi-level interactions between the urban environment and the social, behavioural, psychosocial and biological determinants of mental health and cognitive function in older adults. Specifically, the project will (a) assess the impact of the urban environment on the mental wellbeing and disorders associated with ageing, and estimate the extent to which exposure to specific urban environmental factors and policies explain differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between European cities, (b) assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental health and cognitive ageing in older adults, (c) use agent-based modelling to simulate the effect of urban environmental, prevention and care policies on the trajectories of mental health and cognitive ageing across cities in Europe. Knowledge will significantly contribute to future-proof preventive strategies in urban settings favouring the mental dimension of healthy ageing, the reduction of the negative impact of mental disorders on co-morbidities, and maintaining cognitive ability in old age.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BIOTEC-6-2015 | Award Amount: 8.81M | Year: 2016

Metagenomes comprise enormous reservoirs coding for proteins with useful activities. Unfortunately, harvesting this reservoir is difficult, because useful candidates are rare and hidden in an overwhelming majority of irrelevant genes. Screening campaigns of metagenomic libraries thus require massive capital-expenditure for robotic systems and much manpower, making them expensive, slow and available to very few users. To enable valorisation of the potential of the metagenome, this project assembles an interdisciplinary and intersectoral consortium that will integrate a range of technologies into a platform designed to beat the odds of identifying library hits faster, more efficiently and by a wider user base. Exploration and exploitation of the metagenome will be made faster and more successful by (i) ultrahigh-throughput screening in picoliter droplets that dramatically lowers the cost per assay to well below 0.01 cents and allows throughput of 10e7 assays per hour; (ii) workflows that streamline and increase the yield of library construction and functional expression and (iii) workflows for efficient bioinformatic analysis of hits based on user-friendly software solutions for metagenome analysis. Emphasis is put on technologies that are straightforwardly implemented in non-specialist labs, maximising the impact of METAFLUIDICS. This platform will be used to identify enzymes for biosynthesis of therapeutic small molecules, for green bioenergy conversion, bioremediation, food chemistry and other industrial applications

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2015

European countries have vast coasts and economic zones that go far into the Atlantic and Arctic oceans and are challenging to monitor and manage. The need to protect and manage the vulnerable natural environment and marine resources in a sustainable manner is an important policy that is manifested in European legislation such as the European Strategy for Marine and Maritime Research. Moreover, the drive towards activities in more remote locations and harsher environment demands new approaches and technologies. A key technology is the increased use of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle systems (UAS) instead of manned aircraft, buoys, ships or satellite-based remote sensing. UAS offers potential advantages such as high endurance, reduced cost, increased flexibility and availability, rapid deployment, higher accuracy or resolution, and reduced risk for humans and negative impact on the environment. Development of UAS technology is complex, inter-disciplinary and requires extensive field testing and airworthiness qualifications to meet the demands by aviation authorities and end-users. No single nation has enough of the intellectual competences (in research, and researcher training) to adequately prepare Europes researchers for these demanding tasks - which is why this consortium of partners has been brought together in this ETN. The ETN MarineUAS is designed to facilitate a comprehensive researcher training programme across a range of partners in several countries designed to have a high impact on the training of individual researchers, their knowledge and skills, and their future careers. The ETN will establish a unique cooperative environment benefiiting from the partners extensive and complementary knowledge, field operational experience, and experimental facilities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-07-2014 | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2015

Currently cloud infrastructures are mostly homogeneous -- composed of a large number of machines of the same type -- centrally managed and made available to the end user using the three standard delivery models: Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). As clouds increase in size and as machines of different types are added to the infrastructure in order to maximise performance and power efficiency, heterogeneous clouds are being created. However, exploiting different architectures such as graphics processing units, many integrated cores and data flow engines, poses significant challenges.To efficiently access heterogeneous resources and, at the same time, to exploit these resources to reduce application development effort, to make optimisations easier and to simplify service deployment requires a reevaluation of our approach to service delivery. The evolving complexity of the cloud ecosystem will eventually render traditional cloud management techniques ineffectual. Self-organisation and self-management are powerful techniques for managing complexity. Some of our initial simulation results using self organisation and self optimisation indicate that these can be used as the basis of a new cloud management and delivery model capable of efficiently dealing with issues that arise at scale. Our preliminary work has centred on promoting access to power efficient heterogeneous resources by shifting the deployment and optimization effort from the consumer to the software stack running on the cloud infrastructure. With CloudLightning, we propose to extend this work and to build a cloud management and delivery infrastructure based on these principles. Given the prohibitive expense associated with empirical experimentation on hyperscale cloud infrastructures, data gathered on our testbed will be used to simulate this infrastructure and to evaluate the self organisation approach in that context.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 2.85M | Year: 2016

MarPipe is a consortium of 11 partners (IBP-CNR, SZN, UiT, UNIABDN, GEOMAR, KULeuven, UCC, eCOAST, MEDINA, MicroDish, Italbiotec) based in 8 countries (I, N, UK, D, B, IRL, E, NL), including 3 from the non-academic sector. We will train 11 ESRs in marine drug-discovery, providing these researchers with unique skills toward becoming world leaders in this research field and to advance their careers in academia or industry. MarPipe PhDs will be trained in a programme including training-by-research, joint courses of technical, scientific and transferrable skills, active participation to public scientific events, and an intense inter-sectoral networking exchange plan. Marine organisms have the capacity to produce a variety of biologically potent natural products, including antibiotic and anticancer compounds. MarPipe aims at further development of antimicrobial and anticancer lead compounds originating from a previous EU project (PharmaSea), and will also explore the bioactivity of deep-sea samples (5000m) collected during the recent Eurofleet-2 project in the sub-Antarctic. The PhD students will thus be involved in all phases of the drug discovery pipeline, from isolation of new microbial strains to pre-clinical development of lead compounds. Importantly, they will also be trained to overcome existing bottlenecks in the field, e.g. low yields and low chemodiversity, isolation of known compounds, toxicity of compounds. The discovery rates of new bioactive antimicrobial and anticancer molecules will be enhanced through 11 PhD projects that cover all phases of the biodiscovery pipeline. As a final outcome of the project, we envisage the creation of a marine biodiscovery start-up company, which will include most of the MarPipe partners. The scientists of the future will be trained to become conscious about the socio-economic and policy context of their work, since several specific MarPipe PhD projects focus on legal, policy, innovation and entrepreneurship themes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2017

Though security is a field of study capable of diverse applications in daily life, security science is a young discipline requiring larger inter-disciplinary effort. ESSENTIAL seeks to develop security science by addressing two of its main problems: the ad-hoc approach to security research and the growing complexity of the security environment. To do so, ESSENTIAL has set itself two main goals: a) to train inter-disciplinary security experts and professionals, to tackle security threats in a systematic manner and b) to increase societal resilience and security by addressing in an interdisciplinary manner 15 research topics, each associated with long-standing problems in the field of security science ranging from modeling security perception and democratizing intelligence to improving security and privacy in data ecosystems. ESSENTIAL will be the first programme of its kind that aims to jointly educate the next generation of interdisciplinary experts in security science, by uniquely exposing the 15 ESRs to: (1) theoretical knowledge and practical expertise in such areas as: (a) the policing and regulation of information-security technology, and (b) the implementation of policies and legal standards within computing and communication systems; (2) real-world environments in law enforcement, intelligence and industry; (3) strong academic guidance offered by highly qualified supervisors and mentors; (4) high tech research infrastructures; and (5) a diversity of interdisciplinary research events, such as workshops, conferences, summer/winter schools. The ESSENTIAL consortium is built upon long-lasting cooperation relations among leading organizations coming from academia, international and national stakeholders and the private sector, many of whom have over 25 years of experience in contributing directly to national, European and UN technology-related policy making.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.5.1.1 | Award Amount: 6.06M | Year: 2010

In post-combustion CO2 capture, a main bottleneck causing significant reduction in power plant efficiency and preventing cost effectiveness is the low flue gas CO2 partial pressure, limiting membrane flux, solvent selection and capacity. In pre-combustion CO2 capture, key bottlenecks are number of processing steps, possible low hydrogen pressure, and high hydrogen fraction in the fuel Global deployment of CO2 capture is restrained by a general need for prior removal of SO2. iCap seeks to remove these barriers by developing new technologies with potential for reducing the current energy penalty to 4-5% points in power plant efficiency, to combine SO2 and CO2 removal, and to reduce the avoidance cost to 15 /tonne CO2. iCap will: Develop solvents forming CO2 hydrates or two liquid phases enabling drastically increased liquid phase CO2 capacity, radically decreasing solvent circulation rates, introducing a new regime in desorption energy requirement, and allowing CO2 desorption at elevated pressures; Develop combined SO2 and CO2 capture systems increasing dramatically the potential for large scale deployment of CCS in BRIC countries and for retrofit in Europe. Develop high permeability/ high selectivity low temperature polymer membranes, by designing ultra thin composite membranes from a polymeric matrix containing ceramic nano particles. Develop mixed proton-electron conducting dense ceramic-based H2 membranes offering the combined advantages of theoretically infinite selectivity, high mechanical strength and good stability. Develop and evaluate novel coal and gas-based power cycles that allows post-combustion CO2 captures at elevated pressures, thus reducing the separation costs radically. Integrate the improved separation technologies in brownfield and greenfield power plants, and in novel power cycles in order to meet the performance and cost targets of the project

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-5.1-03 | Award Amount: 6.70M | Year: 2008

CESAR aims for a breakthrough in the development of low-cost post-combustion CO2 capture technology to provide economically feasible solutions for both new power plants and retrofit of existing power plants which are responsible for the majority of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions (worldwide, approx. 5,000 power plants emit around 11 GtCO2/year). CESAR focuses on post-combustion as it is the only feasible technology for retrofit and current power plant technology. Moreover, analysis of the current R&D in Europe shows that there is yet no follow-up to the post-combustion work in the CASTOR project while R&D aimed at other types of carbon capture technologies have been accommodated for. The primary objective is to decrease the cost of capture down to 15/tCO2. CESAR aims at breakthroughs via a combination of fundamental research on Advanced Separation Processes (WP1), Capture process modelling and integration (WP2) and Solvent process validation studies (WP3) with duration tests in the Esbjerg pilot plant. CESAR will build further on the successes and high potential ideas from the FP6 integrated project CASTOR. Moreover, the pilot built in this project will be used for CESAR. Novel activities and innovations CESAR focuses at are: -Novel (hybrid) solvent systems -New high flux membranes contactors -Improved modeling and integration studies on system and plant level -Testing of new solvents and plant modifications in the Esbjerg pilot plant In the Esbjerg Pilot novel technologies are assessed and compared with mainstream techniques to provide a fast track towards further scale-up and demonstration. CESAR unites leading organisations within the field of CO2 capture, covering the whole value chain from research institutes to end-users. The consortium consists of 3 research organizations, 3 universities, 1 solvent supplier, 1 membrane producer (SME), 3 equipment suppliers, 2 oil and gas companies and 6 power generators (= industrial commitment).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 373.50K | Year: 2015

Marine organisms have the capacity to produce a variety of biologically potent natural products. Such novel molecules have new mechanisms of action and therefore could be used to treat human diseases and enhance the quality of life, especially in the ageing segment of the population. However, although there is growing interest in marine natural products (MNP) as potential therapeutic agents for human age-related diseases, few MNPs have reached clinical trials and the market. To fully exploit these promising biological resources, new strategies in the pipeline as well as a new cohort of cross-disciplinary trained scientists are needed to overcome existing bottlenecks and ensure the production of high value biomolecules. Ocean Medicines is a network of academic, research centres and SMEs across Europe, with proven experience in higher education, training and endowed with state-of-the art scientific and technical expertise and infrastructures. Our aim is to establish a network of collaboration and knowledge-exchange between industrial and academic partners to further develop lead compounds from marine microorganisms having anticancer or anti-infective effects that have already been identified by the consortium. To achieve this a secondment programme will be set up to prepare a new generation of marine biodiscovery scientists that will be trained on how to isolate compounds from bioactive bacteria/microalgae and take these through to semi-industrial scale-up for further development and toxicity testing at the pre-clinical level. The Ocean Medicines programme also considers commercialization, innovation and entrepreneurship activities including how to start a new business and how to favour an industrial career to seconded researchers. We are confident that the establishment of this international research network, with its synergistic effects, will significantly contribute to advance all of the involved labs to the top level in the field of marine drug discovery.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 9.04M | Year: 2015

Marine (blue) biotechnology is the key to unlocking the huge economic potential of the unique biodiversity of marine organisms. This potential remains largely underexploited due to lack of connectivity between research services, practical and cultural difficulties in connecting science with industry, and high fragmentation of regional research, development and innovation (RDI) policies. To overcome these barriers, EMBRIC (European Marine Biological Resource Infrastructure Cluster) will link biological and social science research infrastructures (EMBRC, MIRRI, EU-OPENSCREEN, ELIXIR, AQUAEXCEL, RISIS) and will build inter-connectivity along three dimensions: science, industry and regions. The objectives of EMBRIC are to: (1) develop integrated workflows of high quality services for access to biological, analytical and data resources, and deploy common underpinning technologies and practices; (2) strengthen the connection of science with industry by engaging companies and by federating technology transfer (TT) services; (3) defragment RDI policies and involve maritime regions with the construction of EMBRIC. Acceleration of the pace of scientific discovery and innovation from marine bioresources will be achieved through: (i) establishment of multidisciplinary service-oriented technological workflows; (ii) joint development activities focusing on bioprospection for novel marine natural products, and marker-assisted selection in aquaculture; (iii) training and knowledge transfer; (iv) pilot transnational access to cluster facilities and services. EMBRIC will also connect TT officers from contrasted maritime regions to promote greater cohesion in TT practices. It will engage with policy-makers with the aim of consolidating a perennial pan-European virtual infrastructure cluster rooted in the maritime regions of Europe and underpinning the blue bioeconomy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-21-2015 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

SET-Nav will support strategic decision making in Europes energy sector, enhancing innovation towards a clean, secure and efficient energy system. Our research will enable the EC, national governments and regulators to facilitate the development of optimal technology portfolios by market actors. We will comprehensively address critical uncertainties and derive appropriate policy and market responses. Our findings will support the further development of the SET-Plan and its implementation by continuous stakeholder involvement. These contributions of the SET-Nav project rest on three pillars: The wide range of objectives and analytical challenges set out by the call for proposals can only be met by developing a broad and technically-advanced modelling portfolio. Advancing this portfolio and enabling knowledge exchange via a modelling forum is our first pillar. The EUs energy, innovation and climate challenges define the direction of a future EU energy system, but the specific technology pathways are policy sensitive and need careful comparative evaluation. This is our second pillar. Using our strengthened modelling capabilities in an integrated modelling hierarchy, we will analyse multiple dimensions of impact of future pathways: sustainability, reliability and supply security, global competitiveness and efficiency. This analysis will combine bottom-up case studies linked to the full range of SET-Plan themes with holistic transformation pathways. Stakeholder dialogue and dissemination is the third pillar of SET-Nav. We have prepared for a lively stakeholder dialogue through a series of events on critical SET-Plan themes. The active involvement of stakeholders in a two-way feedback process will provide a reality check on our modelling assumptions and approaches, and ensure high policy relevance. Our aim is to ensure policy and market actors alike can navigate effectively through the diverse options available on energy innovation and system transformation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.2-01 | Award Amount: 13.29M | Year: 2012

The PharmaSea project focuses on obstacles in marine biodiscovery research, development and commercialization and brings together a broad interdisciplinary team of academic and industry researchers and specialists to address and overcome these. The partners are ideally placed to demonstrate how to widen the bottlenecks and increase the flow of ideas and products derived from the marine microbiome towards a greater number of successes in a larger number of application areas. Despite the tremendous potential of marine biodiscovery, exploitation, particularly at a commercial scale, has been hampered by a number of constraints. These relate to access (physical and legal), genetics of the organisms, compound isolation, structure elucidation, early reliable validation of biological activity and best mechanisms of flow-through into exploitation. PharmaSea will solve these chronic bottlenecks by developing essential actions beyond the state of the art and linking them with best practice and appropriate pragmatic approaches. The robust pipeline structure established within PharmaSea will process a wide genetic basis including marine microbial strain collections held by partners and new strain collections from extreme environments (deep, cold and hot vent habitats) to produce new products with desirable characteristics for development by the SME partners in three accessible market sectors, health (infection, inflammation, CNS diseases), personal care and nutrition. The global aim of PharmaSea is to produce two compounds at larger scale and advance them to pre-clinical evaluation. To address relevant challenges in marine biodiscovery related to policy and legal issues, PharmaSea will bring together practitioners, legal experts, policy advisors/makers and other stakeholders, focusing on the feasibility of harmonising, aligning and complementing current legal frameworks with recommendations and ready to use solutions tailored to marine biodiscovery.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-19-2015 | Award Amount: 4.51M | Year: 2016

In recent years there has been a progressive trend toward integrating social media technologies into broadcast technology environments to facilitate direct audience participation in live programming. Thus far, functionality has mainly been to allow individual viewers to contribute to news, current affairs and debates through sending SMS comments, or submissions to voting processes in light entertainment and reality TV content. This technological trend has been slow in evolving and has not as yet reached full potential. The current situation is that broadcasters want more from existing solutions which offer capability limited to small text information and plain 2D graphics generated through ticker representations. Audience feedback and focus group conclusions show clearly that viewer interest is not sustained through current approaches. Project VisualMedia aims to go beyond current state-of-the-art by integrating content generated through social media with real-time 3D graphics capability specifically developed for the broadcast media sector, together with advanced interaction and visualization systems, in order to create added value for both audience and broadcast industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FCT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 5.58M | Year: 2015

Theories underlying community policing received new impetus with the recent advent of smartphones and social media and especially user-generated content (UGC) where citizens engage in closer interaction with their local community and law enforcement agency (LEA). The years 2010-2014 have seen a rapid upsurge of smartphone apps aimed at improving crime reporting and other forms of UGC and interaction associated with community policing. Yet these apps are characterised by a predominantly Anglo-Saxon approach with the largest number originating in the USA, a few in Canada, Australia and with the UK apparently the only major EU state where there has been some take-up of these technologies. CITYCoP sets out to find out why the EU appears to be lagging behind although Community Policing is nominally a policy which has been put into action in a number of EU countries. It then goes on to develop a solution including a new smartphone app and on-line portal which are capable of being deployed in any European city while still retaining local flavour and diversity. These ICT solutions will also be designed from scratch to be fully compliant with strict privacy and data protection laws. A training scheme, including use of serious games, will be developed to assist training of officers and citizens in use of the app and portal. CITYCoP will benefit from a multi-disciplinary approach that will include the sociology of community policing as well as cognitive science perspectives of the citizens interaction with community and LEAs through technology. The partners in CITYCoP build on long years of successful collaboration in EU projects dealing with UGC, smart surveillance and privacy (CONSENT, SMART, RESPECT) positioning CITYCoP solutions to achieve integration into smart city eco-systems. CITYCoP will pilot deployments of multi-lingual smartphone apps, portals and serious games training packages in Bucharest (Romania), Lisbon (Portugal), Florence (Italy), Sheffield (UK).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2011

New knowledge is not necessarily readily applied in medicine, even when there is evidence of its effectiveness. As a result of the gap between knowing and doing, policy makers, professional care providers, patients and their families have benefited too little from new developments. Implementation research has developed models for stepwise implementation but it is still unclear which strategies are effective for whom and which factors influence the effectiveness of implementation strategies. From the point of view of implementation sciences changing palliative care is a major challenge, since adequate organization of palliative care requires collaboration between a range of different professionals and healthcare organizations. Besides, as a consequence of the ageing population, the number of people in need for cancer and dementia palliative care will rise. Therefore we will focus on implementation strategies in palliative care. The overall aim of this project is to develop optimal implementation strategies for using quality indicators to improve the organization of palliative cancer and dementia care in Europe and to study factors influencing the effectiveness of the strategies. We will focus on the implementation process and concentrate the work packages on: the organization of palliative care, the development of a set of setting-specific implementation strategies including an interactive website and instruction by consultants, the evaluation of the use of selected strategies to improve the organization of palliative care and factors influencing the effectiveness of the implementation strategies. This information will be used to build a conceptual model that should be applicable across diverse healthcare settings and that allows rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Dissemination of the results will be enhanced by involving stakeholders, including two European networks related to the subject of this implementation process study.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-2-13 | Award Amount: 5.09M | Year: 2010

The recent decline of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and no signs of recovery has brought attention to the biologically unsustainable exploitation of the stock. In September 2007, the EU has adopted the Council Regulation 1100/2007 establishing measures for the recovery of the European eel stock. However, eel are still fished intensively for human consumption while aquaculture and restocking rely exclusively on the supply of glass eels caught each year. A controlled production of eel larvae is ever more urgent. The objective of PRO-EEL is to develop standardised protocols for production of high quality gametes, viable eggs and feeding larvae. The approach is to expand knowledge about the intricate hormonal control and physiology of eels which complicates artificial reproduction. This knowledge will be applied in the development of suitable methods to induce maturation considering different rearing conditions. Knowledge about the gametogenesis and maturation pattern will be developed in small scale tests and applied to establish standardised fertilisation procedures. New knowledge about functional anatomy of embryos and yolksac larvae will be applied to develop suitable feed. Protocols for larval production will be tested in full scale experimental facilities managed in collaboration with a qualified SME. The integrated protocols and technology development will be evaluated relative to the output of healthy embryos and yolksac larvae. Larval feeds will be developed towards pioneering first-feeding in European eel larvae, which will be a major breakthrough and promising step towards a self-sustained aquaculture. The strength of the project is its interdisciplinary approach and the unique expertise of the consortium. PRO-EEL brings together leading institutes in eel reproduction complemented by excellence in disciplines filling gaps in knowledge and technology. A tight collaboration with the aquaculture industry promotes the applicability of developed technology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.4.2-9-2 | Award Amount: 9.40M | Year: 2011

The goal of HeMiBio is to develop a hepatic microfluidic bioreactor from human iPSC-derived hepatocytes, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) and stellate cells (HSC), suitable for inclusion in a repeated dose toxicity testing strategy of pharmaceuticals/cosmetic ingredients. The successful creation of such a liver-device requires (a) homotypic and heterotypic interactions between the three cell types to induce and maintain their functional, differentiated state, and (b) optimisation of the matrix, oxygenation conditions, nutrient transport and physiological shear forces. The objectives are (1) to engineer the cellular components incorporated in the bioreactor to enable specific and spatially defined enrichment of the different cells from iPSC progeny, and, by gene editing, to allow non-invasive monitoring of the cellular state (differentiation and damage). (2) Aside from the molecular sensors, an array of electro-chemical sensors will be embedded in the reactors to assess liver-specific function and cellular health under repeated dose toxicity conditions, dynamically and in a high-throughput way. Cells and sensors will be built into (3) bioreactors that will be sequentially upgraded from 2D to 3D microfluidic reactors to ultimately allow full maintenance of mature functional hepatocytes, HSC and HSEC for >28 days. (4) As the ultimate goal is to use the device as a human-based alternative to rodent long-term hepatotoxicity studies, it will be of utmost importance to provide proof of concept that the 3D-devices reveal the hepatotoxicity of prototypical hepatotoxic compounds in vivo (5). -Omics and cell functionality studies will provide evidence that liver-like cells are present, exposed and affected by the selected toxic compounds. These ambitious objectives will be achieved by the excellent project team, composed of academic/industrial partners with unique and complementary biology, physiology, toxicology and technical skills from 7 EU Member States.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.2.9.2 | Award Amount: 1.80M | Year: 2010

The objectives are to create a framework for knowledge sharing and to develop a research roadmap for activities in the context of offshore renewable energy (RE). In particular, the project will stimulate collaboration in research activities leading towards innovative, cost efficient and environmentally benign offshore RE conversion platforms for wind, wave and other ocean energy resources, for their combined use as well as for the complementary use such as aquaculture and monitoring of the sea environment. The use of the offshore resources for RE generation is a relatively new field of interest. ORECCA will overcome the knowledge fragmentation existing in Europe and stimulate the key experts to provide useful inputs to industries, research organizations and policy makers (stakeholders) on the necessary next steps to foster the development of the ocean energy sector in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A focus will be given to respect the strategies developed towards an integrated European maritime policy. The project will define the technological state of the art, describe the existing economical and legislative framework and identify barriers, constraints and needs within. ORECCA will enable collaboration of the stakeholders and will define the framework for future exploitation of offshore RE sources by defining 2 approaches: pilot testing of technologies at an initial stage and large scale deployment of offshore RE farms at a mature stage. ORECCA will finally develop a vision including different technical options for deployment of offshore energy conversion platforms for different target areas in the European seas and deliver integrated roadmaps for the stakeholders. These will define the strategic investment opportunities, the R&D priorities and the regulatory and socio-economics aspects that need to be addressed in the short to the medium term to achieve a vision and a strategy for a European policy towards the development of the offshore RE sector

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.2 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2014

The objective of AMIDST is to develop a toolbox providing a scalable framework that facilitates efficient analysis and prediction based on information captured in streaming data. The work includes developing and scaling up existing algorithms in order to make the AMIDST toolbox flexible and versatile enough as to cope with the needs and requirements of a wide variety of applications. The toolbox will be particularized to address three industrial use-cases. Each use-case solution will be used to rigorously test the framework on real and complex data.The consortium has a strong and balanced combination of research and industrial partners. The academic partners ensure a scientific approach to theoretical and methodological aspects of the project. The industrial partners illustrate the importance of the potential developments provided by AMIDST for the EU economy, as they represent four strategic EU areas: software development, automotive industry, energy, and finance. AMIDST will make significant contributions towards the expected impacts of the call objectives. It will provide a generic framework for analysis of extremely large volumes of streaming data, thereby adding, creating and increasing the value of existing and new data resources as well as providing a means for more timely and efficient decision making. Each use-case solution represents an important contribution to its application domain.The industrial and commercial involvement in AMIDST ensures a high degree of commercial exploitations of the solutions developed. Each use-case represents one domain of commercial exploitation of effective solutions whereas the general framework will be applicable to a wide range of other domains. With the objective of creating a strong positive synergy, AMIDST takes an integrated European approach and joins partners with high interests in probabilistic modeling methods as well as techniques and algorithms for analysis of extremely large data volumes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.84M | Year: 2012

Objective--The project aims to develop an anti HPA-1a immunoglobulin (IgG), Tromplate that can prevent post delivery immunisation of the mother against the Human Platelet Antigen-1a (HPA-1a). This prophylactic treatment will prevent Fetal/Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) in the fetus/newborn in subsequent pregnancies. FNAIT--FNAIT is a rare but potentially serious condition which affects about 4,000 fetuses and newborns a year in EU-27 and which may result in severe bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, fetal death or lifelong disability. FNAIT may develop when the mother and the fetus have different platelet surface antigens, most commonly HPA-1a. Transferral of HPA-1a antigen from the fetus may cause immunisation of the mother and the anti-HPA-1a antibodies she develops may in turn destroy the platelets of subsequent HPA-1a positive fetuses/newborns and cause FNAIT. Today, no good treatment of FNAIT exists. Rationale--Previously, it was believed that the pregnant woman develops antibodies early in the first pregnancy with the implication that FNAIT could not be prevented. However, a study conducted by the applicants of more than 100,000 pregnancies revealed that HPA-1a antibody formation most often takes place in association with or after delivery. Therefore, anti-HPA-1a IgG given to the mother shortly after birth should prevent her immune system from generating harmful anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This concept is analogous to the use of anti(D) for Rhesus D prophylaxis. Activities--The project elements: manufacturing of Tromplate using the process for producing anti(D); screening for HPA-1a negative and pregnant women and clinical Phase II/III studies investigating the efficacy and safety of Tromplate. Relevance to the work programThe prophylactic Tromplate treatment has obtained orphan drug status in Europe. FNAIT represents a significant health care expense for the society and a great burden for the affected children and their families.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Ocean.2010-3 | Award Amount: 13.98M | Year: 2011

The ECO2 project sets out to assess the risks associated with the storage of CO2 below the seabed. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is regarded as a key technology for the reduction of CO2 emissions from power plants and other sources at the European and international level. The EU will hence support a selected portfolio of demonstration projects to promote, at industrial scale, the implementation of CCS in Europe. Several of these projects aim to store CO2 below the seabed. However, little is known about the short-term and long-term impacts of CO2 storage on marine ecosystems even though CO2 has been stored sub-seabed in the North Sea (Sleipner) for over 13 years and for one year in the Barents Sea (Snhvit). Against this background, the proposed ECO2 project will assess the likelihood of leakage and impact of leakage on marine ecosystems. In order to do so ECO2 will study a sub-seabed storage site in operation since 1996 (Sleipner, 90 m water depth), a recently opened site (Snhvit, 2008, 330 m water depth), and a potential storage site located in the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea (B3 field site, 80 m water depth) covering the major geological settings to be used for the storage of CO2. Novel monitoring techniques will be applied to detect and quantify the fluxes of formation fluids, natural gas, and CO2 from storage sites and to develop appropriate and effective monitoring strategies. Field work at storage sites will be supported by modelling and laboratory experiments and complemented by process and monitoring studies at natural CO2 seeps that serve as analogues for potential CO2 leaks at storage sites. ECO2 will also investigate the perception of marine CCS in the public and develop effective means to disseminate the project results to stakeholders and policymakers. Finally, a best practice guide for the management of sub-seabed CO2 storage sites will be developed applying the precautionary principle and valuing the costs for monitoring and remediation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 9.27M | Year: 2011

The European project initiative TRUST will produce knowledge and guidance to support TRansitions to Urban Water Services of Tomorrow, enabling communities to achieve sustainable, low-carbon water futures without compromising service quality. We deliver this ambition through close collaboration with problem owners in ten participating pilot city regions under changing and challenging conditions in Europe and Africa. Our work provides research driven innovations in governance, modelling concepts, technologies, decision support tools, and novel approaches to integrated water, energy, and infrastructure asset management. An extended understanding of the performance of contemporary urban water services will allow detailed exploration of transition pathways. Urban water cycle analysis will include use of an innovative systems metabolism model, derivation of key performance indicators, risk assessment, as well as broad stakeholder involvement and an analysis of public perceptions and governance modes. A number of emerging technologies in water supply, waste and storm water treatment and disposal, in water demand management and in the exploitation of alternative water sources will be analysed in terms of their cost-effectiveness, performance, safety and sustainability. Cross-cutting issues include innovations in urban asset management and water-energy nexus strengthening. The most promising interventions will be demonstrated and legitimised in the urban water systems of the ten participating pilot city regions. TRUST outcomes will be incorporated into planning guidelines and decision support tools, will be subject to life-cycle assessment, and be shaped by regulatory considerations as well as potential environmental, economic and social impacts. Outputs from the project will catalyse transformatory change in both the form and management of urban water services and give utilities increased confidence to specify innovative solutions to a range of pressing challenges.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2009-1.2.3 | Award Amount: 5.03M | Year: 2009

The proposed project will deliver an electronic infrastructure and supporting mechanisms for the identification, deposition, access, and monitoring of FP7 and ERC funded articles, where the main supporting mechanism will be the establishment and operation of the European Helpdesk System. Additionally, the project will offer a special repository for articles that can be stored neither in institutional nor in subject-based/thematic repositories, while it will also prepare the way for similar functionality on scientific data. All deposited articles and data will be freely accessible worldwide through a new portal to the products of EU-funded research, built as part of this project. It will also connect research input (project contracts) with research output (publications and data) and monitor the system use to obtain statistically-significant trends about both. Thematically, the project will focus on peer-reviewed publications (primarily, journal articles in final or pre-print form, but also conference articles, when considered important) in at least the seven disciplines highlighted in the Open Access pilot (energy, environment, health, cognitive systems-interaction-robotics, electronic infrastructures, science in society, and socioeconomic sciences-humanities) and on research datasets in a subset of them. Geographically, however, it will have a definitive European footprint by covering the European Union in its entirety, engaging people and scientific repositories in almost all 27 member states and beyond. The electronic infrastructure built by the project will be based on state-of-the-art software services of the D-NET package developed within the DRIVER and DRIVER-II projects and the Invenio digital repository software developed at CERN. These will be further enhanced and complemented with services developed within OpenAIRE to address critical requirements and issues that arise in the target environment and require further investigation.

GAP2 is about making a difference to an issue of significance to the whole of society; the wellbeing of the marine environment and the sustainability of fisheries upon which society depends for food. It builds on the relationships, processes and plans arising from GAP1 by enabling Mobilisation and Mutual Learning (MML) actions that promote stakeholder participation in the debate on and development of research knowledge and structures relevant to emerging policy on fisheries and the marine environment. A broad range of stakeholders will participate, including actors from civil society organisations, research institutions, universities, national and regional ministries and media organisations. Their work will involve: participatory research actions that integrate the knowledge of stakeholders and scientists and render it useful for management and policy development, critical evaluation of the participatory processes and incorporation of the lessons learned into systems of research and decision making. Global networks will be developed to enable trans- and international cooperation on comparing and establishing good practice. The actions of the participants and the outcomes from GAP2 will provide a concrete realisation of specific Science in Society objectives for engaging the public in research, enabling effective two-way communication between scientists and other stakeholders, and helping to make policy based on scientific evidence and research knowledge. It will contribute to the aim of the Science in Society programme to enhance democratic debate with a more engaged and informed public, by providing better conditions for collective choices on scientific issues relating to sustainable management, conservation of ecosystem integrity and biodiversity of the marine environment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.2-2 | Award Amount: 7.95M | Year: 2012

EPIC-CVDs overarching goal is to provide clinicians and policy-makers with a menu of evidence-based options for cost-effective individualised risk assessment that enables the EUs increasingly resource-constrained economies to achieve more personalised predictive medicine in harmony with Europes diverse cultures and healthcare systems. We will achieve this through developing and validating innovative risk scores and efficient screening strategies by studying 75 high priority soluble biomarkers and 215,000 carefully selected genetic variants in the most powerful population-based prospective study ever conducted of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes across 10 diverse European countries. EPIC-CVD will provide the first consideration across Europe of risk scores with information on the interplay of nature and nurture together with biomarkers of lifestyle, biological pathways, vascular injury, and ageing. Our multidisciplinary consortium involves world-leading expertise in population health science, laboratory science (including VITAS, an SME partner, renowned for nutritional biomarker assays), translational science, and implementation science. This rare combination of expertise will enable systematic consideration of the implications of risk scores and screening strategies for predictive accuracy, feasibility, safety, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. The impact on clinical decision making and clinical outcomes will be demonstrated in a new randomised trial of risk scores in relation to patient-centred outcomes that assess attitudes, behaviours, and biological risk factors. Key stakeholders (eg, healthcare professionals, regulators, industry) will be closely engaged by the project. Policy recommendations mindful of the broader societal implications of targeted screening will be tailored to Europes diverse needs and systematically disseminated to various audiences. This initiative will derive major synergy from related efforts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-5+6.2-04 | Award Amount: 5.43M | Year: 2008

The main objective of ECCO is to facilitate robust strategic decision making regarding early and future implementation of CO2 value chains for Europe in the face of uncertainty. The project will provide recommendations enabling cost-effective use of the CO2 being produced from zero-emission power plants and other industries in Europe by exploring the assets and challenges of CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon production (EOR/EGR) in a value-chain context. ECCO responds to the need for a European joint effort towards overcoming the barriers to the deployment of CCS. The core group of the project is constituted by 18 legal entities, all of them committed to the execution of ECCO. These encompass 7 energy providers (oil & gas companies and utilities), 2 engineering companies, 1 NGO and 8 highly ranked RTD providers representing bordering countries around the North Sea basin and in Central and Eastern Europe. ECCO -short for European Value Chain for CO2- is designed as a Collaborative Project (small to medium scale focused project). The R&D activities are structured in four sub-projects (SP) directly responding to the objectives of the Work Programme: SP1 ECCO dissemination and training SP2 CCS analysis and recommendations SP3 CO2 value chain methodology and tool development SP4 Reservoir technology for EOR/EGR The knowledge, methods, and tools developed in ECCO shall influence future CCS initiatives by enabling the industrial players and the authorities to analyse, understand, and make sound decisions within the topic of CO2 value chains. Key expected impacts of ECCO, all complying with the Work Programme are: Underpin the realisation of CO2 value chains for captured CO2 from large point sources for CO2 injection in petroleum reservoirs (EOR/EGR) and CO2 storage. Improve security of supply by enabling sustainable use of fossil fuels, protracting increases in fuel imports by making better use of existing resources and shortening time t

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.4-07 | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2011

EcoFishMan seeks to develop a responsive fisheries management system (RFMS) based on results-based management (RBM) principles. The intended context of application of the RFMS is complex, mixed-fisheries and multi-stakeholder fishery sectors like those found in the EU/Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) area. It will be an ecosystem-based sustainable management system under a precautionary framework that will define maximum acceptable negative impact, target elimination of discards and maintain economic and social viability. EcoFishMan is a multidisciplinary project, involving scientists and stakeholders in activities relating to biology, stock assessment, technology, economy, sociology and legal aspects of fisheries management. The work starts with a review on existing results-based management systems (RBMS), the CFP and tools that aid fisheries management. The next step is identification of outcome targets and development of relevant indicators, which are then visualised through development of a GIS based decision support tool. The RFMS will be designed, developed and evaluated in collaboration between scientists and stakeholders and tested through simulated case studies. This will take place in an iterative process (spiral model) to ensure that the RFMS is adaptive to different types of fisheries and changes in the environment. A roadmap will be produced for the implementation and maintenance of recommendations in the system. In the RFMS, stakeholder involvement is essential and through their active involvement in the development of the system, EcoFishMan aims at improving cooperation and mutual understanding between scientists, policy makers and other stakeholders. Top-down management strategies will be combined with a co-management and bottom-up approach that aims to shift the burden of proof and to involve and benefit stakeholders, offering a fundamentally new approach to fisheries management in Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.8.1.1 | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2012

The main objective of the project is the development of several reliable, safe, high efficiency and high capacity heat pumps working with the two most promising natural refrigerants: Hydrocarbons and CO2, together with a set of improved components and auxiliary devices adequate for the efficient and safe use of the two refrigerants. The project aims to reach a higher efficiency (10-20% SPF improvement) and lower Carbon footprint (20% lower TEWI) than the current state of the art HFCs/HFOs or Sorption heat pumps. The costs shall be very similar or slightly higher than the latter systems (10%). The project will also focus on the development of an efficient capacity modulation in order to enhance the integration capability with other renewable sources in the energy systems of Buildings and Industry. In this sense, if the project is successful, it will clearly bring a definitive step forward to overcome the barriers holding back the spread of natural refrigerants by proving that a new generation of heat pumps based on HCs and CO2 is perfectly feasible and commercially competitive. The first objective of the project is the identification of the cases in which the use of Natural refrigerants can lead to cost effective and high efficient solutions with a fast commercial exploitation. The following cases have already been identified for their potential interest: - Hydrocarbons (HCs): air or water to water heat pumps supplying hot water at (40-50C) for heating applications as well as to produce sanitary hot water at 60C. - CO2: heat pump of high capacity to produce sanitary hot water at 60C directly from city water (10-15C). Designs with higher temperatures in the range 70-90C should be also explored. The project involves 6 key industrial partners (component manufacturers and heat pump manufacturers) who will strongly cooperate with the RTD partners in order to achieve the targeted goals as well as to evaluate the necessary costs and measures to successfully bring the developed technology to the market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.2.1 | Award Amount: 10.86M | Year: 2013

Power system reliability management means to take decisions under increasing uncertainty (for instance, related to renewable generation). It aims to maintain power system performance at a desired level, while minimizing the socio-economic costs of keeping the power system at that performance level. Seven TSOs (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Iceland, Norway), together with eleven RTD performers, propose the four year GARPUR research project. GARPUR designs, develops, assesses and evaluates new system reliability criteria and management while maximizing social welfare as they are progressively implemented over the next decades at a pan-European level. The new management methodologies encompass multiple business activities (system development, asset management, power system operation) that, in turn, ensure coherent decision-making at the respective time horizons. These methodologies also involve mathematical and computational models to predict the location, duration and amount of power supply interruptions. Five alternatives to improve reliability management of the pan-European power system are studied. After practical validation by the TSOs, these alternatives are analysed with the help of a quantification platform. Pilot tests of the new proposed reliability criteria are performed by individual TSOs or (when appropriate) a group of TSOs using this quantification platform, either in a given control zone or (where appropriate) throughout the pan-European system. Reliability criteria are compared and presented to the TSO community and regulatory authorities who establish the robustness of the results. Dissemination activities of the new reliability criteria are supported by a Reference Group of TSOs and address all the key electricity market stakeholders. An implementation roadmap is delivered for the deployment of the resulting technical and regulatory solutions to keep the pan-European system reliability at optimal socio-economic levels.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.96M | Year: 2016

WiBEC (Wireless In-Body Environment Communications) is an Innovative Training Network for 16 young researchers, who will be recruited and trained in coordinated manner by Academia, Industry, and Medical Centres. This training will address the Social, Health, and Technology challenges of the H2020:Wireless In-Body Devices. WiBECs main objective is to provide high quality and innovative doctoral training to develop the wireless technologies for novel implantable devices that will contribute to the improvement in quality and efficacy of healthcare. Two devices will be used as a focus for the individual researchers projects; cardiovascular implants and ingestible capsules to investigate gastro intestinal problems. These devices will enable medical professionals to have timely clinical information at the point of care. The medical motivation is to increase survival rates and improvement of health outcomes with easy and fast diagnosis and treatment. The goal for homecare services is to improve quality of life and independence for patients by enabling ambient assisted living (AAL) at home. In this particular ETN, inter-sectoral and multi-discipline work is essential, as the topic requires cooperation between medical and engineering institutions and industry. This aspect is fulfilled with the participation of two reference hospitals, two medical device manufacturers and three top ranked universities in Europe, covering complementary aspects of the in-body wireless device field. Concerning future employment perspectives; surgery and medical assistance is rapidly becoming more technological than it is today, and a large number of experts combining engineering and medical skills will be required in Europe to enable novel paradigms like AAL to be realised. The ESRs who join this ETN will acquire diverse skills that will enable them to occupy privileged positions to join and promote EU leadership in ICT for Health.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.3 | Award Amount: 6.68M | Year: 2010

Environmental change and climate change in particular, are expected to be most pronounced in the polar regions. For this reason, a multi-disciplinary research infrastructure covering all important elements of the coupled Earth System in the Arctic is a very valuable tool to quantify the ongoing global change and to verify the capability of Earth System models to predict future changes. The proposed EFRI project Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS) is intended to take this role. The main goal of the SIOS Preparatory Phase (SIOS-PP) project is to define, work out and decide on the formal framework needed to establish and operate the geographically distributed and thematically composed multi-national research infrastructure with a node function in different aspects, that SIOS will manifest. This covers, on one side, aspects common for all ESFRI initiatives, such as legal status, governance structure, financial strategy, a data management and utilization plan, and an (on- and offshore) logistics plan. In addition, SIOS-PP will address topics that are special for this infrastructure: a dedicated remote sensing strategy, an internal scientific and observational, as well as an international integration and cooperation plan, which will link SIOS to regional European Arctic and pan-Arctic scientific infrastructure networks. The SIOS-PP project will be carried out by a consortium of 27 partners from 14 countries including 4 non-EU and non-associated countries; three of the partners are national funding agencies. In addition, 19 associated partners with infrastructure or strong scientific interests on Svalbard will cooperate during the preparatory phase. The project has a duration of 3 years.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.4 | Award Amount: 4.27M | Year: 2013

When considering renewable energy sources, like solar electricity, people often do not directly see the benefit of their investment. While the sun is shining and might be producing electricity in their homes, they are at their work and cannot use that energy directly, while when they need the energy at night (for laundry, lighting, computers) the solar panel is no longer producing. Indeed, research has shown that while in theory houses can be self-reliant on solar panels by the amount of electricity they produce, it would require considerable (and expensive) storage capacity to realize this.With smart management and control systems, different types of buildings (for instance a mix of houses, companies and schools) could be connected in such a way that this neighbourhood would use more, or even most, of its renewable energy within the community. For example, if one neighbour does not use her electric car one day, its battery can be used to store excess energy produced from the solar panels on another neighbours roof.The CoSSMic project aims to develop the ICT tools needed to facilitate this sharing of renewable energy within a neighbourhood, and will show the feasibility of its concept in two different areas: Konstanz in Germany and the Province of Caserta in Italy. At these trial locations, which are rather different in terms of population, sun, andavailable equipment, CoSSMic will investigate how to motivate people to participate in acquiring (more) renewable energy and the sharing of renewable energy in the neighbourhood, and test methods for making money with these schemes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.1 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2010

MACALO has two main deliverables, one in software and one in hardware which form the core business of the two European high-tech companies in the consortium. The MACALO consortium consists of pioneers of MAgnetoCALOritronics who cover the complete chain from SME start-up company innovation in hardware and software, device simulation and fabrication, benchmark measurements, computational materials science, and basic science, who are committed to employ their expertise to realize the main objectives. The primary goals of MACALO are\n\n1)\tto produce a working prototype of a computer simulation tool to help optimise integrated magnetoelectronic device design parameters at the nanoscale and\n\n2)\tdesign and prototype nano-scale magnetoelectronic RF oscillators with different combinations of desirable properties, optimisable subsequently (through further company research) for specific applications in wireless communication devices.\n\nAchieving these goals assists replacing the current systems of YIG oscillators, MRAM, and transistors with next generation magnetoelectronic Spin Torque Oscillators, ST-RAM, and transistors by finding material combinations, currently based on suboptimal experimental trial and error systems, using a set of theories, principles, tools and methods that accelerate the development of new devices with improved/optimised properties.\n\nManaging the increased heat and noise in the next generation of electronics is a great challenge. MAgneto CALOitronics (MACALO) addresses the modelling and control of the generation and flow of heat in beyond-CMOS magnetoelectronics circuits and devices. The results are relevant for thermal management of conventional CMOS and novel architectures beyond-CMOS such as low power, low-noise devices, thermally assisted memory devices, and interconnects.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 15.00M | Year: 2015

ENVRIPLUS is a cluster of research infrastructures (RIs) for Environmental and Earth System sciences, built around ESFRI roadmap and associating leading e-infrastructures and Integrating Activities together with technical specialist partners. ENVRIPLUS is driven by 3 overarching goals: 1) favoring cross-fertilization between infrastructures, 2) implementing innovative concepts and devices across RIs, and 3) facilitating research and innovation in the field of environment to an increasing number of users outside the RIs. ENVRIPLUS organizes its activities along a main strategic plan where sharing multi-disciplinary expertise will be most effective. It aims to improve Earth observation monitoring systems and strategies, including actions towards harmonization and innovation, to generate common solutions to many shared information technology and data related challenges, to harmonize policies for access and provide strategies for knowledge transfer amongst RIs. ENVRIPLUS develops guidelines to enhance trans-disciplinary use of data and data-products supported by applied use-cases involving RIs from different domains. ENVRIPLUS coordinates actions to improve communication and cooperation, addressing Environmental RIs at all levels, from management to end-users, implementing RI-staff exchange programs, generating material for RI personnel, and proposing common strategic developments and actions for enhancing services to users and evaluating the socio-economic impacts. ENVRIPLUS is expected to facilitate structuration and improve quality of services offered both within single RIs and at pan-RI level. It promotes efficient and multi-disciplinary research offering new opportunities to users, new tools to RI managers and new communication strategies for environmental RI communities. The produced solutions, services and other project results are made available to all environmental RI initiatives, thus contributing to the development of a consistent European RI ecosystem.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2015

AWESOME network aims to educate eleven young researchers in the wind power operation and maintenance (O&M) field by constructing a sustainable training network gathering the whole innovation value chain. The main EU actors in the field of wind O&M have worked together, under the umbrella of the European Wind Energy Academy (EAWE), in order to design a training program coping with the principal R&D challenges related to wind O&M while tackling the shortage of highly-skilled professionals on this area that has been foreseen by the European Commission, the wind energy industrial sector and the academia. The overall AWESOME research programme tackles the main research challenges in the wind O&M field identified by the European wind academic and industrial community: (1) to develop better O&M planning methodologies of wind farms for maximizing its revenue, (2) to optimise the maintenance of wind turbines by prognosis of component failures and (3) to develop new and better cost-effective strategies for Wind Energy O&M. These main goals have been divided into eleven specific objectives, which will be assigned to the fellows, for them to focus their R&D project, PhD Thesis and professional career. The established training plan answers the challenges identified by the SET Plan Education Roadmap. Personal Development Career Plans will be tuned up for every fellow, being their accomplishment controlled by a Personal Supervisory Team. The training plan includes intra-network activities, as well as network-wide initiatives. The secondments at partner organizations and between beneficiaries are a key attribute of the training programme. Each fellow will be exposed to three different research environments from both, academic and industrial spheres. All the network activities will be developed in accordance with the established in the Ethical Codes and Standards for research careers development, looking therefore for talent, excellence and opportunity equality.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-22-2015 | Award Amount: 6.87M | Year: 2016

Mental, cognitive, vision and hearing health problems in elderly people are amongst the top 10 public health challenges in Europe. They frequently occur co-concurrently and have an additive negative effect on quality of life and mental well-being. To address this negative impact, and promote mental well-being, particularly from a gender and minority community perspective, SENSE-Cogs aim is to: (1) understand the inter-relationship of sensory impairments and cognitive and mental health functioning; (2) identify novel means of screening/detection for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes; and (3) translate this knowledge into clinical applications for the mental well-being of EU citizens. Methods: SENSE-Cog will use a mixed methods approach with a trans-EU, UK-led, multidisciplinary collaboration of 7 EU countries with academics, SMEs, city government and patient-public voice members. We will deliver linked Work Packages (WPs) reflecting 7 themes: (1) exploration: an epidemiological analysis of 5 large EU longitudinal databases to detect risk profiles for good and poor mental health outcomes; (2) assessment: the adaptation/validation of assessment tools for cognition and sensory impairment for vulnerable populations, including the development of a composite e-screen for sensory, cognitive and mental functioning; (3) intervention: a clinical trial of a newly developed sensory support intervention; (4) participation: an EU patient and public voice and innovative public engagement network to inform the WPs and communicate findings; (5) valuation: health economic and cost effectiveness analyses; & (6) management, governance/ethics. Impact: SENSE-Cog will promote earlier detection of sensory, cognitive and mental impairments to enable swift interventions, prevent deterioration and limit negative impacts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-01-2015 | Award Amount: 9.21M | Year: 2016

ATLAS creates a dynamic new partnership between multinational industries, SMEs, governments and academia to assess the Atlantics deep-sea ecosystems and Marine Genetic Resources to create the integrated and adaptive planning products needed for sustainable Blue Growth. ATLAS will gather diverse new information on sensitive Atlantic ecosystems (incl. VMEs and EBSAs) to produce a step-change in our understanding of their connectivity, functioning and responses to future changes in human use and ocean climate. This is possible because ATLAS takes innovative approaches to its work and interweaves its objectives by placing business, policy and socioeconomic development at the forefront with science. ATLAS not only uses trans-Atlantic oceanographic arrays to understand and predict future change in living marine resources, but enhances their capacity with new sensors to make measurements directly relevant to ecosystem function. The ATLAS team has the track record needed to meet the projects ambitions and has already developed a programme of 25 deep-sea cruises, with more pending final decision. These cruises will study a network of 12 Case Studies spanning the Atlantic including sponge, cold-water coral, seamount and mid-ocean ridge ecosystems. The team has an unprecedented track record in policy development at national, European and international levels. An annual ATLAS Science-Policy Panel in Brussels will take the latest results and Blue Growth opportunities identified from the project directly to policy makers. Finally, ATLAS has a strong trans-Atlantic partnership in Canada and the USA where both government and academic partners will interact closely with ATLAS through shared cruises, staff secondments, scientific collaboration and work to inform Atlantic policy development. ATLAS has been created and designed with our N American partners to foster trans-Atlantic collaboration and the wider objectives of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-02-2015 | Award Amount: 5.20M | Year: 2016

The overall goal of ClimeFish is to help ensure that the increase in seafood production comes in areas and for species where there is a potential for sustainable growth, given the expected developments in climate, thus contributing to robust employment and sustainable development of rural and coastal communities. The underlying biological models are based on single species distribution and production, as well as multispecies interactions. Forecasting models will provide production scenarios that will serve as input to socio-economic analysis where risks and opportunities are identified, and early warning methodologies are developed. Strategies to mitigate risk and utilize opportunities will be identified in co-creation with stakeholders, and will serve to strengthen the scientific advice, to improve long term production planning and the policy making process. ClimeFish will address 3 production sectors through 16 case studies involving 25 species, and study the predicted effects of 3 pre-defined climate scenarios. For 7 of these cases ClimeFish will develop specific management plans (MPs) coherent with the ecosystem approach and based on a results-based scheme that will allow regulators, fishers and aquaculture operators to anticipate, prepare and adapt to climate change while minimizing economic losses and social consequences. A guideline for how to make climate-enabled MPs will be produced, and published as a low-level, voluntary European standard after a consensus-based open consultation process. As a container for the models, scenarios and MPs ClimeFish will develop the ClimeFish Decision Support Framework (DSF) which also contains the ClimeFish Decision Support System (DSS); a software application with capabilities for what-if analysis and visualization of scenarios. The presence of key international stakeholders in the project will ensure quality and relevance of the project outputs thus ensuring uptake and significant impact also after project end.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-02-2016 | Award Amount: 16.31M | Year: 2017

An inspiration for INVADE are the world-wide agreements on minimisation of human caused effects to climate change and energy efficiency targets set at the European Union with ambitious goals for reduction of greenhouse gas emission and for increase of renewable energy share. To enable a higher share of renewable energy sources to the smart grid and gain a traction in the market place a few critical barriers must be overcome. There is a deficiency of 1) flexibility and battery management systems 2) exploration of ICT solutions based on active end user participation 3) efficient integration of energy storage and transport sector (EVs), 4) novel business models supporting an increasing number of different actors in the grid. INVADE addresses these challenges by proposing to deliver a Cloud based flexibility management system integrated with EVs and batteries empowering energy storage at mobile, distributed and centralised levels to increase renewables share in the smart distribution grid. The project integrates different components: flexibility management system, energy storage technologies, electric vehicles and novel business models. It underpins these components with advanced ICT cloud based technologies to deliver the INVADE platform. The project will integrate the platform with existing infrastructure and systems at pilot sites in Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, Norway and the Netherlands and validate it through mobile, distributed and centralised use cases in the distribution grid in large scale demonstrations. Novel business models and extensive exploitation activities will be able to tread the fine line between maximizing profits for a full chain of stakeholders and optimizing social welfare while contributing to the standardization and regulation policies for the European energy market. A meaningful integration of the transport sector is represented by Norway and the Netherlands pilots with the highest penetration of EVs worldwide.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-20-2015 | Award Amount: 2.75M | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: Build on multi-discipline research (e.g., human-centred methodology integrates cognitive models, ergonomics, understanding of workers well being) to accelerate how we identify, acquire and exploit skills valued by industry. Get high take-up by early adopters (e.g., in manufacturing). Augment training in situ with live expert guidance, a tacit learning experience and a re-enactment of the expert, in knowledge-intensive environments where effective decision making, often in new situations, has high impact on effectiveness in production. Bring learning content and technical documentation to life via task-sensitive Augmented Reality (AR). Make final products flexible for workplace integration via industry-standard repositories and toolkits. HOW: Wearable TEL platform enhances human abilities to acquire procedural knowledge by providing a smart system that directs attention to where it is most needed. An extensive audit of industry procedures, policies and participatory design methods will define the main facets of the platform. User test cycles will refine prototypes and deliverables. Existing wearable smart devices and sensors will be tailored to provide an innovative solution for content delivery and measurement of user performance. Comparative tests, stakeholders review and leading the IEEE AR group will secure high-standard academic and industrial outputs. RELEVANCE to work programme: WEKIT is strongly aligned with EU job/training policies (e.g., Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs). It enhances the industrial value chain, reduces fragmentation/cost and improves efficiencies with impact regarding speed and scale in production. Looking ahead: roadmap shows safe skill pathways for use of TEL in changing industrial landscapes (e.g. smart machine-to-machine (M2M) knowledge-sharing). Smarter products and services will improve workflows, enhancing (re)training of workers whose skill sets need upgrading after Industry 4.0.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 520.80K | Year: 2013

The project European and Chinese Platform for Robotics and Applications (ECROBOT) focuses on the staff exchange between the partners of EU and China, and on the development of new technologies and applications in the field of robotics on the macro, micro and nano scales. It meets the objectives and requirements of the Marie Curie Action: International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES), by setting up multiple bridges between European and Chinese institutions. The ultimate goal of ECROBOT is to establish a long-term research cooperation platform between Europe and China in the challenging field of Robotics with promising applications in scientific, industrial and domestic sectors. The synergistic approach made by ECROBOT will keep the consortiums leading position in the world for potential major scientific and technological breakthroughs. The project is divided into five inter-related workpackages: (1) Setup of knowledge base and road mapping, (2) Fundamental exploration of robotics, (3) Development of robot systems, (4) Dissemination and exploitation, and (5) Project management. The workpackages integrate all activities that will lead to the completion of all the project objectives within 36 months.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 361.20K | Year: 2013

The explosive evolution of information and communication technologies enables online social networking (OSN) systems such as MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, etc, to connect active users of similar interests, conversing with one another and forming virtual communities. Nowadays the social networks are increasingly accessed via mobile devices thus rendering a new research field of mobile social networks (MSNs). A few interesting research and development results about MSNs have been reported in the literature. The majority of them, however, focus on user applications running on mobile devices and pay little attention to the underlying mobile communication networks. Since the underlying wireless networks play an equally important role in the success of OSN systems, MSNs are regarded in this proposal as a marriage of the traditional wired-network-based social networks with mobile wireless communication networks. The overall objective of this project is to cross-fertilise and share ideas in order to accelerate the development, transfer and deployment of research knowledge between EU countries and China in the field of MSNs. The staff exchange and knowledge transfer will focus on research and development of efficient MSNs. This research advocates the amalgamation of both divisions of MSNs, i.e., social computing and social networks at the application layer and mobile wireless communication networks at the lower layers. This results in the need for cross-layer information exchange to create a new vision of MSNs that can be tailored to benefit network providers, content providers and end users. It is envisaged that this staff exchange programme will help foster long-lasting collaboration between partners in the field of MSNs and develop a common base of knowledge and a research platform that can be used to set-up future joint research projects. CLIMBER personnel benefits from opportunities to move between institutions in Europe and in China, so as to exchange ideas, share best practice and make use of specialist facilities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-04-2016 | Award Amount: 9.71M | Year: 2017

The projects overall aim is to improve the health, development and quality of life of children and adults born very preterm (VPT, < 32 weeks of gestation) or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500g) approximately 50 000 births each year in Europe by establishing an ICT platform to integrate, harmonise and exploit the wealth of data from 20 European cohorts of VPT/VLBW children and adults and their families constituted from the early 1980s to the present, together with data from national registries. VPT/VLBW births have higher risks of cerebral palsy, visual and auditory deficits, impaired cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders and social problems than infants born at term and account for more than a third of the health and educational budgets for children. They may also face higher risks of non-communicable disease as they age. There is emerging evidence of reduced mental health, quality of life, partnering, family life and employment chances and wealth in adulthood. The platform will enable stratified sub-group analyses of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, neonatal complications, and otherwise rare medical conditions that cannot be studied in national population cohorts. The broad temporal, geographic, cultural and health system diversity makes it possible to study the impact of socioeconomic and organisational contexts and determine the generalisability of outcomes for VPT/VLBW populations. The RECAP platform creates a value chain to promote research and innovation using population cohorts, beginning with the integration of VPT/VLBW cohorts to the translation and dissemination of new knowledge. It will be based on a sustainable governance framework, state-of-the art data management and sharing technologies, tools to strengthen research capacity, a hypothesis-driven research agenda and broad stakeholder participation, including researchers, clinicians, educators, policy makers and very preterm children and adults and their families.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2009

Long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic, the resulting exposures observed in Arctic human populations, and impacts of such exposures on human health have been the subject of considerable work in recent years, providing a baseline against which to compare future developments. Global climate change has the potential to remobilize environmental contaminants and alter contaminant transport pathways, fate, and routes of exposure in human populations. The Arctic is particularly sensitive to climate change and already exhibits clear impacts. Research into contaminant exposure and its effects on human health in the Arctic, in comparison with other exposed populations in Europe, presents an opportunity to gain insight into changes that may later impact other areas. The influence of climate change on contaminant spreading and transfer and the resultant risk to human populations in the Arctic and other areas of Europe will be studied by: 1) Research on the ways in which climate change will affect the long-range transport and fate of selected groups of contaminants, and possible implications for the re-distribution of contaminants (geographically and between relevant environmental media). This will involve modelling, utilizing the information base that exists on the distribution of such contaminants in the Arctic and other areas of Europe; 2) Research on the impacts that changing pathways and climatic conditions will have on contaminant uptake and transfer within food webs, leading to foods consumed by humans. This will involve experimental work, process studies and targeted analytical studies, the latter focussed on supporting the modelling work and process studies related to human exposure to contaminants; 3) Research focussing on human health, aimed at determining how climate-mediated changes in the environmental fate of selected groups of contaminants will result in changes in exposure of human populations, in the Arctic and in selected areas of Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-08 | Award Amount: 7.75M | Year: 2014

MareFrame seeks to remove barriers preventing a more widespread use of an Ecosystem-based Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). It will develop assessment methods and a Decision Support Framework (DSF) for management of marine resources and thereby enhance the capacity to provide integrated assessment, advice and decision support for an EAFM. Enabling comparisons between relevant what-if scenarios and their likely consequences, DSF will support the implementation of the new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The project SMEs, together with RTD institutions and stakeholders, will develop and demonstrate the use of innovative decision support tools through training actions, role-play and workshops. Indicators of Good Environmental Status (GES) will be developed along with models for ecosystem-based management. The models will take multi-species approaches into account and be developed and compared through seven datasets of six European regional seas. The models will draw on historical data sets and data from new analytical methods. Model performance will be compared and evaluated using a simulated ecosystem as an operating model. Learning from the experience of previous and on-going research, MareFrame integrates stakeholders at its core using a co-creation approach that combines analytical and participatory processes to provide knowledge that can be applied to policy-making, improving management plans and implementation of EAFM. The project dissemination will use innovative ways to ensure effective usage of project outcomes. The work packages and the allocation of roles have been designed to ensure effective collaboration through the projects lifetime. MareFrame liaises with other national and international research projects and is of high relevance to the future management of living marine resources in Europe in a changing environment, taking a holistic view incorporating socio-economic and legislative issues.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 7.16M | Year: 2008

The Preparatory Phase for a pan-European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI) will focus on technical, legal, governance, and financial issues to prepare to construct BBMRI, building on existing biobanks, resources and technologies, specifically complemented with innovative components and properly embedded into European scientific, ethical, legal and societal frameworks, provide the concept for a key resource to increase excellence and efficacy in biomedical sciences, drug development and public health, expand and secure competitiveness of European research and industry in a global context, develop a sustainable financial framework. Biomedical quality-assessed samples and data as well as biomolecular resources and molecular analysis tools are essential for academic and industry-driven research to treat and prevent human diseases. Although currently established national biobanks and biomolecular resources are a unique European strength, valuable collections typically suffer from fragmentation of the European biobanking-related research community. This hampers the collation of biological samples and data from different biobanks required to achieve sufficient statistical power. Moreover, it results in duplication of effort and jeopardises sustainability due to the lack of long-term funding. BBMRI will comprise: biobanks of different formats (collections of blood, DNA, tissue, etc., together with medical, environmental, life-style and follow-up data), biomolecular resources (antibody and affinity binder collections, ORF clone collections, siRNA libraries, proteins, cellular resources etc.), enabling technologies and high-throughput analysis platforms and molecular tools to decipher gene, protein and metabolite functions and their interactions, harmonized standards for sample collection, storage, preanalytics and analysis harmonized databases and biocomputing infrastructure, ethical, legal and societal

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SIS-2008- | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2009

Helping teachers raise the quality of science teaching and its educational environment has the potential to increase student engagement, attainment, scientific literacy and science career choices. S-TEAM will achieve this by connecting existing science education research and teacher knowledge to teacher education. This task requires the power of coordinated action across a wide range of institutions and national contexts. The 26 partners and 15 nations engaged in S-TEAM have a unique opportunity to systematically integrate their knowledge of teaching, research and teacher education, and to adapt science education to the diverse needs of citizens and the economy in Europe, focusing on inquiry-based methods. These involve problem-solving, hands-on experimentation, authentic, student-led content and critical dialogue, but they require wider development of teacher skills and knowledge. Many teachers are already competent in these methods, and are thus the best source of learning for others. S-TEAM will achieve its aims by disseminating research on, and teachers' experiences of inquiry-based methods to existing and future science teachers. Its actions will involve listening to teachers, working with teacher educators and researchers, and providing support for better science education. This support will include workshops, training packages, video case-studies, teaching materials and publications. S-TEAM will involve not only teachers, but also teacher educators, researchers, students, parents and policymakers in dialogue, to ensure that this dissemination is effective. S-TEAM is sustainable since learning through teacher collaboration and education can be continually regenerated, but also necessary because science teacher education needs to be shared across Europe. By enabling teachers to deliver more efficient and efficacious learning, S-TEAM will improve the attitudes, motivation and learning of young people, including girls, in science education.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-07-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 7.17M | Year: 2016

FIThydro addresses the decision support in commissioning and operating hydropower plants (HPP) by use of existing and innovative technologies. It concentrates on mitigation measures and strategies to develop cost-efficient environmental solutions and on strategies to avoid individual fish damage and enhancing population developments. Therefore HPPS all over Europe are involved as test sites. The facilities for upstream and downstream migration are evaluated, different bypass systems including their use as habitats and the influence of sediment on habitat. In addition existing tools and devices will be enhanced during the project and will be used in the experimental set-ups in the laboratories and at the test sites for e.g. detection of fish or prediction of behavior. This includes sensor fish, different solutions for migration as e.g. trash rack variations, different fish tracking systems, but also numerical models as habitat and population model or virtual fish swimming path model. Therefore a three-level-based workplan was created with preparatory desk work at the beginning to analyze shortcomings and potential in environment-friendly hydropower. Following the experimental tests will be conducted at the different test sites to demonstrate and evaluate the effects of the different options not covered by the desk-work. Thirdly, these results are fed into a risk based Decision Support System (DSS) which is developed for planning, commissioning and operating of HPPs. It is meant to enable operators to fulfill the requirements of cost-effective production and at the same time meet the environmental obligations and targets under European legislation and achieve a self-sustained fish population.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-11c-2015 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2016

A key EU policy aims to reduce the Union dependency on raw materials imports, in particular (candidate) Critical Raw Materials that are vital for the EU innovative technologies. Topic SC5-11c-2015 scope focuses on developing new highly-automated technological sustainable solutions for deep mining in the sea bed combined with in-situ processing of minerals. An existing but challenging raw material resource concerns polymetallic nodules. These round to elongated concretions of 115 cm diameter form on sediment-covered deep-sea plains in all oceans between 4-6000m water depth. The challenge to harvest and transport the nodules to the EU shore is taken on by Blue Nodules. The governing project principle is: industrial viability within the context of a realistic and technical, economic and environmentally balanced business case for the complete Polymetallic Nodules value chain of mining, processing and valorisation. Blue Nodules will develop and test to TRL6 maturity a new highly-automated and technologically sustainable deep sea mining system. Key features are: an annual production capability of 2 Million Tons nodules in water depths up to 6000m, in-situ processing of the nodules and intrinsic safe working conditions. Technical WPs are dedicated to subsea harvesting equipment & control technology, in-situ seafloor processing of polymetallic nodules and sea surface, land operations & processes. A dedicated WP focuses on environmental issues and on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A WP setting requirements and assessing the developed technology controls the entire work plan structure. High credibility is obtained by linking the project work to a nodule field licence owned by a project partner and located in the most promising known nodule deposit: the Clarion Clipperton Zone. The project consortium contains 14 leading industry and research partners from 9 EU member states. The project duration is 48 months, the required funding amounts to 8 Million.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 4.78M | Year: 2014

MoDeNa aims at developing, demonstrating and assessing an easy-to-use multi-scale software-modelling framework application under an open-source licensing scheme that delivers models with feasible computational loads for process and product design of complex materials. The use of the software will lead to novel research and development avenues that fundamentally improve the properties of these nanomaterials. As an application case we consider polyurethane foams (PU), which is an excellent example of a large turnover product produced in a variety of qualities and of which the properties are the result of designing and controlling the material structure on all levels of scale, from the molecule to the final product. Polyurethanes are used in furniture, automotive, coatings, construction, thermal insulation and footwear, which are the most important industry sectors. Tailoring these properties requires understanding and detailed modelling of the fundamental material behaviour on all scales. An open-source software-suite will be constructed that logically interlinks scale and problem specific software of our university groups, using a software orchestrator that communicates information utilizing our proposed new communication standard in both directions, namely upwards to the higher scale and downwards to the lower scale. This feature is unique, enabling the solution of complex material design problems. By that this project contributes to strengthening the European leadership in design and production of nanocomposite materials with functional properties in general. It will also contribute to strengthening European SME positions in the development of computationally intensive simulation software. Finally, it will contribute to making production processes more efficient by combining scale-specific software tools thereby decreasing the time-to-market. This will enable the exploration of many more alternatives eventually leading to improved products and processes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 10.98M | Year: 2009

The HERMIONE project is designed to make a major advance in our knowledge of the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems and their contribution to the production of goods and services. This will be achieved through a highly interdisciplinary approach (including biologists, ecologists, microbiologists, biogeochemists, sedimentologists, physical oceanographers, modelers and socio-economists) that will integrate biodiversity, specific adaptions and biological capacity in the context of a wide range of highly vulnerable deep-sea habitats. Gaining this understanding is crucial, because these ecosystems are now being affected by climate change and impacted by man through fishing, resource extraction, seabed installations and pollution. To design and implement effective governance strategies and management plans we must understand the extent, natural dynamics and interconnection of ocean ecosystems and integrate socio-economic research with natural science. The study sites include the Arctic, North Atlantic and Mediterranean and cover a range of ecosystems including cold-water corals, canyons, cold and hot seeps, seamounts and open slopes and deep-basins. The project will make strong connections between deep-sea science and user needs. HERMIONE will enhance the education and public perception of the deep-ocean issues also through some of the major EU aquaria. These actions, together with GEOSS databases that will be made available, will create a platform for discussion between a range of stakeholders, and contribute to EU environmental policies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.5 | Award Amount: 2.70M | Year: 2014

InSpin will develop revolutionary nano-scale insulator spintronics that can replace or be integrated with conventional electronics and function at ambient temperatures. The innovation lies in the use of spin currents that in magnetic insulators are decoupled from charge currents and propagate with extremely low power dissipation. InSpins objectives are to provide a disruptive technology that is spin-based, low-power and ultra-low-noise, leading to superior oscillators, logics, and random access memory compared to those based on charge-based electronics. Ultimately, electrical current-driven magnon Bose-Einstein condensation and the associated super spin-currents enable dissipationless spintronics at room temperature. The strong reduction or even the complete absence of power dissipation in (super) insulator spintronics implies loss-less transfer of spin signals that circumvents the energy dissipation problem, which threatens to end Moores Law in information and communication technology. InSpins final deliverable is to fabricate the first functional spin wave bus with signal input and detection and to use this bus to realize a logic majority gate as the key component for future insulator spintronics.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.2-03 | Award Amount: 7.95M | Year: 2013

Vitamin D deficiency has significant implications for human health and impacts on healthy growth and development and successful aging. Fundamental knowledge gaps are barriers to implementing a safe and effective public health strategy to prevent vitamin D deficiency and optimize status. ODIN will provide the evidence to prevent vitamin D deficiency in Europe and improve nutrition and public health through food. By establishing an internationally standardized analytical platform for 25OHD, ODIN will measure the distribution of circulating 25OHD and describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. Using available biobanks and databases from National nutrition surveys ODIN will delineate the relative contributions of sun and dietary sources of vitamin D to circulating 25OHD. In support of planned EFSA revisions of vitamin D recommendations, ODIN will carry out three RCT in pregnant women, children and teenagers and a fourth RCT in ethnic immigrant groups to provide experimental data to specify vitamin D intake requirements. Using dietary modeling, innovative food-based solutions to increase vitamin D in the food supply through a combination of bio-fortification of meats, fish, eggs, mushrooms and yeast will be developed and ODIN will test the efficacy and safety of these products in food-based RCT varying in scale from small product-specific trials to a large total diet study in vulnerable indigenous and immigrant sub-groups. ODIN has assembled the largest critical mass of prospective adult, pregnancy and birth cohort studies to date and will conduct meta-analyses and individual subject-level meta-regression analyses to integrate standardized data on vitamin D status, a priori defined clinical endpoints and genotype to examine relationships between vitamin D and human health, including beneficial and adverse effects, on perinatal outcomes, bone growth and body composition and allergic disease in children and cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.11. | Award Amount: 8.61M | Year: 2013

The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3) seeks to integrate European open ocean fixed point observatories and to improve access to these key installations for the broader community. These will provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK, FixO3 will build on the significant advances achieved through the FP7 programmes EuroSITES, ESONET and CARBOOCEAN. With a budget of 7.00 Million Euros over 4 years (starting September 2013) the proposal has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SMEs. In addition 14 international experts from a wide range of disciplines comprise an Advisory Board. The programme will be achieved through: 1. Coordination activities to integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes. Strong links will be fostered with the wider community across academia, industry, policy and the general public through outreach, knowledge exchange and training. 2. Support actions to offer a) access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and b) free and open data services and products. 3. Joint research activities to innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation. Open ocean observation is currently a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 will provide important data on environmental products and services to address the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in support of the EU Integrated Maritime Policy. The FixO3 network will provide free and open access to in situ fixed point data of the highest quality. It will provide a strong integrated framework of open ocean facilities in the Atlantic from the Arctic to the Antarctic and throughout the Mediterranean, enabling an integrated, regional and multidisciplinary approach to understand natural and anthropogenic change in the ocean.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.1 | Award Amount: 5.94M | Year: 2010

EISCAT_3D is a next generation incoherent scatter radar system for high-latitude atmosphere and geospace studies that will be built in northern Fenno-Scandinavia. The facility will consist of multiple large phased-array antenna transmitters/receivers in three countries, comprising tens of thousands of individual antenna elements. The new radars will collect data from the upper stratosphere to the magnetosphere and beyond, contributing to the basic, environmental and applied science that underpins the use of space by contemporary society. EISCAT_3Ds capabilities go beyond anything currently available to the international research community and will constitute a valuable scientific resource for the European Research Area. Located in the auroral zone at the edge of the northern polar vortex, EISCAT_3D will provide long-term continuous data for scientists studying global change, measuring the effects of man-made and natural variability on the middle and upper atmosphere. Its observations will underpin space weather prediction and monitoring, essential for the operation and the improved service of European space assets. In addition EISCAT_3D will facilitate studies of solar system influences on the terrestrial environment, such as solar wind, meteors, dust, energetic particles and cosmic rays, in collaboration with other research infrastructures. The Preparatory Phase will resolve the remaining legal, financial and technical questions which must be addressed before the construction of EISCAT_3D.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.2.2. | Award Amount: 5.16M | Year: 2011

OpenAIREplus will build a 2nd-Generation Open Access Infrastructure by significantly expanding in several directions the outcomes of the OpenAIRE project, which implements the EC Open Access (OA) pilot. Capitalizing on the OpenAIRE infrastructure, built for managing FP7 and ERC funded articles, and the associated supporting mechanism of the European Helpdesk System, OpenAIREplus will develop an open access, participatory infrastructure for scientific information. It will significantly expand its base of harvested publications to also include all OA publications indexed by the DRIVER infrastructure (more than 270 validated institutional repositories) and any other repository containing peer-reviewed literature that complies with certain standards. It will also generically harvest and index the metadata of scientific datasets in selected diverse OA thematic data repositories. It will support the concept of linked publications by deploying novel services for linking peer-reviewed literature and associated data sets and collections, from link discovery based on diverse forms of mining (textual, usage, etc.), to storage, visual representation, and on-line exploration. It will offer both user-level services to experts and non-scientists alike as well as programming interfaces for providers of value-added services to build applications on its content. Deposited articles and data will be openly accessible through an enhanced version of the OpenAIRE portal, together with any available relevant information on associated project funding and usage statistics. OpenAIREplus will retain its European footprint, engaging people and scientific repositories in almost all 27 EU member states and beyond. The technical work will be complemented by a suite of studies and associated research efforts that will partly proceed in collaboration with different European initiatives and investigate issues of intellectual property rights, efficient financing models, and standards.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.6-02 | Award Amount: 11.33M | Year: 2013

STREPSYNTH aims to set-up a Streptomyces-based new industrial production platform (SNIP) for high value added biomolecules. Streptomyces lividans was chosen as a bacterial host cell because it has been already shown to be highly efficient for the extracellular production of a number of heterologous molecules that vary chemically, has a robust tradition of industrial fermentation and is fully accessible to genetic intervention. To develop SNIP our strategy has two components: first, we will construct a collection of reduced-genome S. lividans strains. This will metabolically streamline the cell and rid it of agents (e.g. proteases) of potential harm to the heterologous polypeptides. Second, we will engineer synthetic parts and cassettes, i.e. reshuffled, rewired and repurposed genetic elements either indigenous to S. lividans or heterologous genes organized in artificial operon clusters. These elements will serve three aims: transcriptional and translational optimization, sophisticated on-demand transcriptional regulation that will provide unique fermentation control and metabolic engineering of complete cellular pathways channeling biomolecules to profuse extracellular secretion. Synthetic parts and cassettes will be either directly incorporated into the genome or be hosted in the form of plasmids. Systems biology tools will guide fine-tuning rounds of cell factory engineering and fermentation optimization. To set up SNIP we chose two classes of biomolecules with obvious immediate industrial value and application: heterologous proteins (industrial enzymes, biopharmaceuticals, biofuel enzymes, diagnostics) and small molecules (lantipeptides and indolocarbozoles) useful for multiple industrial purposes (biopharmaceuticals, additives, food technology, bioenergy). These biomolecules are of immediate interest to SMEs that participate and guide the industrial relevance of STREPSYNTH. SNIP is a modular platform that can be repurposed for diverse future applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2010

The overall aim of the ViVac project is to develop and to show safety and efficacy for a new innovative carbohydrate (chitosan) based adjuvant -Viscogel to be used both in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination. Three SME participants will contribute with their specific technologies: the unique Viscogel technology, a specific type of cationic peptides with cell-penetrating capacity (LTX) and a technology platform for production of recombinant allergens (Bet v 1). Viscogel has excellent adjuvant properties: strongly immunostimulatory, stable, easy to manufacture, pronounced depot effect and possibility to obtain products of GMP quality. In addition Viscogel is mucoadhesive and in combination with LTX cell penetrating, making it suitable for mucosal administration. The target applications to be demonstrated in the ViVac project are i) prophylactic vaccination against common infectious diseases, and ii) therapeutic allergy vaccination. Both application areas represent billion markets. Five RTD consortium partners with specific key competences will perform research to support further technical development and new IP opportunities for the participating SME partners. The research objectives are i) to provide pre-clinical and clinical proof-of-concept for prophylactic vaccination with a model vaccine against Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b). Data supporting that Viscogel induces improved immune responses at lower vaccine doses will likely be applicable to most prophylactic vaccines. ii) to provide pre-clinical proof-of-concept for therapeutic vaccination, demonstrated for allergy vaccination. In particular Viscogel-Bet v 1 formulations for administration over the sublingual mucosa will be developed and thus fulfil an unmet medical need for safe, efficient and convenient allergy vaccination. A successful outcome of the ViVac project will significantly improve the competitive situation for the SME partners and create new commercialisation opportunities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-3.2-03 | Award Amount: 4.09M | Year: 2008

The transport sector represents a growing share of the total fossil fuel usage in the world. In order to fulfil the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol, the world usage of fossil oil in transport sectors must be reduced. One important approach to achieving this goal is to increase the share of renewable sources such as feedstocks in conversion routes. These biomass conversion routes involve a number of difficulties that should be attended to first by a suitable process configuration to avoid catalyst poisoning in production of syngas. Second, a major problem in the production of syngas-derived fuel from renewable sources is the presence of contaminates in the product gas from biomass gasifiers. These impurities that cause catalytic poisoning should be completely removed prior to the entry in catalytic systems that utilize in upgrading steps. With the evolution of these advanced uses of biomass derived syngas, it becomes necessary to develop progressively more stringent gas cleaning systems. Therefore, the projects key goal is development of a novel gas cleanup in order to reduce impurities from the gasifiers product gas to limits required for upgrading to syngas using as a feedstock in production of vehicle fuels. To accomplish this target that biomass conversion should preserve high energy efficiency in the subsequent synthesis steps and prevent catalytic poisoning, an alternative product route and more efficient gas cleaning systems are required. Nevertheless, biomass conversion processes offer many economical and environmental benefits, but it is clear that conversion technology should be able to compete with other conversion routes, for example via methane. Therefore, this RTD programme combines European expertise in the field of gasification, different proficiencies in cleaning technologies, high ranking catalyst expertise, catalyst company, and two research companies with R&D activities in the fields to expedite the development and commercialization of research outcomes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-1.2-01 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2008

Hydrogen has the potential to provide a reliable, secure, and clean source of power. The barrier is the challenge of getting hydrogen economically to the point of use. Water electrolyser offers a practical way of hydrogen production in association with renewable energy sources. Compared to the conventional alkaline electrolyte electrolyser, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyser can operate at high current densities and pressure with compact design. The main challenges for PEM electrolysers are high capital cost of key materials, components and the overall system as well as insufficient long-term durability. The strategic development of the WELTEMP project is an elevated operating temperature of the PEM electrolyser. In this way the energy efficiency will be significantly improved because of the decreased thermodynamic energy requirement, enhanced electrode kinetics, and the possible integration of the heat recovery. Key issues to achieve this strategic target are breakthroughs of fundamental materials developments, including catalysts, membranes, current collectors, bipolar plates, and other construction materials. The WELTEMP will start with developing active and stable anodic catalysts based on mixed metal oxides, temperature-resistant PEM based on composite PFSA, sulfonated aromatic and/or acid-base cross-linked polymers, and highly conducting and corrosion-resistant tantalum thin surface coatings as current collectors and bipolar plates. Based on these materials, a 1 kW prototype electrolyser will be constructed for demonstration and evaluation. It is aimed to reach operational temperature above 120C and a hydrogen production of 320 NL/h at 80% efficiency (LHV basis) at system level. These innovative developments need trans-national efforts from European industries and R&D groups. The expertise and know-how of the consortium in the field of refractory metals, electrocatalysts, polymers and membranes, MEA fabrication, and most importantly the construction and operation of water electrolysers, will ensure a success of the proposed project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2013

This network provides a unique approach to understanding the interaction between two central cognitive systems: language and perception. Traditionally these systems have been studied independently, with training provided from a single discipline perspective. This training network offers an interdisciplinary approach to the examination of the bidirectional relationships between language and perception for the first time, bridging the translational gap between basic and applied research, both in clinical settings and in industry. The workpackages in the training program form three interconnected clusters: (1) Language-perception interactions in healthy participants - basic research investigates theories of language and perception from complementary perspectives in order to break new ground in understanding language-perception interactions. (2) Language-perception interactions in atypical populations applied research transports state-of-the-art methods of language-perception to atypical populations in order to identify underlying mechanisms for different kinds of atypical behaviours. (3) Advanced technologies for language and perception research bridges basic research and its applications in the development of new behavioural and neurophysiological techniques to identify the interaction between language and perception among typical (adults and children) and atypical populations. Industrial partners within the ITN will work across all three clusters, offering project-specific collaboration with ER and ERS trainees, secondment placements, entrepreneurial training at schools and courses, as well as supervision and industrial guidance through supervisory board and educational committee participation. This ITN will produce a new generation of integrative language and perception scientists with the technological, theoretical, and entrepreneurial skills necessary to make breakthroughs in the understanding of language-perception interactions and associated applications

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2011.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 8.99M | Year: 2012

In order to gauge its significance, conceptual change in the study of borders must be seen in relation to fundamental social, economic and geopolitical transformations that have taken place in the past decades. In addition, major paradigmatic shifts in scientific debate, and in the social sciences in particular, must also be considered. Recognising the close interrelationships between social change and paradigm shifts, the EUBORDERSCAPES project will analyse the evolving concept of borders in terms of a mutually linked emergence of post-national, post-colonial, post-modernist and post-Communist strands of inquiry. State borders are the frame of reference, rather than ethnographic/anthropological boundaries. However, this approach emphasises the social significance and subjectivities of state borders while critically interrogating objective categories of state territoriality and international relations. The research proposed here will, furthermore, not only be focused at the more general, at times highly abstract, level of conceptual change. This approach will also allow us to compare and contrast how different and often contested conceptualisations of state borders (in terms of their political, social, cultural and symbolic significance) resonate in concrete contexts at the level of everyday life.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-10-2014 | Award Amount: 5.28M | Year: 2015

The overall aim of PrimeFish is to improve the economic sustainability of European fisheries and aquaculture sectors. PrimeFish will gather data from individual production companies, industry and sales organisations, consumers and public sources. The data will be related to the competitiveness and economic performance of companies in the sector; this includes data on price development, supply chain relations, markets, consumer behaviour and successful product innovation. The large industry reference group will facilitate access to data on specific case studies. A data repository will be created, and PrimeFish will join the H2020 Open Research Data Pilot to ensure future open access to the data. The effectiveness of demand stimulation through health, label and certification claims will be evaluated and compared with actual consumer behaviour. PrimeFish will assess the non-market value associated with aquaculture and captured fisheries as well as the effectiveness of regulatory systems and thereby provide the basis for improved societal decision making in the future. The collected data will be used to verify models and develop prediction algorithms that will be implemented into a computerized decision support system (PrimeDSS). The PrimeDSS, together with the underlying data, models, algorithms, assumptions and accompanying user instructions will form the PrimeFish Decision Support Framework (PrimeDSF). The lead users, typically fishermen, aquaculture producers and production companies, will be able to use the PrimeDSF to improve understanding of the functioning of their markets and in setting strategic plans for future production and innovation which in turn will strengthen the long term viability of the European fisheries and aquaculture sectors. This will also benefit consumers, leading to more diversified European seafood products, enhanced added value, novel products and improved information on origin, certification and health claims.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-3.3-3 | Award Amount: 15.41M | Year: 2010

CHANCES aims at combining and integrating on-going cohort studies in order to produce evidence on ageing-related health characteristics and determinants in Europe, and their socio-economic implications. 15 cohorts participate, covering populations from 18 EU Member States, 4 associate countries, and 3 additional countries. The combination of these different studies would lead to an integrated approach to the study of health in the elderly. CHANCES will address 5 main types of health related characteristics: (i) incidence of chronic conditions, disabilities and mortality; (ii) prevalence of chronic conditions and disabilities; (iii) health-related determinants of chronic conditions and disabilities; (iv) ageing-related characteristics as determinants of chronic condition, disabilities and mortality; and (v) social and economic implications of chronic conditions, disabilities and mortality in the elderly. Analyses will be conducted in subjects aged 50-59, 60-69 and 70\ years. Health-related determinants comprise (i) socio-economic factors (e.g., education, income), (ii) environmental factors (e.g., occupational exposures), (iii) lifestyle factors (e.g., tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking), and (iv) nutritional factors (e.g., BMI, dietary patterns), in addition to biomakers and genetic factors. 4 major groups of chronic conditions and disabilities will be studied: (i) cancer; (ii) diabetes and cardiovascular diseases; (iii) fractures and osteoporosis; (iv) cognitive function and Alzheimer disease. Information on other conditions and disabilities (e.g., eye diseases, chronic respiratory conditions) will be also collected if available. Mortality will be assessed in terms of age-specific rates a well as DALYs. A health module will be developed, to be applied to other population surveys. Additionally, the study will generate a unique resource for additional studies on health and its determinants in the elderly. Provisions will be made to allow for this work to be extended.

In 2006, the UN General Assembly Resolution (61/105) called upon fisheries management organisations worldwide to: i) assess the impact of bottom fishing on vulnerable marine ecosystems, ii) identify/map vulnerable ecosystems through improved scientific research/data collection, and iii) close such areas to bottom fishing unless conservation and management measures were established to prevent their degradation. In European deep waters, in addition, there is now a need to establish monitoring tools to evaluate the effectiveness of closed areas for the conservation of biodiversity and fish and their impact on fisheries. Currently the tools necessary to achieve these management goals are wholly lacking. CoralFISH aims to support the implementation of an ecosystem-based management approach in the deep-sea by studying the interaction between cold-water coral habitat, fish and fisheries. CoralFISH brings together a unique consortium of deep-sea fisheries biologists, ecosystem researchers/modellers, economists and a fishing industry SME, who will collaborate to collect data from key European marine eco-regions. CoralFISH will: i) develop essential methodologies and indicators for baseline and subsequent monitoring of closed areas, ii) integrate fish into coral ecosystem models to better understand coral fish-carrying capacity, iii) evaluate the distribution of deepwater bottom fishing effort to identify areas of potential interaction and impact upon coral habitat, iv) use genetic fingerprinting to assess the potential erosion of genetic fitness of corals due to long-term exposure to fishing impacts, v) construct bio-economic models to assess management effects on corals and fisheries to provide policy options, and vi) produce as a key output, habitat suitability maps both regionally and for OSPAR Region V to identify areas likely to contain vulnerable habitat. The latter will provide the EU with the tools to address the issues raised by the UNGA resolution.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 11.92M | Year: 2014

To meet short term European 20-20-20 objectives and long term targets of European Energy Roadmap 2050, an energy paradigm shift is needed for which biomass conversion into advanced biofuels is essential. This new deal has challenges in catalyst development which so far hinders implementation at industrial level: Firstly, biomass is much more complex and reactive than conventional feedstock; secondly development of such catalysts is traditionally done by lengthy empirical approaches. FASTCARD aims at: -Developing a novel rational design of nano-catalysts for better control; optimised based on advanced characterisation methods and systematic capture of knowledge by scalable mathematical and physical models, allowing prediction of performance in the context of bio-feedstocks; -Developing industrially relevant, insightful Downscaling methodologies to allow evaluation of the impact of diverse and variable bio-feedstocks on catalyst performance; -Addressing major challenges impacting on the efficiency and implementation of 4 key catalytic steps in biobased processes: Hydrotreating (HT) and co-Fluid Catalytic Cracking forming the pyrolysis liquid value chain for near term implementation in existing refining units as a timely achievement of the 20-20-20 objectives: addressing challenges of selectivity and stability in HT; increased bio-oil content in co-FCC. Hydrocarbon (HC) reforming and CO2 tolerant Fischer Tropsch (FT) forming the gasification value chain for longer term implementation in new European relevant infrastructure, representing 100% green sustainable route for Energy Roadmap 2050: addressing challenges of stability and resistance in HC reforming; stability and selectivity for FT. Advances in rational design of nano-catalysts will establish a fundamental platform that can be applied to other energy applications. The project will thus speed-up industrialisation of safer, greener, atom efficient, and stable catalysts, while improving the process efficiency.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.26 | Award Amount: 10.18M | Year: 2010

The co-ordinated and integrated approach of HYDRALAB aims at structuring the access to unique and costly hydraulic and ice engineering research infrastructures in the European Research Area. The network of HYDRALAB is unique in the hydraulic research community and has large experience in co-operating since its start in 1997. It began by informing and co-ordinating the activities of the partners in HYDRALAB I and II, and via strong collaboration in HYDRALAB III we will now realize further integration of our research services in Europe in HYDRALAB IV. Over the course of 10 years our network has grown from 8 participants in 1997 to a total of 30 participants from 15 countries today. Research in our infrastructures deals with complex questions regarding the interaction of water with environmental elements, sediment, structures and ice and goes beyond just hydraulic research: hence we have adopted the theme More than water. Questions that we need to answer deal with e.g. the development of adaptive strategies to climate change and sustainable measures against natural hazards, like floods. A fully integrated and balanced ensemble of Networking Activities (5), Joint Research Activities (4) and Transnational Access Activities (10) enhances the operation of our infrastructures and their instrumentation facilities beyond the present state-of-the-art and identifies potential future developments. By means of the common User Selection Procedure optimal access is guaranteed. With our dissemination events we foster a culture of co-operation between the participants and the wider user community. Further objectives of HYDRALAB IV are to improve access to experimental data, by providing researchers with a database on results of experiments, and bring young researchers and first time users from across Europe to the cutting edge of experimental research. As compared to the first proposal for HYDRALAB IV this proposal is improved with the recommendations made by the review panel.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-3.0-03 | Award Amount: 4.06M | Year: 2008

PESI provides standardised and authoritative taxonomic information by integrating and securing Europes taxonomically authoritative species name registers and nomenclators (name databases) that underpin the management of biodiversity in Europe.\nPESI defines and coordinates strategies to enhance the quality and reliability of European biodiversity information by integrating the infrastructural components of four major community networks on taxonomic indexing into a joint work programme. This will result in functional knowledge networks of taxonomic experts and regional focal points, which will collaborate on the establishment of standardised and authoritative taxonomic (meta-) data. In addition PESI will coordinate the integration and synchronisation of the European taxonomic information systems into a joint e-infrastructure and the set up of a common user-interface disseminating the pan-European checklists and associated user-services results\nThe organisation of national and regional focal point networks as projected not only assures the efficient access to local expertise, but is also important for the synergistic promotion of taxonomic standards throughout Europe, for instance to liaison with national governmental bodies on the implementation of European biodiversity legislations. In addition PESI will start with the geographic expansion of the European expertise networks to eventually cover the entire Palaearctic biogeographic region.\nPESI supports international efforts on the development of a Global Names Architecture by building a common intelligent name-matching device in consultation with the principal initiatives (GBIF, TDWG, EoL, SpeciesBase). PESI contributes the development of a unified cross-reference system and provides of high quality taxonomic standards. PESI will further involve the Europe-based nomenclatural services and link the planned joint European taxonomic e-infrastructures middle-layer to the global e-gateway.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.5.2.1.;SST.2008.5.2.2. | Award Amount: 5.27M | Year: 2010

The basic concept of the present work is the definition of an effective repair method for large steel structures with defects. Two basic steel structural types will be dealt with in this work, namely marine structures and steel civil engineering structures. The objective of this project is to demonstrate that composite patch repairs can be environmentally stable and therefore, that they can be used as permanent repair measures. This objective will mainly be achieved by: 1) Studying and demonstrating through theoretical analyses, numerical simulations and experimental testing that the use of composite patch repairs leads to the reinforcement of a steel structural member. 2) Determining, evaluating and quantifying the efficiency of composite patch reinforcements in the marine/bridge environment, in both the short and long term. 3) Developing a generalized procedure for the design and application of composite patch reinforcements in steel marine and civil engineering infrastructure applications. 4) Evaluating existing or developing new, practically applicable and sensor based monitoring techniques of the final through-life structural integrity of the patch. 5) Demonstrating the effectiveness of the developed design tools and procedures through full-scale tests. 6) Developing an internationally recognised training programme for personnel. The objectives defined above are in full line with the requirements of FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1 call for proposals. The proposed composite patch repair technology is an innovative and highly competitive product that caters to the needs of both marine vessels and civil engineering infrastructures. It reduces quite significantly the maintenance costs of many large steel structures, and in the case of metallic bridges it prolongs their design life. The proposed technology creates a new market and it gives the partners the capability of providing high technology and high added value services worldwide.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-2.1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2015

The project provides solutions for common infrastructure problems encountered in diverse regions of Europe, e.g. deterioration and scour damage to bridges, slope instability, damage to switches and crossings and track performance. Whilst similar failure modes are seen around the EU, the triggers (precipitation, earthquake loading etc.) are regional. The DESTination RAIL project will develop management tools based on scientific principles for risk assessment using real performance measurements and other vital data stored in an Information Management System. This will allow for a step-change in the management of European rail infrastructure. The objectives will be achieved through a holistic management tool based on the FACT (Find, Analyse, Classify, Treat) principle. Find - Improved techniques for the assessment of existing assets will be developed. Analyse - Advanced probabilistic models fed by performance statistics and using databases controlled by an information management system. Classify - The performance models will allow a step-change in risk assessment, moving from the current subjective (qualitative) basis to become fundamentally based on quantifiable data. Treat - The impact of proposed remediation or reconstruction will be assessed using the a probabilistic whole life cycle model which includes financial and environmental costs and the impact of work on traffic flow. The FACT principles will be implemented in a holistic decision support tool for infrastructure managers. DESTination RAIL will result significant impact in relation to the objectives of the work programme. It will reduce the cost of investment by using the IMS to manage the network, (ii) Monitoring and real-times analyses will prevent unnecessary line restrictions and closures. (iii) Lower maintenance costs by optimisimg interventions in the life cycle of the asset and (iv) optimise traffic flow in the network.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2014

TEMPO addresses the needs of European companies and society for embedded control technology, through training on cutting edge research in the rapidly emerging inter-disciplinary field of embedded predictive control and optimization. The key objectives are: - to expand the scientific and technical knowledge platform for Embedded Predictive Control and Optimization in Europe; - to exploit this platform to train a new generation of world class researchers and professionals that are highly attractive for employment by the European industry; - to establish structures for long-term cooperation and strengthen the relations among the leading universities and industry in Europe in this field, to continuously develop the research training platform that European industry relies on. To achieve the objectives listed above, the main tasks of TEMPO are: - to attract and train 14 Early Stage Researchers in embedded MPC and optimization via a joint academic/industrial program of cutting edge training-by-research, high quality supervision, complementary and transferable skills training, inter-network secondments, and workshops; - to create a closely connected group of leading European scientists that are highly sought after by European industry, and ready to push forward embedded MPC and optimization into new innovative products, industries and services; - to build a solid foundation for long-term European excellence in this field by disseminating the research and training outcomes and best practice of TEMPO into the doctoral schools of the partners, and by fostering long-term partnerships and collaboration mechanisms that will outlast the ITN; - to disseminate the know-how of the participants to each other and to external groups via networking activities, inter-sectoral exposure, secondments, workshops, demonstrations, sharing of learning material, public engagement and outreach activities, and open source public domain software outcomes.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 9.35M | Year: 2013

The marine food web is at the centre of both the climate-related CO2 cycle and food production in the marine environment. It plays a key role in regulating the climate system and is highly sensitive to climate change and other stressors. OCEAN-CERTAIN will investigate the impact of climatic and non climatic stressors on the food web and the connected biological pump , and the important feedback mechanisms. OCEAN-CERTAIN will identify and quantify multi-stressor impacts and feedbacks and how these alter the functionality and structure of the food web and efficiency of the biological pump in different bio-geographical regions. This will be done by utilizing existing ecosystem models employing existing data, in addition to mesocosm, lab-scale experiments and field study. . The resulting knowledge will then be used to assess socio-economic vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity by using indicators of food-web functions as responses to particular changes by way of stressor combinations. OCEAN-CERTAIN will then address socio-economic policy and management issues by using highly interactive participatory stakeholder workshops to create models of user group resilience and adaptability. These will show how potential climate-driven physical, chemical and biological changes may affect relevant economic activities and human welfare and help to identify adaptation pathways. This information and knowledge will reduce of epistemic uncertainty and help policy makers chose among management options, which in turn will be treated as additional feedbacks to the food web. The stressors, key feedback mechanisms and indicators, form the basis for the design of an integrated Decision Support System (DSS).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.11 | Award Amount: 11.85M | Year: 2011

AQUAEXCEL will coordinate the highest class European aquaculture research facilities covering the entire range of production systems (recirculation, flow-through, cage, hatchery and pond systems), environments (freshwater and marine, cold and warm water), scales (small, medium and industrial scale), fish species (salmon, trout, sea bass, sea bream, cod, carp), and fields of expertise (nutrition, physiology, health and welfare, genetics, monitoring and management technologies and engineering). AQUAEXCEL will: - Link and coordinate key research infrastructures in Europe: cage, recirculation and hatchery aquaculture systems, land and sea based, fresh and salt water installations in order to create the basis for synergistic research projects - Provide research teams with access to a wide range of the state-of-the-art infrastructures covering all important aquaculture species, systems, environments and expertises - Increase resource sharing and standardization between partners, notably but not exclusively for fish models and experimental methods developed in-house - Stimulate innovation through transfer of knowledge, harmonisation and development of best practices across fields of research, production systems and species - Execute joint research and development activities designed to improve the services currently provided by the infrastructures (remote access and monitoring, more accurate performance evaluation, limitation of live animals use, applicability of results at industry scale, development of biological models). - Bridge the gap between the scientific community and the industry through stimulation of problem-based research and enhanced knowledge transfer AQUAEXCEL will facilitate a coherent development of the aquaculture research facilities for which there is a strong demand from the public and private sectors of aquaculture research, which have to work towards sustainable production of high quality seafood with reduced environmental impact.

News Article | January 21, 2016

For roughly a century, researchers have been trying to figure out how different female cuckoos manage to lay such a variety of different egg colors to match different host birds. Now, a group of researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has come up with an answer to this puzzle, in cooperation with researchers from all over Europe and Asia. The short answer is that "the female bird decides everything," says researcher Frode Fossøy. Fossøy is part of the cuckoo research group at the Department of Biology at NTNU. The results of the group's work have just been published in Nature Communications. "We've been able to show for the first time that the blue egg color is inherited via the female cuckoo only. Thefather has no effect on the color of his daughter's eggs," says Fossøy. Researchers have investigated a wide variety of samples from Europe and Asia. They found a clear relation between blue eggs and genetic material that only comes from the mother (mitochondrial DNA), and no relation between egg color and genetic material that comes from both parents (nuclear DNA). Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are parasitic. Female cuckoos lay their eggs in the nests of other bird species, as is well known. The young cuckoo then usually throws the other chicks out of the nest, getting rid of any competition for the parents' attention. Potential host birds develop traits to prevent being tricked by the parasites—they get rid of eggs that don't look like their own. To avoid this, female cuckoos need to lay eggs that look identical to that of the host bird's, both in color and shape. This means that there is a sort of evolutionary arms race going on between cuckoos and host birds, where cuckoo eggs come to resemble that of their host birds' more and more over time. Different cuckoos can therefore lay eggs of many different colors and patterns. They can be blue, brown, green or grey, and have different combinations of spots and patterns. But each individual female cuckoo can only lay eggs in one color, so different females specialize on different host species. This is part of the reason why egg color is a trait inherited only from the female birds. The research group doesn't have definitive proof that all egg characteristics are inherited from the female bird, just that blue eggs are. Whether other egg colors are also only inherited via females is currently not known. There has been speculation that cuckoos that lay blue eggs may actually be a different species, but no other characteristics indicate this. The nuclear DNA of the birds that lay blue eggs is the same as any other cuckoo—meaning that the species is the same. A single male cuckoo can mate with several female birds that lay eggs of different colors. This could make a mess of things. If a male with genes for one color mated with a female with a different egg color, their daughter's eggs could be an intermediate color that doesn't match any host, meaning that host birds would be able to spot the difference and get rid of the parasitic egg. For this reason, there are evolutionary advantages for both the male and female birds that only females carry the genetic trait for egg color. That way, their offspring will have a much greater chance of surviving. Egg color traits are therefore most likely connected to the bird's sex chromosomes. In birds, these are the W and Z chromosomes (similar to X and Y in mammals). Male birds have a ZZ chromosome pair, while females have a ZW pair. In other words, only female birds have W chromosomes. Thus, if the gene for blue egg color is located on the W chromosome, this gene will be inherited unchanged from mother to daughter. Another possibility is that egg color is connected to mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, which is also inherited only from the mother. Using a massive data set, including data from museum eggs that are over 100 years old, the researchers have been able to conclude with 100 percent certainty that blue egg color is inherited solely from the mother. As a biologist, it isn't often you can come to a conclusion with 100 percent certainty. But this is an exception. The researchers' results have mainly come from Finland, and cuckoos that lay eggs in redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) nests, as well as material from blue eggs in China. The blue egg color has most likely originated in Asia. This trait was developed so long ago that four new species of cuckoos have evolved after blue eggs appeared. The blue egg trait thereby spread from Asia west to Europe, as female birds mated with local males and found local hosts to trick with their blue eggs. Because blue eggs are inherited only from female birds, this geographic spread hasn't affected egg color. Just a few years ago, Fossøy published a study of three species of cuckoos in Bulgaria that indicated that male birds could affect egg colors. While the trait for blue eggs is certainly only inherited from female birds, this may not be the case for other colors. More information: Frode Fossøy et al. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10272

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010

Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation,, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-02 | Award Amount: 20.38M | Year: 2008

ESFRI has identified High Performance Computing (HPC) as a strategic priority for Europe. Scientists and engineers must be provided with access to capability computers of leadership class in Europe to remain competitive internationally and to maintain or regain leadership. Supercomputers are an indispensable tool to solve the most challenging problems through simulations.\n\nPACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, has the overall objective to prepare the creation of a persistent pan-European HPC service, consisting of three to five centres, similar to the US HPC infrastructure. PACE will be the tier-0 level of the European HPC ecosystem. It will build on the experience of the partners and use concepts and services from EC-funded projects like GEANT2 and DEISA.\n\nThe hosting centres of the planned tier-0 systems will provide the expertise, competency, and the required infrastructure for comprehensive services to meet the challenging demands of excellent users from academia and industry.\n\nPACE will prepare for the implementation of the infrastructure in 2009/2010 by defining and setting up a legal and organisational structure involving HPC centres, national funding agencies, and scientific user communities to ensure adequate funding for the continued operation and periodic renewal of leadership systems, coordinated procurements, efficient use and fair access.\n\nIn parallel PACE will prepare the deployment of Petaflop/s systems in 2009/2010. This includes the procurement of prototype systems for the evaluation of software for managing the distributed infrastructure, the selection, benchmarking, and scaling of libraries and codes from major scientific user communities, the definition of technical requirements and procurement procedures, as well as collaborations with the European IT-industry to influence the development of new technologies and components for architectures that are promising for Petaflop/s systems to be procured after 2010.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-2.3.5. | Award Amount: 35.18M | Year: 2011

PRACE-2IP supports the accelerated implementation of the pan-European HPC Research Infrastructure created in April 2010 as the result of the preparatory phase PRACE project. It complements and extends the work of the PRACE-1IP project that was started in July 2010.\nPRACE-2IP addresses the computational and simulation needs of European scientific communities to keep them at the forefront of discovery. Our vision is the formation of an integrated HPC ecosystem of facilities and services enabling researchers to realise the full potential of computational science within the supportive environment of the European Research Area.\nBuilding on the implementation work of the preceding PRACE and DEISA projects, PRACE-2IP will enable seamless access to HPC systems and services at the Tier-0 and Tier-1 level to users, regardless of their country of work. This provides the means and motivation to undertake ambitious, ground-breaking computational science. In particular, DEISA-like services will be integrated into the ecosystem.\nApplications enabling expertise will support researchers in code development, optimisation and petascaling to help them make effective use of the Tier-0 and Tier-1 systems. Training and dissemination activities will ensure that European scientists have the knowledge and the skills enabling them to take full advantage of the facilities on offer. Through collaboration with technology providers and vendors, novel architectures, systems and technologies will be evaluated to ensure that Europe remains at the forefront of HPC and that the future needs of the research community are understood and met. Targeted research activities will investigate possible solutions to challenges in programmability and scalability of future multi-petaflop systems.\nPRACE-2IP will considerably strengthen and deepen the co-operation between HPC centres, funding bodies and research communities in a mutually beneficial partnership to enhance European scientific competitiveness.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2012-2.3.1. | Award Amount: 26.57M | Year: 2012

PRACE-3IP supports the accelerated implementation of the pan-European HPC Research Infrastructure (RI) created in April 2010. It continues, complements, and extends the work of the PRACE-1IP and -2IP projects.\nPRACE-3IP addresses the computational and simulation needs of European scientific communities and of industry to keep them at the forefront of discovery. Our vision is the formation of an integrated HPC ecosystem of facilities and services enabling researchers to realise the full potential of computational science within the supportive environment of the ERA.\nThe project will undertake a joint pre-commercial procurement (PCP) pilot to obtain a solution for a Whole System Design for Energy Efficient HPC. This pilot is the first of its kind on a Europe-wide level and the lessons learned will be invaluable for PRACE in its future procurement strategy and for Europe as a whole in using PCP as a driver for innovation.\nPRACE-3IP will deliver a broad set of services suitable for use by industry and commerce. The PRACE RI will be open for use by SMEs and large European businesses, offering Tier-0 and Tier-1 access, training, and applications support.\nApplications support and enabling will have a bias towards addressing major socio-economic challenges. New tools will be made available under Open Source. Best practises will be identified, documented and made available to the European HPC community in academia and industry.\nPRACE-3IP will have a broad training and outreach activity designed to engage more user communities, including industry, in the use of HPC. The next generation of students and researchers will be introduced to the benefits of HPC and the technologies and knowledge required applying it successfully in their discipline.\nPRACE-3IP will considerably strengthen and deepen the co-operation between HPC centres, funding bodies and research communities in a mutually beneficial partnership to enhance European scientific and industrial competitiveness.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 27.74M | Year: 2010

Large scale simulations are the third pillar of science today alongside theory and experiment. They produce scientific insights, technological advances, and solve problems in many fields of society. Their tools are high-end computers and effective software. PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing, has been created as a not for profit association in May 2010 as a permanent pan-European High Performance Computing service providing world-class systems for world-class science. Up to six systems at the highest performance level (Tier-0) will be deployed the first one being the already installed BlueGene/P in Germany. Funding for the next three systems has been committed by France, Italy, and Spain. Twenty European states are members of the PRACE Research Infrastructure (RI). Access to the PRACE resources will be through a single peer review process. The Scientific Steering Committee represents the user communities and guides the strategic directions. PRACE works closely with national, regional, and topical centres to shape the European HPC ecosystem.\nThe PRACE-1IP project is designed to support the accelerated implementation of the RI. The project supports the evolution of the RI by refining and extending the administrative, legal and financial framework with focus on the specific requirements of industry. To enable world-class science on novel systems the project assists users in porting, optimising and petascaling applications to the different architectures and deploys consistent services across the RI. The tools and techniques will be selected to have broad applicability across many disciplines. This is accompanied by advanced training in modern programming methods and paradigms, establishing a permanent distributed training infrastructure. The PRACE brand is already well established in the international HPC scene; extensive dissemination and outreach will be continued. The project advises PRACE on procurements of the next generation of systems. Finally, promising technologies, especially with respect to energy efficiency, will be evaluated with the ultimate goal to collaborate with industrial partners to develop products exploiting STRATOS, PRACE advisory group for Strategic Technologies created in the PRACE Preparatory Phase project.

News Article | February 24, 2017

Cortisol is a hormone that indicates stress. Excessive stress can evoke emotional reactions associated with challenges that the individual does not have the capacity to handle. Several international studies have previously found that young children have an increased level of cortisol on their full-day childcare days, while the level when they are at home remains steady or declines. This has led to speculation that childcare settings pose challenges for young children, from being in a large group, managing interactions with other children, to being away from their parents. No studies have examined whether childcare stress has negative effects in the long term. That is simply not known. Researchers at three Norwegian regional centres for child and adolescent mental health - the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's RKBU Central Norway, RBUP East & South and the University of Oslo - have now found that Norwegian toddlers exhibit an increase in the stress hormone cortisol on their childcare days, with lower levels on their days at home. Furthermore, this study found that children with the longest childcare days (8-9 hours) were the ones who showed an increase in cortisol during the day. Children who were in childcare seven hours per day or less showed no increase. For both groups, cortisol was measured around 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. These findings indicate a correlation between the amount of time children spend in childcare and their stress levels. This is important information, since most Norwegian one- and two-year olds spend more than 40 hours per week in childcare. It appears that toddlers who have the longest childcare days must mobilize extra resources to handle childcare challenges and/or the long separation from their parents. These children require great understanding from their caregivers and parents. The researchers stress that the study has several limitations and that the results therefore should be interpreted with caution. The study should be followed up by a larger study with a broader range of participants, to see whether the findings are the same and to have the opportunity to examine any differences between different groups of children. Drugli, MB, Solheim, E, Lydersen, S, Moe, V, Smith, D & Berg-Nielsen, TS (2017). Elevated cortisol levels in Norwegian toddlers in childcare. Early Child Development and Care, e-pub

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 3.58M | Year: 2008

The proposed action builds strongly up on the logics of its predecessor with the same name. The overall objective is to create a pool of specialised wave energy research professionals to support an emerging industry in a field with a very strong anticipated growth and no dedicated existing training curriculum. Although most jobs can be done being a trained engineer in one of the adjacent fields, the existance of interdisciplinary skilled researchers trained in direct connection to the technology development is vital for successful development. In the predecessor, almost all fellows where immediatley absorbed by industrial players in the field or continued research in the host institution. The work plan for WAVETRAIN 2 fellows is specifically directed towards a wide range of challenges that industrial-scale wave energy implementation faces in the present situation, with some bias towards technical issues, from hydrodynamic and PTO (Power-Take-Off) design, to instrumentation issues and energy storage and cost reduction show to be critical for successful deployment. On the other hand, also non-technical barriers, typically less tangible difficulties related to legal issues (licensing, conflicts of use, EIA procedures, grid connection, regional differences) and the non-sufficient representation of socio-economic benefits of the sector, will be dealt with, as they are seen as a major obstacel for fast implementation on a European scale. The methodology to achieve the desired results is to provide (i) in-depth training in one applied research topic (host institution), (ii) good interdisciplinary background and understanding of industry environment (short courses and secondments), and (iii) active participation in wave power plant testing in the sea (some of the profiles; others: site visits). The in-depth training at the host institution will be incorporated in relevant research topics, where typically an advance the state-of-the-art is expected.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 19.05M | Year: 2015

The life sciences are undergoing a transformation. Modern experimental tools study the molecules, reactions, and organisation of life in unprecedented detail. The precipitous drop in costs for high-throughput biology has enabled European research laboratories to produce an ever-increasing amount of data. Life scientists are rapidly generating the most complex and heterogeneous datasets that science can currently imagine, with unprecedented volumes of biological data to manage. Data will only generate long-term value if it is Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (FAIR). This requires a scalable infrastructure that connects local, national and European efforts and provides standards, tools and training for data stewardship. Formally established as a legal entity in January 2014, ELIXIR - the European life science Infrastructure for Biological Information - is a distributed organisation comprising national bioinformatics research infrastructures and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). This coordinated infrastructure includes data standards, exchange, interoperability, storage, security and training. Recognising the importance of a data foundation for European life sciences, the ESFRI and European Council named ELIXIR as one of Europes priority Research Infrastructures. In response ELIXIR have developed ELIXIR-EXCELERATE. The project will fast-track ELIXIRs early implementation phase by i) coordinate and enhance existing resources into a world-leading data service for academia and industry, ii) grow bioinformatics capacity and competence across Europe, and iii) complete the management processes needed for a large distributed infrastructure. ELIXIR-EXCELERATE will deliver a step-change in the life sciences. It will enable cost-effective and sustainable management and re-use of data for millions of users across the globe and improve the competitiveness of European life science industries through accessible data and robust standards and tools.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: EeB.ENV.2012.6.6-2 | Award Amount: 6.79M | Year: 2012

Europe can become the leader in CO2 emission reduction by applying innovative solutions to its built cultural heritage. According to the European Recovery Plan one of the actions that needs to be taken to tackle the current crisis, is investing in energy efficiency. Historic urban buildings consume 4% of all energy and are responsible for 3% of CO2 emissions. Therefore, improving energy efficiency in historic buildings and historic districts is essential. Nevertheless, most of the current developments in energy efficiency address new construction without dealing with the unique problems of historic structures. A number of technologies and products have been developed, however many of the solutions are not acceptable for historic structures due to the necessity of preserving integrity and authenticity. Therefore, the main goal of EFFESUS is to develop and demonstrate, through case studies a methodology for assessing and selecting energy efficiency interventions, based on existing and new technologies that are compatible with heritage values. A Decision Support System will be a primary deliverable. The environment in historic buildings and urban districts is controlled differently from modern cities and accordingly the project will also develop a multi-scale data model for the management of energy. In addition, new non-invasive, reversible yet cost-effective technologies for significantly improving thermal properties will also be developed. Finally, existing regulations and building policies may not fit cultural heritage specificities so the EFFESUS project will also address these non-technical barriers. These outcomes will be achieved through 10 work packages, performed by an interdisciplinary consortium of 23 partners from 13 countries. Due to the attractiveness of this niche market, 36 % of the project budget is allocated to SMEs, which will work together with large companies, research institutions and end users throughout the duration of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-RIA | Phase: ECSEL-01-2014 | Award Amount: 17.29M | Year: 2015

Nowadays, the major part of offshore operations is done by divers in dangerous missions. Since their number is limited, the dependency on their work represents a real threat to the offshore industry. The extended use of unmanned underwater vehicles (AUVs/ROVs) could solve this problem but since they are usually tailor-made for a specific task and difficult to operate their deployment is very expensive. The overall goal of the SWARMs project is to expand the use of AUVs/ROVs and facilitate the creation, planning and execution of maritime and offshore operations. This will reduce the operational cost and increase the safety of tasks assigned to divers. The SWARMs project aims to make AUVs/ROVs accessible to more users by: Enabling AUVs/ROVs to work in a cooperative mesh thus opening up new applications and ensuring re-usability as no specialized vehicles are needed but heterogeneous standard vehicles can combine their capabilities, Increasing the autonomy of AUVs and improving the usability of ROVs The approach is to design and develop an integrated platform (a set of Software/Hardware components), incorporated into the current generation of underwater vehicles in order to improve autonomy, cooperation, robustness, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of the offshore operations. SWARMs achievements will be demonstrated in two field tests in different scenarios: Inspection, maintenance and repair of offshore infrastructure Pollution monitoring Offshore construction operations SWARMs is an industry-led project: big technology companies will collaborate with SMEs specialized in the subsea, robotics and communication sectors and universities and research institutions to ensure that the newest innovations in subsea robotics will arrive fast to market. As voice of the customer, two end-users are also part of the consortium.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2008-1 | Award Amount: 58.30M | Year: 2009

The embedded safety-critical systems design and development industry is facing increasing complexity and variety of systems and devices, coupled with increasing regulatory constraints while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently, addressing only a part of the complexity issue, such as safety. The absence of internationally recognized open standards is a limiting factor in terms of industrial performance when com-panies have to select among these enablers. CESAR will bring significant and conclusive innovations in the two most improvable systems engineering disciplines: - Requirements engineering in particular through formalization of multi viewpoint and multi criteria requirements, - Component based engineering applied to design space exploration comprising multi-view/multi-criteria architecture trade-offs. In addition CESAR intends to provide industrial companies with a breakthrough in system development by deploying a customizable systems engineering Reference Technology Plat-form (RTP) making it possible to integrate or interoperate existing or emerging available technologies. This will be a significant step forward in terms of industrial performance im-provement that will help to establish de-facto standards and contribute to the standardization effort from a European perspective. Relying on industrial use-cases and scenarios, CESAR is strongly industry driven. It will ad-dress societal safety, mobility and environmental demands from a multi-domain point of view, relying on high maturity inputs (TRL 4) and target high maturity outputs (TRL 6). Quantified objectives are defined in the proposal regarding integration aspects (RTP), processes and product- related aspects.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.2.2. | Award Amount: 5.89M | Year: 2011

The ESPAS project will provide the e-Infrastructure necessary to support the access to observations, the modeling and prediction of the Near-Earth Space environment. This includes the plasma and energetic particle environments that surround our planet as well as the neutral atmosphere at altitudes above 60 km. These environments are an important target for future research in areas such as space weather and Sun-climate studies. The ESPAS interface will provide access to a diverse set of databases that have been developed for the needs of different users. Thus a primary goal is to facilitate user access to heterogeneous data from multiple providers, ranging from ground-based observations acquired with multiple instruments and techniques, to data from satellite experiments, using a mixture of in-situ and remotely sensed techniques. The results of searches will be delivered in a scientist-friendly manner based on existing standards and protocols. The infrastructure will also be used as a test-bed for development of methodologies and standards for validation of models of the near-Earth environment. This will lead to validated predictions of conditions in that environment, and thus promote the transfer of space environment science products into commercial and operational applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2011-7 | Award Amount: 6.70M | Year: 2012

The main objective of project e-GOTHAM is to implement a new aggregated energy demand model (based on the microgrid concept) in order to effectively integrate renewable energies sources, increase management efficiency by dynamically matching demand and supply, reduce carbon emissions by giving priority to green energy sources, raise energy consumption awareness by monitoring products and services and stimulate the development of a leading-edge market for energy-efficient technologies with new business models. e-GOTHAM will define a complete solution for microgrids in the residential, tertiary and industrial sectors that include different configurations of loads, distributed generators and energy storage components. To carry out the e-GOTHAM concept, the project will design an open architecture and develop a middleware that enables the needed communications for management and results optimisation. The challenge of the middleware produced in e-GOTHAM is to assemble a system which can ensure enough scalability, security, reliability, real time measurements and interoperability so as to lead to the development of a large-scale embedded systems network, a smart data management model, a set of models and algorithms that dynamically correlate energy-related, pollution-related, cost-related and behaviour-related patterns and a just-in-time adaptive communication model that interoperates different protocols to support seamless connectivity across the microgrid. e-GOTHAM is a market-oriented project that seeks to meet the needs of the involved market partners, especially power producers and microgrid owners, and to have an influence on consumers and on the authorities who define regulations. Finally, e-GOTHAM aims at creating an ecosystem meant to attract those relevant stakeholders who are willing to elaborate on project results so as to generate new products and services and to support the looked-for new aggregated energy demand model even beyond the project lifetime. This TA was approved by the ECSEL Joint Undertaking on 22/04/2015.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.23 | Award Amount: 11.05M | Year: 2011

Offshore Renewable Conversion systems are mostly at the pre-commercial stage of development. They comprise wave energy and tidal stream converters as well as offshore wind turbines for electrical generation. These devices require research to be undertaken at a series of scales along the path to commercialization. Each technology type is currently at a different stage of development but each one also needs specific research infrastructures to facilitate and catalyze commercialization. The aim of this project is to coordinate research and development at all scales (small models through to prototype scales from Laboratory through to Open Sea tests) and to allow access for researchers and developers into facilities which are not available universally in Europe. The linking together of facilities at different scales together with the incorporation of test facilities for components such as power take-off systems, grid integration, moorings, environmental tests will ensure a focusing of activities in this area. MaRINET brings together an Infrastructure with 42 Facilities from 28 Partners spread across 11 EU countries and 1 ICPC, Brazil. It also brings together a network of expertise in the Offshore Marine Renewable Energy sector with experience at all scales of offshore technology research and development. MaRINET offers over 600 weeks of access to 300 projects and 800 external users. The majority (77%) of the MaRINET budget has been targeted in the areas most prioritized in the EC Call such as networking, training, dissemination and transnational access.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: NMP-2008-3.2-3 | Award Amount: 2.86M | Year: 2009

IMS2020 aims at strengthening international co-operation and supporting global European-centric research under the IMS initiative, providing an effective interface to ongoing European roadmapping activities (such as European Technology Platform, etc.) and creating research synergies at international level through establishment of inter-regional manufacturing communities in the five Key Areas of Activity of IMS. Thanks to the coordination action the following IMS2020 Objectives will be achieved: 1. To prepare a coherent roadmap for future (2020) manufacturing research in the five IMS Key Areas 2. To identify new schemes & frameworks to support IMS research by enhancing and favouring inter-regional cooperation projects 3. To identify specific SME-focused measures to increase SMEs participation in international R&D co-operative projects, within IMS initiative 4. To establish and consolidate international and inter-regional communities in the Key Areas of Activity of IMS, with effective exchange of results and knowledge 5. To prepare the ground for new IMS proposals, both paving the way for the legislation and creating a knowledge network, to discuss and inform about manufacturing projects The first objective will be achieved by mid of 2009, delivering the roadmap, structured into specific sections that address individually the five IMS Key Areas and addressing specific IMS level research topics. The IMS2020 Consortium combines together industries, industrial associations, research centres and universities coming from all IMS Regions (EU, Switzerland, USA, Korea, Japan). The IMS2020 project will benefit from the heritage of the successful initiative IMS NoE, coordinated by Politecnico di Milano.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.2.9.1 | Award Amount: 12.76M | Year: 2010

MARINA is a European project dedicated to bringing offshore renewable energy applications closer to the market by creating new infrastructures for both offshore wind and ocean energy converters. It addresses the need for creating a cost-efficient technology development basis to kick-start growth of the nascent European marine renewable energy (MRE) industry in the deep offshore a major future global market. The project combines deep-water engineering experience from European oil & gas developments during the last 40 years, state-of-the-art concepts for offshore wind energy, and the most promising concepts in todays R&D pipeline on wave energy and other marine renewables. The MARINA project is designed to capitalise on the vast body of proven marine technological knowledge gained in one of the worlds most hostile off-shore operating environments: the Northern European seas. MARINA will bolt this practical technology skill set onto the research base of the emerging but still marginal EU MRE industry and ensure its continued world-leading role. The MARINA project is therefore of major strategic significance for Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2011.4.0-1 | Award Amount: 17.87M | Year: 2012

The ExoMet proposal revolves around innovative liquid metal engineering and the application of external physical fields, in order to significantly influence the microstructures and properties of light alloys, such as aluminium and magnesium. Three types of external fields will be explored, namely: electromagnetic, ultrasonic and intensive mechanical shearing. To meet the future EU challenges of lightweighting and pollution reduction, especially relevant in transportation, it is necessary to improve the castability of light alloys, to enhance grain and eutectic refinement in monolithic alloys, and to develop new high-strength nanocomposites using nano-reinforcers which have only recently become available. Significant mechanical property improvements are foreseen in ExoMet - including 50% increases in tensile strength and ductility, as well as creep resistance up to 300-350 degC (currently limited to about 200 degC in Al and Mg alloys). This applies to both shape castings and wrought products like extruded profiles, bar, cable, sheet and plate. Manufacturing scale-up will be tackled in ExoMet, using a variety of techniques such as low and high-pressure die casting, sand casting, investment casting, differential-presssure casting, twin-roll casting, ultrasound-assisted casting and twin-shear casting. The application of external fields to these industrial techniques is novel and would bring about major savings in energy, scrap and processing cost. Having developed the field-enabled processes and produced high-quality light alloys and nanocomposites, the next stage of ExoMet will be prototypying and the assessment of industrial applications in four selected commercial sectors: (i) automotive powertrain and chassis, (ii) aircraft and aero-engine structures, (iii) space satellite and rockets, and (iv) high-strength high-conductivity Al electrical cabling. Computer modelling, rig-testing, standardisation, life-cycle analysis and patenting will also be undertaken.

Trinity researchers at the AMBER centre, the Science Foundation Ireland funded materials science centre, will lead an international project worth over €4.4 million under the European-funded "Future and Emerging Technologies - Open" (FET Open) programme. They are the first group in Ireland ever to coordinate such a project, from the most competitive science funding programme in the EU. FET Open funds visionary research and innovation for radically new future technologies, at an early stage, when there are few researchers working in a field. The success rate for this call was 4%.* Trinity's share of the 4.4m euro budget is 1.7m euro. The funding has been awarded to the TRANSPIRE project, which is led by Professor Plamen Stamenov, an Investigator in AMBER and Trinity's School of Physics, working with Drs Karsten Rode, Thomas Archer and Professors Michael Coey and Stefano Sanvito (all from the School of Physics), and collaborators in Germany, Norway and Switzerland. TRANSPIRE (Terahertz RAdio communication using high aNistropy SPIn torque REsonators), which came about from an initial collaboration between Trinity and the Materials Research Institute at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in Germany, will develop a new class of magnetic materials that could enable new, on-chip and chip-to-chip data links at least 100 times, possibly 1000 times faster than current technology. Personal and substance security screening, medical spectrometry and imaging, geophysical and atmospheric research and the Internet of Things will all benefit from ultra-fast data transfer. Professor Plamen Stamenov, Investigator in AMBER and Trinity's School of Physics, said, "We are, of course, delighted to win this award. It is a recognition of the work we have done on the fundamental physics of highly spin-polarised materials over the last 5-10 years, but also of the quality and expertise of our collaborators in Germany, Norway and Switzerland. I trust that this project will be valued by the scientific community and hope that we will be laying the foundations for high-speed data networks of the future. TRANSPIRE aims to develop a new class of magnetic materials which should enable new and exciting terahertz, that is 1000 gigahertz, technologies. As the different forms of radio communication and navigation e.g. AM and FM radio, digital TV, microwave devices, mobile phones, GPS and wireless networks, all fight for space in the heavily-regulated frequency bands, the changes in their capacity is relatively slow and incremental. With the huge increase in the demand for high-speed data transmission, these radio bands are experiencing intense pressure. The terahertz bands offer new opportunities and some unchartered 'territory', but are rather difficult to work at. In this range, to date, no magnetic materials and correspondingly devices have been developed. Our ambition within TRANSPIRE is to start the development of a low-cost, compact and reliable, room-temperature terahertz technology which could underpin the next wave of the Big Data revolution." Professor Michael Morris, Director of AMBER, said, "I congratulate Prof Stamenov and his team. This places AMBER researchers amongst the best in Europe. FET Open will only fund scientists that have the capability of conducting research that goes beyond what is currently known or even imagined and we look forward to the developments with this project". Professor Mark Ferguson, Director General of Science Foundation Ireland and Chief Scientific Adviser to the Government of Ireland, said, "This is a recognition of truly excellent science by Professor Stamenov and the team at AMBER. The Science Foundation Ireland Research Centres have ambitious targets of securing non-exchequer funding and AMBER has been very successful in reaching its targets to date." * 22 proposals were funded out of a total of 544 submissions, http://ec. Since FET-Open is totally non-prescriptive, it attracts many more applicants than other programmes and the AMBER team were competing with internationally-leading scientists at the highest level across a broad range of disciplines, not just in their own area of interest. Proposals must pass a rigorous evaluation process which assesses the long-term vision of the project and, whether it identifies a clear scientific breakthrough, explores unknown territory with potential high risk but also high gain, and is novel and interdisciplinary. The other partners in the consortium are Drs Alina Deac, Michael Gensch, Ciarán Fowley and Sergey Kovalev from the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research Institute at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in Germany, Prof Arne Brataas from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology at Trondheim (NTNU) and Dr Emile de Rijk from SWISSto12, a spinoff from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. Trinity's share of the €4.4 million budget is €1.7M. TRANSPIRE aims to empower innovative small enterprises and major companies to assess the viability of spintronic terahertz technology to shape future devices and processes that will sustain the big data revolution for another generation. The project relies on coordinated interdisciplinary research in physics, chemistry, materials science, terahertz design and device engineering to ensure the success of a high-risk endeavour, which can change the nature of everyday electronic technology. AMBER (Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research) is a Science Foundation Ireland funded centre which provides a partnership between leading researchers in materials science and industry to develop new materials and devices for a range of sectors, particularly the ICT, medical devices and industrial technology sectors. The centre is hosted in Trinity College Dublin, working in collaboration with CRANN (Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices), the Trinity Centre for Bioengineering and with University College Cork and the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland.

News Article | November 2, 2016

A new study published today in Scientific Reports by University of Delaware researchers and colleagues reveals that 100 feet below the surface of the ocean is a critical depth for ecological activity in the Arctic polar night -- a period of near continuous winter darkness. It is at this depth, the researchers said, that atmospheric light diminishes in the water column and bioluminescence from marine organisms becomes the dominant light source. It also is the site of significant changes in the composition of luminescent organisms present in the water column. "It turns out that approximately 100 feet in depth is an important transition zone," said Jonathan Cohen, a UD assistant professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment and co-author on the paper. The research team has been studying how much biological activity takes place in the Arctic polar night since 2012, when UD's Mark Moline, director of the School of Marine Science and Policy and colleagues in Norway and Scotland began exploring how sea life copes with continuous winter darkness in Svalbard, Norway. Prevailing scientific thought until then was that the food web remained dormant during the polar night. The researchers said that bioluminescence can help explain how some organisms feed and maintain activity during the polar night period and how light can still be involved in ecological processes even during a time of darkness. One interesting finding in the current study is that as depth increased, the amount of bioluminescence in the water column increased and the zooplankton community composition changed. "As you go deeper into the water, we saw fewer dinoflagellates and more copepods, krill and ctenophores, which give off brighter bioluminescent light," said Cohen, who joined the research team in 2013. This community change is not associated with any physical conditions of the water, the researchers said. Rather, it correlates to what the researchers term "bioluminescence compensation depth," the transition point at which atmospheric light diminishes in the water column and bioluminescence takes over. "This points to the functionality of bioluminescence structuring the vertical distribution through behavior possibly independent of migration," said Moline. This is an important finding as the Barents Sea south of Svalbard, Norway, is home to a large and globally important fishery. Fishermen in the region are tremendously interested in understanding how changes in zooplankton -- like copepods -- and zooplankton availability will affect commercially important fish species like cod and herring. The researchers knew from other studies that the distribution of zooplankton and krill in the water column increased at around 100 feet. "When the sky gets brighter at midday during the polar night period there is more atmospheric light available underwater for predation than at night, so marine organisms like copepods retreat lower into the water column where it is darker. We wanted to know how this light interacted with bioluminescence to influence life in the water column," Cohen said. The researchers first attacked this issue by taking atmospheric light measurements in 2014 and 2015, while also measuring bioluminescence in the water. This led to a more detailed study in 2015 of which planktonic species produced light. Finally, they put it all together to think about how bioluminescence can be a light source during the polar night. Then UD graduate student Heather Cronin, working with Cohen and Moline, created what is called a photon budget, or light budget, to measure how much light comes from the atmosphere and how much light comes from inside the water itself with organisms glowing through bioluminescence. To quantify the amount of bioluminescence and to identify what marine organisms were present, the researchers used a pumping system in the water column to drive the organisms into a specialized device equipped with a sensitive light meter. As the organisms entered the device, turbulence created by the pump stimulated the animals to luminesce or glow. Using luminescence kinetics, or the time course of light production and dissipation, the researchers measured how the light intensity inside the pump changed with time in order to identify the marine species present. "Luminescent marine organisms each have a unique light signature. By looking at the time series light generated by a flash within the instrument, we were able to determine who was there making the flash," Cohen explained. "It's a useful tool, particularly at this time of year when relatively few species are present." Bioluminescence is known to play a critical role in helping marine organisms avoid predators and even hide themselves in plain site. At the same time, Cohen continued, it appears that krill and potentially fish are using the additional bioluminescent light from the copepods to find food. "We know from analysis of gut contents that fish and seabirds are active and feeding in Svalbard fjords during polar night," Cohen explained. "Our research suggests that bioluminescent light may be one of the ways that they find food in the dark." One looming concern under climate change scenarios is the loss of sea ice. According to Cohen, scientists are just beginning to appreciate that climate change will change the light environment, which will impact the timing of the ice algae and phytoplankton blooms that spur the spring growing season, maybe even causing it to occur earlier in the year. In the Arctic, for example, sea ice is part of what makes the water column dark. So, if the depth at which atmospheric light transitions to bioluminescent light is important in structuring the zooplankton community and the ecological interactions among organisms, then understanding how much atmospheric light will be present in the water column with less sea ice is significant for understanding food web dynamics. The novelty in the team's work is the focus on putting numbers and data to the processes that occur directly before the spring cycle begins. The next step is to make similar measurements further away from Svalbard to validate their findings in the open ocean. "Being able to measure this transition depth gives us something to look at across seasons and across years that could have important implications for food web impacts in a rapidly changing Arctic," Cohen said. Co-authors on the paper include Heather Cronin (the paper's lead author and former UD masters student), Jonathan Cohen, Jørgen Berge (UiT The Arctic University of Norway and University Centre in Svalbard), Geir Johnsen (University Centre in Svalbard and Norwegian University of Science and Technology) and Mark Moline, director of the School of Marine Science and Policy at University of Delaware.

Andersen J.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Naylor W.R.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Tranberg A.,University of Stavanger
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We use the Polyakov loop coupled quark-meson model to approximate low energy QCD and present results for the chiral and deconfinement transitions in the presence of a constant magnetic background B at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential μB. We investigate effects of various gluonic potentials on the deconfinement transition with and without a fermionic backreaction at finite B. Additionally we investigate the effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition, finding that magnetic catalysis at low μB is present, but weakened by the Polyakov loop. © The Authors.

Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Little is known about the effect of performing common resistance exercises standing compared to seated and unilaterally compared to bilaterally on muscle activation of the core. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the superficial core muscles (i.e. rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae) between seated, standing, bilateral and unilateral dumbbell shoulder presses. 15 healthy males performed five repetitions at 80% of onerepetition maximum of the exercises in randomized order. Results were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test. The position × exercise interaction was significantly different for rectus abdominis (P = 0.016), but not for external oblique (P = 0.100) and erector spinae (P = 0.151). The following EMG results were observed: For rectus abdominis: ∼49% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), similar in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.408), ∼81% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼59% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001); For external oblique: ∼81% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P<0.001), ∼68% lower in standing bilateral than unilateral (P<0.001),∼58% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P<0.001), ∼28% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P = 0.002); For erector spinae: similar in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.737), ∼18% lower in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.001), similar in seated versus standing bilateral (P = 0.480) and unilateral (P = 0.690). In conclusion, to enhance neuromuscular activation of the superficial core muscles, standing exercises should be used instead of seated exercises, and unilateral exercises should be used instead of bilateral exercises. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Dahl T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Olsen E.,University of Stavanger
Safety Science | Year: 2013

Accident analyses and investigations regularly identify a lack of compliance with rules and procedures as a central contributing factor to workplace accidents. This underlines the importance of identifying the organizational factors that affect the level of safety compliant behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine how workers' perception of leadership involvement in daily work operations affects the level of safety compliant behavior among workers employed on offshore platforms operating on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The effect that leadership involvement exerts on safety compliance was measured both directly and indirectly through the intervening variable work climate. Using survey data from six different measure periods (N=10003), exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified three dimensions of work climate; (1) workers' competence and involvement, (2) role clarity and (3) follow-up of contractors. The following SEM analyses revealed that leadership involvement in daily work operations has a significant positive influence on the level of safety compliance on offshore platforms. The effect of leadership involvement was found to be both direct and indirect, mediated by the three work climate dimensions selected for this study. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Saeterbakken A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

Saeterbakken, AH and Finland, MS. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 130-136, 2013-The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (27%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (219%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (224%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Ehlers S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Tabri K.,Tallinn University of Technology
Marine Structures | Year: 2012

Ship collisions are increasingly simulated with numerical methods predicting the structural damage, respectively the ships' safety, in such accidental event. The latest analyses techniques can take the non-linear structural behaviour and the motions of the colliding vessels into account, however using time-consuming numerical models. Hence, a single dynamic collision can be analysed with a fair degree of accuracy, but at high computational cost. Therefore, this article presents a combined numerical and analytical procedure to assess ship collision damage with significantly lower computational cost. Numerical quasi-static collision simulations estimate the non-linear structural behaviour for a given vessel colliding at selected vertical locations. This provides the force versus penetration curves, which thus depends on the structural arrangement at the striking location. Hence, the semi-analytical collision analysis is calibrated based on these structural resistance curves in order to estimate the change in available energy for structural deformation considering different longitudinal striking locations and angles. As a result, the collision damage, respectively penetration depth and length, can be estimated for vessels of different dimensions and mass ratio's subjected to various collision situations if the presented procedure is applied. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Saeterbakken A.H.,Sogn og Fjordane University College | Fimland M.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of the study was to compare 6-repetition maximum (6RM) loads and muscle activity in bench press on 3 surfaces, namely, stable bench, balance cushion, and Swiss ball. Sixteen healthy, resistance-trained men (age 22.5 ± 2.0 years, stature 1.82 ± 6.6 m, and body mass 82.0 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for × habituation/strength testing sessions and 1 experimental session. In randomized order on the 3 surfaces, 6RM strength and electromyographic activity of pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus abdominis, oblique external and erector spinae were assessed. Relative to stable bench, the 6RM strength was approximately 93% for balance cushion (p ≤ 0.001) and approximately 92% for Swiss ball (p = 0.008); the pectoralis major electromyographic (EMG) activity was approximately 90% using the balance cushion (p = 0.080) and approximately 81% using Swiss ball (p = 0.006); the triceps EMGwas approximately79%using the balance cushion (p = 0.028) and approximately 69% using the Swiss ball (p = 0.002). Relative to balance cushion, the EMG activity in pectoralis, triceps, and erector spinae using Swiss ball was approximately 89% (p = 0.016), approximately 88% (p = 0.014) and approximately 80% (p = 0.020), respectively. In rectus abdominis, the EMG activity relative to Swiss ball was approximately 69% using stable bench (p = 0.042) and approximately 65% using the balance cushion (p=0.046). SimilarEMGactivities betweenstable and unstable surfaces were observed for deltoid anterior, biceps brachii, and oblique external. In conclusion, stable bench press had greater 6RMstrength and triceps and pectoralisEMGactivity compared with the unstable surfaces. These findings have implications for athletic training and rehabilitation, because they demonstrate an inferior effect of unstable surfaces on muscle activation of prime movers and strength in bench press. If an unstable surface in bench press is desirable, a balance cushion should be chosen instead of a Swiss ball. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Vatn J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Aven T.,University of Stavanger
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2010

The starting point for this paper is a traditional approach to maintenance optimization where an object function is used for optimizing maintenance intervals. The object function reflects maintenance cost, cost of loss of production/services, as well as safety costs, and is based on a classical cost-benefit analysis approach where a value of prevented fatality (VPF) is used to weight the importance of safety. However, the rationale for such an approach could be questioned. What is the meaning of such a VPF figure, and is it sufficient to reflect the importance of safety by calculating the expected fatality loss VPF and potential loss of lives (PLL) as being done in the cost-benefit analyses? Should the VPF be the same number for all type of accidents, or should it be increased in case of multiple fatality accidents to reflect gross accident aversion? In this paper, these issues are discussed. We conclude that we have to see beyond the expected values in situations with high safety impacts. A framework is presented which opens up for a broader decision basis, covering considerations on the potential for gross accidents, the type of uncertainties and lack of knowledge of important risk influencing factors. Decisions with a high safety impact are moved from the maintenance department to the "Safety Board" for a broader discussion. In this way, we avoid that the object function is used in a mechanical way to optimize the maintenance and important safety-related decisions are made implicit and outside the normal arena for safety decisions, e.g. outside the traditional "Safety Board". A case study from the Norwegian railways is used to illustrate the discussions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Reed T.E.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Grtoan V.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Jenouvrier S.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Jenouvrier S.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2013

Broad-scale environmental changes are altering patterns of natural selection in the wild, but few empirical studies have quantified the demographic cost of sustained directional selection in response to these changes. We tested whether population growth in a wild bird is negatively affected by climate change-induced phenological mismatch, using almost four decades of individual-level life-history data from a great tit population. In this population, warmer springs have generated a mismatch between the annual breeding time and the seasonal food peak, intensifying directional selection for earlier laying dates. Interannual variation in population mismatch has not, however, affected population growth. We demonstrated a mechanism contributing to this uncoupling, whereby fitness losses associated with mismatch are counteracted by fitness gains due to relaxed competition. These findings imply that natural populations may be able to tolerate considerable maladaptation driven by shifting climatic conditions without undergoing immediate declines.

Zhuang X.,Tongji University | Zhuang X.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Augarde C.E.,Durham University | Mathisen K.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2012

In 3D fracture modeling, the complexity of the evolving crack geometry during propagation raises challenges in stress analysis because the accuracy of results mainly relies on the accurate description of the crack geometry. In this paper, a numerical framework is developed for 3D fracture modeling where a meshless method, the element-free Galerkin method, is used for stress analysis and level sets are used accurately to describe and capture crack evolution. In this framework, a simple and general formulation for associating the displacement jump in the field approximation with an arbitrary 3D curved crack surface is proposed. For accurate closure of the crack front, a tying procedure is extended to 3D from its original use in 2D in the previous paper by the authors. The benefits of level sets in improving the results accuracy and reducing the computational cost are explored, particularly in the model refinement and the confinement of the displacement jump. Issues arising in level sets updating are discussed and solutions proposed accordingly. The developed framework is validated with a number of 3D crack examples with reference solutions and shows strong potential for general 3D fracture modeling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Torkildsen E.A.,University of Stavanger | Salvesen K.A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Eggebao T.M.,University of Stavanger
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Objective To investigate if fetal head-perineum distance and angle of progression measured with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transperineal ultrasound could predict outcome of labor in primiparous women with prolonged first stage of labor. Methods This was a prospective observational study of 110 primiparous women with singleton cephalic presentation at term diagnosed with prolonged first stage of labor. Digital assessment of fetal station was related to the ischial spine. Fetal head descent was measured with transperineal ultrasound as the shortest distance from the fetal head to the perineum, and the angle between the pubic symphysis and the fetal head. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed and 2D and 3D data acquisitions were compared. The stored 3D volumes were assessed by an examiner blinded to all other data. Vaginal delivery vs. Cesarean section was the primary outcome. Results Cesarean section was performed in 25% of the women. Areas under the ROC curves for prediction of vaginal delivery were 81% (95% confidence interval (CI), 71-91%) (P < 0.01) and 76% (95% CI, 66-87%) (P < 0.01) for fetal head-perineum distance and angle of progression, respectively, as measured by 2D ultrasound and 66% (95% CI, 54-79%) for digital assessment of fetal station (P = 0.01). In 50% of women fetal head-perineum distance was ≤ 40 mm and 93% (95% CI, 83-97%) of them delivered vaginally vs. 18% (95% CI, 5-48%) with distance > 50 mm. In 48% of women the angle of progression was ≥ 110° and 87% (95% CI, 75-93%) of them delivered vaginally vs. 38% (95% CI, 21-57%) with angle < 100°. Results from 2D and 3D acquisitions were similar. Conclusion Fetal head-perineum distance and angle of progression measured with 2D or 3D ultrasound can predict labor outcome, with similar predictive values for the two techniques. © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.5&6.2-1 | Award Amount: 13.56M | Year: 2012

OCTAVIUS aims to demonstrate integrated concepts for zero emission power plants covering all the components needed for power generation as well as CO2 capture and compression. Operability and flexibility of first generation post combustion processes are demonstrated by TNO, EnBW and ENEL pilot plants in order to prepare full scale demo projects such as the ROAD and Porto Tolle projects that will start in 2015. OCTAVIUS will establish detailed guidelines with relevant data on emissions, HSE, and other operability, flexibility and cost aspects. In addition, OCTAVIUS includes the demonstration of the DMX process on the ENEL pilot plant in Brindisi. This second generation capture process can enable a substantial reduction of the energy penalty and operational cost. The demonstration is an essential step before the first full scale demonstration envisaged to be launched at the end of OCTAVIUS. Application to coal power stations but also NGCC will be considered. OCTAVIUS builds forward on previous FP6 and FP7 CCS projects such as CASTOR and CESAR. The main coordinating research institutes and industrial partners of these projects also take part in OCTAVIUS. Results of the clean coal research are provided by end-users, engineering companies and technology vendors partnering in OCTAVIUS. Each of the demo sub-projects (SP2 and SP3) is led by a power company. The demo sub-projects are supported by work packages in SP1 dealing with RTD support activities and common issues. Two work packages in SP0 are dedicated to management and dissemination actions respectively. The latter work package includes contacting stakeholders outside OCTAVIUS. OCTAVIUS gathers the leading organisations within the field of CCS and clean coal, covering the whole value chain from research institutes to end-users. The consortium consists of 5 research organisations, 2 universities, 1 SME, 1 engineering company, 2 equipment suppliers, and 6 power generators.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.71M | Year: 2009

The scope of the present consortium is to provide technology and training for the integration of ultrasound and biophotonics based imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to define the specs of an Integrated Interventional Imaging Operating System (III OS) aimed at minimal invasive treatment of common life-threatening disorders, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease and structural heart defects. Effective therapy of these conditions will require a range of safe surgical and interventional devices used with the necessary visualization and tracking under real-time image guidance. The consortium includes a critical mass of industrial and university research institute partners with high expertise in design, development, and manufacture of these devices and instruments. To ensure medical the safety and economical usability of the system and to allow an optimal integration into the future hospital workflow, 6 university hospitals will contribute their clinical and administrative expertise to the consortium in the fields of Interventional Radiology/Cardiology, Anaesthesia, Oncology, General and Cardiovascular Surgery and preclinical Image guided procedures. The consortium of the IIIOS research and training process includes two Biomedical Technology Societies: DGBMT and SMIT&MEDIS Foundation in Rumania providing expert networking and conference organization. The is involved in the consortium and will play a key role in the exchange of knowledge and expertise to the new member states of the EU through hosting conferences such SMIT 2009 in Sinaia (

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2010

Although there is no certainty regarding the precise nature and rate of future climate change, even the most moderate scenarios predict a continuing change of the marine environment, with associated major environmental and social impacts. To prepare society for the necessary mitigation and adaptation measures, the awareness of citizens to research results, both certainties and uncertainties, in this specific area should be raised. During the last years, much new information has been gathered in large EU-funded research, but to date this information has not been synthesized nor has it become an important part of public knowledge. The aim of this proposal is to make a synthesis of EU research results on the impacts of climate change on the marine environment and to make this knowledge and its socio-economic consequences better known to European citizens and society at large. Together with expert representatives of major Networks of Excellence, large EU projects and research networks, we will produce a state-of-the-art overview of European research results on the effects of climate change on marine environment. An up-to-date overview of public knowledge and perception on the effects of climate change on marine environments and their socio-economic consequences will be produced by means of polls and questionnaires. The results will be used to identify the main issues to be addressed and the best practices to be used during the outreach activities. Enhancement of public knowledge on climate change impacts on the marine environment, including the socio-economic consequences, will be achieved by means of challenging and innovative tools such as an interactive Pan-European conference at the end of 2010 and a high-quality internet-based portal within an e-learning platform. These outreach activities will build upon recent experience as has been gathered within EU-funded research to communicate with European citizens on impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 7.23M | Year: 2011

Experimentally-driven research is key to success in exploring the possible futures of the Internet. An open, general-purpose, shared experimental facility, both large-scale and sustainable, is essential for European industry and academia to innovate today and assess the performance of their solutions. OpenLab brings together the essential ingredients for such a facility. We extend early prototypes of testbeds, middleware, and measurement tools so as to provide more efficient and flexible support for a diverse set of experimental applications and protocols. The prototypes include a set of demonstrably successful testbeds: PlanetLab Europe, with its 153 partner/user institutions across Europe; the NITOS and w-iLab.t wireless testbeds; two IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) telco testbeds for exploring merged media distribution; a green networking testbed; the ETOMIC high precision network measurement testbed; and the HEN emulation testbed. Associated with these testbeds are similarly successful control- and experimental-plane software. OpenLab advances these prototypes with key enhancements in the areas of mobility, wireless, monitoring, domain interconnections, and the integration of new technologies such as OpenFlow. These enhancements will be transparent to existing users of each testbed, while opening up a diversity of new experiments that users can perform, extending from wired and wireless media distribution to distributed and autonomous management of new social interactions and localized services, going far beyond what can be tested on the current Internet. OpenLab results will advance the goal of a unified Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE) facility. In addition, OpenLab can provide models for the Future Internet Public Private Partnership (FI-PPP). Finally, OpenLab will issue open calls to users in industry and academia to submit proposals for innovative experiments using the OpenLabs technologies and testbeds, and will devote one million euros to funding the best of these proposals.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-28-2015 | Award Amount: 4.92M | Year: 2016

The recent global burden of disease study showed that low back pain (LBP) is the most significant contributor to disability in Europe. Most patients seen in primary care with LBP have non-specific LBP (85%), i.e., pain that cannot reliably be attributed to a specific disease/pathology. LBP is the fourth most common diagnosis seen in primary care (after upper respiratory infection, hypertension, and coughing). Self-management in the form of physical activity and strength/stretching exercises constitutes the core component in the management of non-specific LBP; however, adherence to self-management challenging due to lack of feedback and reinforcement. This project aims to develop a decision support system - SELFBACK - that will be used by the patient him/herself to facilitate, improve and reinforce self-management of LBP. Specifically, SELFBACK will be designed to assist the patient in deciding and reinforcing the appropriate actions to manage own LBP after consulting a health care professional in primary care. The decision support will be conveyed to the patient via a smartphone app in the form of advice for self-management. The advice will be tailored to each patient based on the symptom state, symptom progression, the patients goal-setting, and a range of patient characteristics including information from a physical activity-detecting wristband worn by the patient. The second part of the project will evaluate the effectiveness of SELFBACK in a randomized controlled trial using pain-related disability as primary outcome. We envisage that patients who use SELFBACK will have 20% reduction in pain-related disability at 9 months follow-up compared to patients receiving treatment as usual. Process evaluation will be carried out as an integrated part of the trial to document the implementation and map the patients satisfaction with SELFBACK. A business plan with a targeted commercialisation strategy will be developed to transfer the SELFBACK technology into the market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.59M | Year: 2012

Sustainable governance of our biological resources requires reliable scientific knowledge that meets the needs of society. Current biodiversity observation systems and environmental datasets are unbalanced in coverage and not integrated, limiting integrative analyses and implementation of environmental policies. EU BON presents an innovative approach towards integration of biodiversity information systems from on-ground to remote sensing data, for addressing policy and information needs in a timely and customized manner. EU BON will provide integration between social networks of science and policy and technological networks of interoperating IT infrastructures, resulting in a new open-access platform for sharing biodiversity data and tools, and greatly advance biodiversity knowledge in Europe. EU BONs 30 partners from 18 countries are members of networks of biodiversity data-holders, monitoring organisations, and leading scientific institutions. EU BON will build on existing components, in particular GBIF, LifeWatch infrastructures, and national biodiversity data centres. EU BON will 1) enable greater interoperability of data layers and systems through adoption of new standards; 2) advance data integration by new (modelling) technologies; 3) increase data mobilisation via scientific communities, citizen scientists, and potential data users; 4) develop strategies for future harmonizing and mainstreaming of biodiversity recording and monitoring; 5) improve analytical tools and services interpreting biodiversity data; 6) support the science-policy interface by timely information and scenario development; 7) link integrated, customized information to relevant stakeholders, and 8) strengthen overall European capacities and infrastructures for environmental information management. EU BONs deliverables include a comprehensive European Biodiversity Portal for all stakeholder communities, and strategies for a global implementation of GEO BON and supporting IPBES.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: BG-11-2014 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2015

We are standing at the dawn of a century that will be largely affected by how we as a society are able to manage our oceans and their resources. Marine and Maritime Research has a critical role to play in developing our understanding of the seas and advance technology so that we can develop their economic potential in a sustainable manner. The COLUMBUS project intends to capitalise on the ECs significant research by ensuring accessibility and uptake of research Knowledge Outputs by end-users (policy, industry, science and wider society). COLUMBUS will ensure measurable value creation from research investments contributing to sustainable Blue Growth within the timeframe of the project. Adopting proven methodologies and building on significant past work, COLUMBUS will first identify end-user needs and priorities. It will then set about identifying and collecting Knowledge Outputs from past and current EC projects. Rigorous analysis will take place to identify specific applications and end-users. Transfer will be achieved and measured through tailor-made knowledge transfer. All knowledge collected will be made accessible the pre-existing Marine Knowledge Gate. To achieve the above, COLUMBUS has brought together a multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder team representing all aspects of the research value chain from funding agencies to end-users. Key strategic initiatives and networks further strengthen and provide a strong vehicle for project legacy. A network of 9 Competence Nodes, each with a Knowledge Fellow and support team across Europe will provide the necessary critical mass (470pm of effort) to ensure full thematic and spatial coverage. COLUMBUS will also carry out strategic actions to enhance the visibility and impact of research to stakeholders and European Citizens. Furthermore working with funding agencies and stakeholders, COLUMBUS will examine the feasibility of improved systems and processes to ensure measurable value creation from research.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2010

The Deep Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier project (DSF) provides a pathway towards sustainable management of oceanic resources on a European scale. It will develop subseafloor sampling strategies for enhanced understanding of deep-sea and subseafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, with socio-economic issues and policy building. Subseafloor drilling and sampling provide two key aspects for understanding how deep-sea ecosystems presently function and how they may respond to global change: (a) an inventory of current subsurface processes and biosphere, and their links to surface ecosystems, utilising seafloor observation and baseline studies and (b) a high resolution archive of past variations in environmental conditions and biodiversity. For both aspects, an international effort is needed to maximise progress by sharing knowledge, ideas and technologies, including mission-specific platforms to increase the efficiency, coverage and effectiveness of subseafloor sampling and exploration. The deep biosphere has been discovered only within the past two decades and comprises a major new frontier for biological exploration. We lack fundamental knowledge about biomass distribution, diversity and physiological activity of deep biosphere communities at lifes extremes, and their impact on seafloor and deep sea ecosystems. Similarly, the geodynamic processes fuelling biological activity, and how these processes impinge upon the emission of geofuels, hydrocarbon formation and other resources including seafloor ecosystems, need to be understood. This Coordination & Support Action will develop the most efficient use of subseafloor sampling techniques and existing marine infrastructure to study the geosystem, its effects on the deep biosphere and marine ecosystems, and provide a comprehensive white paper and an open access web portal for a sustainable use of the oceans and a Maritime Policy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EID | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2016

The typical lifetime of an industrial process plant is between 30 and 50 years. Technologies to enhance the operation and optimization of process plants can both guide the development of new state-of-the-art process plants and, perhaps more pertinently, can ensure that the large installed base of existing plants operates efficiently. The PRONTO Consortium partners are strongly convinced that for Europe to stay competitive, the overriding challenge is the efficient and sustainable operation of assets already installed and running at the present time. Production involves flows of material and energy over an extended area through the distributed and interconnected equipment of the process network. Process plants also generate complex information from disparate sources in the form of measurements from the process, mechanical and electrical sub-systems, and elsewhere. Efficient and sustainable operation of assets over a timescale of 30-50 years therefore requires sophisticated approaches for managing information and managing resources to ensure optimal operation. The research topics of PRONTO are (i) data analytics for assessment of the condition and performance of networks of equipment used for production in the process industries, (ii) optimization of use of resources in process networks taking account of real-time information about the condition and performance of the process equipment, and (iii) new concepts for process operation identified as having high potential for impact by industrial partners. The consortium partners include leading universities and well-known companies with high reputations for innovation. The consortium offers the early stage researchers training under the European Industrial Doctorate scheme by involving the non-academic sector extensively in joint supervision of the doctoral training with a strong emphasis on industrially-relevant PhD projects leading to practical demonstrations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 4.46M | Year: 2013

GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins) aims at improving the career prospects and development of young researchers in both the public and private sector within the field of earth science, focusing specifically on North Atlantic Glaciated Margins. Our multi-Partner ITN comprises ten partner institutions, both academic and industrial, from Norway, UK and Denmark and will train eleven Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and four Experienced Researchers (ERs). The young scientists will perform multi-disciplinary research and receive training through three interconnected workpackages that collectively address knowledge gaps related to the large, glacial age, sedimentary depocentres on the North Atlantic Margin. Filling these gaps will a) result in major new insights regarding glacial age processes on continental margins, b) have particular impact on the exploitation of hydrocarbons in glacial age sediments, notably the gas hydrate energy potential on the European continental margin, c) provide paleoclimate information essential for understanding the role of marine-based ice sheets in the climate system and for the testing of climate models, an issue of increasing socio-economic relevance. GLANAM builds on the diverse expertise and experience of leading senior and junior scientists in the field of marine and glacial geology through the establishment of a training program offering a broad spectrum of career-oriented courses and tailored workshops preparing the researchers for an increasingly demanding, pan-European job market. Intersectoral rotation and secondments hosted by our three industry partners will provide the fellows with complementary scientific training and allow them to establish and deepen contacts relevant to their work life beyond the ITN. Interaction of the GLANAM Fellows with internationally renowned senior visiting scientists will provide significant added-value to their training and will complete the supply of knowledge and advice sources.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-16-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2016

Global demand for minerals is growing rapidly, driven by rapid population growth, urbanisation and an increasingly diverse range of technical applications. Global material supply chains linking the extraction, transport and processing stages of raw materials have become increasingly complex and today involve multiple players and product components. An interactive platform that provides transparency about existing approaches and information gaps concerning global material flows is needed to understand these global supply chains; developing this capability is critical for maintaining competitiveness in the European economy. Against this backdrop, the proposed MinFuture project aims to identify, integrate, and develop expertise for global material flow analysis and scenario modelling. Specific activities include: the analysis of barriers and gateways for delivering more transparent and interoperable materials information; the assessment of existing model approaches for global material flow analysis, including the demand- supply forecasting methods; the delivery of a common methodology which integrates mineral data, information and knowledge across national boundaries and between governmental and non-governmental organisations; the development of recommendations for a roadmap to implement the common methodology at international level; the creation of a web-portal to provide a central access point for material flow information, including links to existing data sources, models, tools and analysis. MinFuture brings together 16 international partners from across universities, public organisations and companies, to deliver new insight, strategic intelligence and a clear roadmap for enabling effective access to global material information.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-04-2015 | Award Amount: 5.95M | Year: 2016

The overarching aim of INHERIT is to define effective inter-sectoral policies and interventions that promote health and well being across the social gradient by tackling key environmental stressors and related inequalities in the areas of living, consuming and moving. INHERIT will bring together relevant stakeholders from different sectors, including the private sector. It will support inter-sectoral cooperation between environment, climate and health by: a) Analysing existing scientific knowledge on key environmental stressors to health and approaches to address these; b) Identifying existing promising inter-sector policies and interventions that enable conditions for more healthy and environmentally sustainable behaviours, in three main areas: living, consuming and moving; c) Developing a Common Analytical Framework using impact assessment tools and quantitative and qualitative indicators to assess the social, environmental and health benefits and the economic value in promising inter-sectoral interventions; d) Developing targets and future visions while considering overall economic and politics contexts and global trends (i.e. participatory back-casting, stakeholder and citizen consultations and household surveys); e) Implementing, testing and evaluating pilot interventions in different European contexts; f) Enhancing the leadership skills of public health professionals in inter-sectoral work to address key environmental stressors to health and promote healthy and environmentally sustainable lifestyles; g) Translating evaluation findings into models of good practice for effective inter-sectoral work and evidence based tools for policy development to contribute to the global and European environment, health and sustainable development policy agenda. The novelty of INHERIT lies in its support for health, environment and climate sectors to jointly pursue the inter-related goals of improving health and well-being of the population while preserving the environment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-10-2016 | Award Amount: 8.72M | Year: 2016

Arctic climate change increases the need of a growing number of stakeholders for trustworthy weather and climate predictions, both within the Arctic and beyond. APPLICATE will address this challenge and develop enhanced predictive capacity by bringing together scientists from academia, research institutions and operational prediction centres, including experts in weather and climate prediction and forecast dissemination. APPLICATE will develop a comprehensive framework for observationally constraining and assessing weather and climate models using advanced metrics and diagnostics. This framework will be used to establish the performance of existing models and measure the progress made within the project. APPLICATE will make significant model improvements, focusing on aspects that are known to play pivotal roles in both weather and climate prediction, namely: the atmospheric boundary layer including clouds; sea ice; snow; atmosphere-sea ice-ocean coupling; and oceanic transports. In addition to model developments, APPLICATE will enhance predictive capacity by contributing to the design of the future Arctic observing system and through improved forecast initialization techniques. The impact of Arctic climate change on the weather and climate of the Northern Hemisphere through atmospheric and oceanic linkages will be determined by a comprehensive set of novel multi-model numerical experiments using both coupled and uncoupled ocean and atmosphere models. APPLICATE will develop strong user-engagement and dissemination activities, including pro-active engagement of end-users and the exploitation of modern methods for communication and dissemination. Knowledge-transfer will also benefit from the direct engagement of operational prediction centres in APPLICATE. The educational component of APPLICATE will be developed and implemented in collaboration with the Association of Early Career Polar Scientists (APECS).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-15-2015 | Award Amount: 15.97M | Year: 2016

STEMM-CCS is an ambitious research and innovation project on geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage that will deliver new insights, guidelines for best practice, and tools for all phases of the CO2 storage cycle at ocean Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites. It brings together the main operator (Shell) of the worlds first commercial scale full-chain ocean demonstration CCS project (Peterhead Project) with the leading scientific and academic researchers in the field of ocean CCS. The work performed in STEMM-CCS will add value to this existing operational programme, and fill gaps in future capability by providing generically applicable definitive guides, technologies and techniques informing how to select a site for CCS operations, how to undertake a risk assessment, how best to monitor the operations, how to provide information on fluxes and quantification of any leakage; necessary for the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and to guide mitigation/remediation actions. All of this information will be used to better communicate the case for offshore CCS, with a particular focus on communities directly and indirectly impacted. During STEMM-CCS we will perform a simulated CO2 leak beneath the surface sediments at the site to be used for CCS as part of the Peterhead project. This experiment will be used to test CO2 leak detection, leak quantification, impact assessment, and mitigation/remediation decision support techniques currently at the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) stage 4-5 and support their development to a higher TRL. In addition, using new geophysical approaches STEMM-CCS will develop tools to assess leakage from natural geological features (e.g. chimneys) and engineered structures such as abandoned wells. The Peterhead project will commence during the life of STEMM-CCS and so a unique aspect is the focus on a real-world ocean CCS site covering its initial phases of implementation, with direct involvement of industrial partners.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.59M | Year: 2012

Slow time-dependent movements caused by creep of natural geomaterials affect the performance of infrastructure and cause high maintenance and repair costs, and the partial closures of infrastructure networks during the repair work have significant economic and social impact. Although the phenomenon of creep is well-known for being a major design issue, there is currently no accepted consensus on the best way to model creep. Reliable calculation tools are either missing or - due to their scientific nature - out of reach for the engineer in charge. If as a consequence creep is underestimated in design, structures will possibly be damaged so that they will not reach their design life. On the other hand, if creep is overestimated, unnecessary countermeasures such as soil improvement, deep foundations, or additional structural reinforcement will take up additional resources. For sustainable building processes it is therefore imperative to adequately incorporate creep behaviour in analyses and design. The research topic of this Marie Curie action is creep behaviour of geomaterials and its incorporation in geotechnical design; the project aims at establishing a consensus in creep modelling. The project shall supply tools and knowledge needed in creep analysis. Past research in the field of creep behaviour of soils has concentrated mainly on soft silts and clays. Different theoretical frameworks and numerical models were proposed. Yet, creep is likewise observed in geomaterials such as peat, sand, rock fills, and warm permafrost. Key questions formulated by industry and academia are therefore: Can existing creep concepts be adopted equally for those materials? Can different creep concepts be unified? Of the alternatives proposed, which work best at both element level and real geotechnical problem level? This project intends to answer these questions by combining the practical experience gathered by industry with the theoretical concepts worked out by academia.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-07-2015 | Award Amount: 5.51M | Year: 2016

Objectives: 1) to improve the observation and predictions of oil spreading in the sea using novel on-line sensors on-board vessels, fixed structures or gliders, and smart data transfer into operational awareness systems; 2) to examine the true environmental impacts and benefits of a suite of marine oil spill response methods (mechanical collection in water and below ice, in situ burning, use of chemical dispersants, bioremediation, electro-kinetics, and combinations of these) in cold climate and ice-infested areas; 3) to assess the impacts on biota of naturally and chemically dispersed oil, in situ burning residues and non-collected oil using biomarker methods and to develop specific methods for the rapid detection of the effects of oil pollution; 4) to develop a strategic Net Environmental Benefit Analysis tool (sNEBA) for oil spill response strategy decision making. A true trans-disciplinary consortium will carry out the project. Oil sensors will be applied to novel platforms such as ferry-boxes, smart buoys, and gliders. The environmental impacts of the oil spill response methods will be assessed by performing pilot tests and field experiments in the coastal waters of Greenland, as well as laboratory tests in Svalbard and the Baltic Sea with the main focus on dispersed oil, in situ burning residues and non-collected oil. The sNEBA tool will be developed to include and overarch the biological and technical knowledge obtained in the project, as well as integrate with operational assessments being based on expertise on coastal protection and shoreline response. This can be used in establishing cross-border and trans-boundary cooperation and agreements. The proposal addresses novel observation technology and integrated response methods at extreme cold temperatures and in ice. It also addresses the environmental impacts and includes a partner from Canada. The results are vital for the off-shore industry and will enhance the business of oil spill response services.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.5.4 | Award Amount: 4.59M | Year: 2012

Healthy independent living is a major challenge for the ageing European population. Promotion of stimulating physical activity and prevention of falls are two key factors. Smart ICT offers unique proactive opportunities to support older people in their own homes. The FARSEEING project aims to provide groundbreaking results for health promotion, fall prevention and technical development. Falls in older persons are common, often leading to institutionalisation and loss of independence. FARSEEING aims to promote better prediction, prevention and support of older persons, by long-term analysis of behavioural and physiological data collected using Smartphones, wearable and environmental sensors: leading to self-adaptive responses. FARSEEING aims to build the worlds largest fall repository. This will include samples of both high functioning community-dwelling elders and high-risk groups of fallers. The architecture of the database will facilitate collection, analysis and processing of data related to falls, daily activity and physiological factors. The inclusion of a longstanding cohort study ensures a representative population sample, which is urgently needed to translate technological advance into real world service provision. Telemedicine service models using open technological platforms, independent of sensor systems, will be developed for detection of falls and exchange of information between the older person, family, caregivers and health-care personnel. Novel exercise regimens will be developed that increase adaptability and stimulate motor learning, and cognitive and emotional well being. The exercise model will focus on capacity to manage a complex challenging environment. User acceptability is central to FARSEEING. Psychological and gerontological expertise is a core activity, including ethical, privacy and e-inclusion dimensions. Data protection will be paramount to build and validate realistic business models and service provision.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.6 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2012

The aim of this project is to model, understand and exploit the behaviour of evolving nanosystems (e.g. networks of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or films of graphene) with the long term goal to build information processing devices exploiting these architectures without reproducing individual components. With an interface to a conventional digital computer we will use computer controlled manipulation of physical systems to evolve them towards doing useful computation. During the project our target is to lay the technological and theoretical foundations for this new kind of information processing technology, inspired by the success of natural evolution and the advancement of nanotechnology, and the expectation that we soon reach the limits of miniaturisation in digital circuitry (Moores Law). The mathematical modelling of the configuration of networks of nanoscale particles combined with the embodied realisation of such systems through computer controlled stochastic search can strengthen the theoretical foundations of the field while keeping a strong focus on their potential application in future devices. Members of the consortium have already demonstrated proof of principle by the evolution of liquid crystal computational processors for simple tasks, but these earlier studies have only scraped the surface of what such systems may be capable of achieving. With this project we want to develop alternative approaches for situations or problems that are challenging or impossible to solve with conventional methods and models of computation. Achieving our objectives fully would provide not only a major disruptive technology for the electronics industry but probably the foundations of the next industrial revolution. Overall, we consider that this is to be a highly adventurous, high risk project with an enormous potential impact on society and the quality of life in general, including medicine, everyday household items, energy-saving policies, security, and communication.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.2-01 | Award Amount: 11.79M | Year: 2011

Full4Health is a multidisciplinary European collaboration of internationally renowned laboratories investigating the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and feeding behaviour, effects of dietary components and food structure on these processes, and their possible exploitation in addressing obesity, chronic disease and under-nutrition. The proposal integrates investigation of both human volunteers (dietary/exercise intervention studies and administration of encapsulated nutrients) and laboratory animals with emphasis on neuronal, hormonal, molecular, physiological and psychological responses to food at different stages of the life course. We will apply imaging and other cutting edge technologies in both humans and rodents to answer critical research questions at different levels of the food-gut-brain axis. In human volunteers, responses to diet will be investigated from childhood through to the elderly, whereas wide-ranging cutting-edge rodent studies will investigate related issues such as early developmental programming the food-gut-brain axis, multiple feedback signalling interactions, and inflammation-induced anorexia. The project will examine the interaction of food and dietary components with the gastrointestinal tract, and will characterise the role of gut endocrine secretions, the vagus nerve, and hindbrain, hypothalamic and forebrain structures in signalling and integration of hunger and satiety. Physiological and psychological responses to food may change as we develop and age, with impact on food choices and preferences. This is a critical issue in the battle against food intake-related chronic disease, most commonly driven by over-consumption, but also in consideration of relative under-nutrition in the elderly and clinically compromised.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.5.1.2 | Award Amount: 7.73M | Year: 2014

This proposal aims to develop high-potential novel and environmentally benign technologies and processes for post-combustion CO2 capture leading to real breakthroughs. The proposal includes all main separation technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture; absorption, adsorption and membranes. Enzyme based systems, bio-mimicking systems and other novel forms of CO2 binding will be explored. For each technology we will focus on chosen set of promising concepts (four for absorption, two for adsorption and two for membranes). We aim to achieve 25% reduction in efficiency penalty compared to a demonstrated state-of-the-art capture process in the EU project CESAR and deliver proof-of-concepts for each technology. The various technologies and associated process concepts will be assessed using a novel methodology for comparing new and emerging technologies, for which limited data are available and the maturity level varies substantially. Based on the relative performance using various performance indicators, a selection of two breakthrough technologies will be made. Those two technologies will be further studied in order to do a more thorough benchmarking against demonstrated state-of-the-art technologies. A technological roadmap, based on a thorough gap analysis, for industrial demonstration of the two technologies will finally be established. HiPerCap involves 15 partners, from both the public and private sectors (research, academia, and industry), from 6 different EU Member States and Associated States, and three International Cooperation Partner Countries (Russia, Canada, and Australia). The HiPerCap consortium includes all essential stakeholders in the technology supply chain for CCS: power companies, RTD providers, suppliers, manufacturers (of power plants, industrial systems, equipment, and materials), and engineering companies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2010

EURO IMPACT aims to develop a multi-disciplinary, multi-professional and intersectorial educational and research training network aimed at monitoring and improving palliative care in Europe. Palliative care is less than optimal in many developed countries and some patients suffer from severe symptoms. While international research on palliative care has begun to develop over the past decades, it has not kept pace with the growing demand for high quality care. The increase in elderly people, chronic diseases and health care costs, makes the provision of enhanced research training in palliative care one of the most urgent societal challenges at EU level. The training and research programme of EURO IMPACT are closely intertwined, involving 4 universities, 2 private companies and 3 socio-economic actors, and training 12 early stage and 4 experienced researchers. The partners are at the forefront of palliative research training and represent a wide spectrum of disciplines and professions. The research training involves researchers working together, with different methodologies and datasets gathered in different countries and from multiple perspectives. It will provide a broad overview on palliative care and its quality in Europe and identify tools to improve it. On-the-job training will be supplemented with structured courses concerning palliative care research and network-wide training on multi-disciplinary, ethics, cross-national research and societal dissemination. In order to influence policy and clinical practice in palliative care, all partners and researchers are involved in societal dissemination of the training results to a wider national and international audience. EURO IMPACT reduces current fragmentation of research training in palliative care and provides the new generation of European researchers with the necessary scientific and complementary skills to influence future palliative care at national and international level, and at practice and policy level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2011.2.2-4 | Award Amount: 5.07M | Year: 2012

This project is primarily aimed at generating new fundamental knowledge and fostering new prospects and frontiers in the field of catalysis for the sustainable production of chemicals and commodities. Rethinking important metal-based catalytic processes in the light of new tailored metal-free catalytic architectures designed and fabricated starting from appropriate nanoscale building blocks, is the fundamental target of this research project. Major efforts have been made in the last decades aimed at addressing catalytic approaches, as much as possible, denoted by sustainable and environmentally friendly features. A large fraction of products made today are produced with traditional methods developed several decades ago. In order to keep the European process industry competitive worldwide, the development of technologically advanced processes represent a fundamental prerequisite. The FREECATS proposal deals with the development of new metal-free catalysts, either in the form of bulk nanomaterials or in hierarchically organized structures both capable to replace traditional noble metal-based catalysts in catalytic transformations of strategic importance. The new metal-free catalytic materials will be applied to specific processes traditionally carried out by means of precious metal-based materials. The application of the new materials will eliminate the use for platinum group metals and rare earth elements such as ceria used in fuel cell technology (automotive applications and others), production of light olefins, and in wastewater and water purification. Replacing platinum group metal alternatives in these three emerging technologies will lead to a significant reduction in demand of platinum group metals in Europe, at least mounting to the current automotive platinum group metal demand, estimated to be in the order of 50-100 tons per year.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.2.5-02 | Award Amount: 7.64M | Year: 2013

Industrial food production serves to satisfy basic human needs and the dairy industry accounts with 13% turnover for the total food and drink industry in Europe. The aim of the project SUSMILK is to initialise a system change within the whole process chain for market milk and milk products to minimise energy and water consumption and establish renewable energy resources. Milk processing is characterised by a large variety of heating and cooling processes. Main R&D activities are intended to substitute steam as heat transfer medium by hot water produced by means of renewable resources. Supply of heat and electricity shall completely be fulfilled by combined heat and power generation, heat pumps, solar heat and, where appropriate, on-site produced biogas or other renewable fuels produced from waste utilisation. As process machines and equipment are often used over periods of times up to 30 years in food industry, such innovations will have an impact on energy consumption and CO2-emissions for the next decades. To assure a sustainable supply of energy and raw materials over such a long time, the system change is overdue. To keep hygienic standards water consuming CIP processes are necessary, which produce wastewater with high organic load. Closing water circuits, recycling of CIP solutions and recovery of the inherent heat is a second challenging part of the project. As a further means to save water and energy, the pre-concentration of milk on the dairy farm will be investigated. This measure has the potential to reduce transport energy, to reduce the sizes of tanks and machines in the dairy and increase the efficiency of production processes for cheese, yoghurt and other such products. The whole project includes the development of technical components, their installation and testing at partner dairies of all sizes as well as a process simulation of a green dairy and the life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a facility.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.2-01 | Award Amount: 5.42M | Year: 2008

The European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation - Preparatory Phase (EMSO-PP) is a 4-year project with the main objective of establishing the legal and governance framework for EMSO, an infrastructure servicing scientists and other stakeholders in Europe and outside Europe for long-term deep water observation and investigation. The Preparatory Phase will handle all further actions towards the actual realisation of the infrastructure and its long-term management. Moreover, it will promote the catalytic process and synergic effort at EC and national levels, coordinating and harmonising all the resources made available, in link with the Network of Excellence ESONET. One peculiarity of the EMSO infrastructure, among the ones indicated within ESFRI, is that it is geographically distributed around European waters from the Arctic to the Mediterranean Sea EMSO cabled deep-sea observatories deployed on specific sites will allow as a basic scientific objective to make real-time long-term monitoring of environmental processes in the geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of European seas. The observatories will be organised in a unique management structure at European level which is part of an international endeavour in seafloor observatories. A pan-European Core Legal Entity (CLE) and several Regional Legal Entities (RLEs) will be defined and founded. The responsibilities of CLE and RLEs, with respect to their internal decision-making processes, as well as their external relations (to stakeholders, users, etc.) will be established. In the project, 9 work packages are envisaged to manage all the activities (including legal, governance, logistical, financial, strategic, and technical work). EMSO-PP will constitute a breakthrough towards a large scale European infrastructure progressing the scientific knowledge and technologies. It will providing an innovative mean for environmental monitoring and geo-hazard impact mitigation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.38M | Year: 2012

Networks are ubiquitous in all aspects of human existence. They manifest themselves in everyday life, they underpin the most advanced information and communication technologies, and they provide a powerful framework for addressing a wide spectrum of complex problems in the natural sciences, in engineering, and in economics and the social sciences. Networks, network-related science, and network-based technologies are thus of central importance to maintaining and improving human well-being as well as improving economic, technological, and scientific competitiveness. Statistical physics offers a powerful set of concepts and methods to analyze problems of exactly the type posed by todays key challenges in network science. While the European statistical physics community has an established tradition of coordinated cross-border research collaborations in this area, there has been so far no significant European coordination effort on the initial training side. The proposed ITN is set to fill that gap. Its aim is to train a cadre of future research leaders in advanced methods of analysis, inference, control and optimization of network structure and dynamics, thus maximizing the impact of statistical physics approaches across a broad range of application areas. The ITN will create an innovative training environment by exploiting synergies and complementarities of a research matrix defined by methods and themes on the one hand, and application foci on the other. It will be implemented by targeted secondments of early stage researchers across both axes of the research matrix. Existing local training provision and dedicated network-wide training events will be exploited to ensure that researchers are systematically exposed to the full range of statistical physics techniques and application domains, covered by the 9 leading European research teams and 4 private sector partners integrated into this effort, and will comprise complementary skills training as an integral part.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-5 | Award Amount: 1.83M | Year: 2008

There is little coordination in undertaking research in end of life care. This is due to lack of agreement on what constitutes end of life cancer care, no information on public or clinical priorities for achieving a good death in a culturally diverse Europe, few appropriate measures of quality, and a lack of established best practice. PRISMA aims to deliver an integrated programme to coordinate research priorities and practice. The work packages will undertake actions to identify cultural differences in end of life care, establish a collaborative research agenda informed by public and clinical priorities, and draw together best practice and resources for quality measurement. The Palliative Outcome Scale (POS) is a multidimensional tool that measures the physical, psychological, spiritual and information needs of patients and families at the end of life. It has been culturally adapted in 20 EU countries and widely used by over 100 services to evaluate and improve quality of care. However, there have been no opportunities to share practice, identify shared and country-specific domains, and coordinate to improve research across Europe. By coordinating POS use, PRISMA will offer a model to optimise end of life care research and measurement and identify both commonalities and differences in the evaluation of quality indicators for cancer patients and their families across Europe. Incorporating wide public/clinical consultation with the coordination of POS use into this programme will advance scientifically sound practice while taking account of cultural difference and public expectations. Through integrated action, we will exchange experience, shape best practice, and plan future collaboration through identification of priorities. This will enable research to harmonise and reflect the diversity and the needs of European citizens and clinicians. Support for the POS ensures that direct impact is felt between research and daily clinical practice.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-04-2015 | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2016

Tulipp will develop a reference platform that defines implementation rules and interfaces to tackle power consumption issues while delivering high, efficient and guaranteed computing performance for image processing applications. Using this reference platform will enable designers to develop an elementary board at a reduced cost to meet typical embedded systems requirements: Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) requirements. Moreover, for less constrained systems which performance requirements cannot be fulfilled by one instance of the platform, the reference platform will also be scalable so that the resulting boards be chained for higher processing power. To demonstrate its effectiveness, an instance of the reference platform will be developed during the project. The instance of the reference platform will be use-case driven and split between the implementation of: a reference HW architecture - a scalable low-power board; a low-power operating system and image processing libraries; an energy aware tool chain. It will lead to three proof-of-concept demonstrators across different application domains: real-time and low-power medical image processing product prototype of surgical X-ray system (Mobile c-arm); embedded image processing systems within Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV); automotive real time embedded systems for driver assistance. The Tulipp approach will also give rise to advances in system integration, processing innovation and idle power management. Tulipp will closely work with standardisation organisations to propose new standards derived from its reference platform to the industry. Its consortium includes the necessary and sufficient number of partners covering all the required inter-disciplinary expertise to successfully carry out the required experimentation, integration and demonstration activities as well as to assure a manageable project structure and minimise the risks to achieve the ambitious goals of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-10-2015 | Award Amount: 1.31M | Year: 2016

The main objective of SOCRATIC is to facilitate a platform so citizens and/or organisations can collaboratively identify specific innovative solutions for achieving the desired Global Sustainability Goals, as defined by the United Nations. The platform will allow individuals, collectives, institutions, companies or Administration to: (1) propose new challenges oriented to solve specific sustainability issues; (2) invite individuals or organizations to participate with innovative ideas that solve these issues; (3) collectively select and implement the most promising ideas. SOCRATIC will also implement a Global Observatory on Sustainability Challenges with a double objective: (1) Measuring the impact of SOCRATIC actions on Global Sustainability Challenges by monitoring social networks, (2) Using the data about Global Sustainability Challenges gathered in social media as a source of information to launch challenges in the SOCRATIC platform. The SOCRATIC project has a deep user-centric approach, implementing gamification techniques to engage users in the sustained use of the platform. The project involves one European NGO (CiberVoluntarios) and a group of Young Social Innovators from the Experts in Team program of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU-EiT). Both collectives perform actions in different fields, but with a common tool, the use of IT to empower citizens and achieve specific sustainability goals. The pilots will be initially focused on three specific challenges: Ensuring healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages (UNs Goal 3), Ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (UNs Goal 4), and Promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all (UNs Goal 8).

Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2012

It is well known that tumours utilize nutrients differently than normal tissues. This difference may represent an opportunity for new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Our previous work showed that the way how tumours use various nutrients depends on which genetic changes they carry. Our goal is to understand how specific genetic lesions determine metabolic changes and nutrient requirement in tumours. In order to do that we will use animal models where tumours can be induced by specific genetic events. We will investigate how metabolism is changed in these tumours. To evaluate the requirement of this changes for tumour development we will use animal models in which the activity of metabolic pathways can be manipulated. Our results should allow us to develop new strategies to treat tumours carrying specific lesions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.2-2 | Award Amount: 7.85M | Year: 2011

Biomarkers are considered as tools to enhance cardiovascular risk estimation. However, the value of biomarkers on risk estimation beyond European risk scores, their comparative impact among different European regions and their role in the drive towards personalised medicine remains uncertain. Based on harmonised and standardised European population cohorts we have built significant research collaboration, expertise and infrastructure in the EU. We will apply highly innovative SME-driven technologies and perform large-scale biomarker determination to assess the predictive value of existing and emerging biomarkers. Selection of emerging biomarkers will be based on integrated cutting-edge quantitative proteomic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and miRNomic datasets established by private and public consortium members that will be disclosed to this consortium. Existing biomarkers will be selected based on non-redundancy and their association with cardiovascular risk and phenotypes. After SME-guided development of innovative assay systems biomarkers will be tested and validated in a stepwise fashion among European populations in primary and secondary prevention. In addition to their impact on risk prediction, their association with lifestyle determinants and cardiovascular phenotypes assessed by ultrasound and MRI technique will be evaluated. We will establish a BiomarCaRE panel which leads to improved disease prediction among different European populations. International collaborations with world-class clinical trial investigators will add data on the interaction of the BiomarCaRE panel with risk-lowering medication and lifestyle changes. The outcome of SME-driven technology development and clinical validation will undergo a medical technology assessment. The determination of cost-effectiveness will guide further clinical evaluation. These studies will reveal new methods of improved cardiovascular risk estimation and will open the path towards personalised medicine.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-09-2014 | Award Amount: 5.55M | Year: 2015

The European Union has committed to the gradual elimination of discarding. DiscardLess will help provide the knowledge, tools and technologies as well as the involvement of the stakeholders to achieve this. These will be integrated into Discard Mitigation Strategies (DMS) proposing cost-effective solutions at all stages of the seafood supply chain. The first focus is on preventing the unwanted catches from ever being caught. This will promote changes in gear using existing and innovative selectivity technology, and changes in fishing tactics based on fishers and scientists knowledge. The second focus is on making best use of the unavoidable unwanted catch. We will detail technical and marketing innovations from the deck, through the supply chain to the final market, including monitoring, traceability and valorization components. DiscardLess will evaluate the impacts of discarding on the marine environment, on the economy, and across the wider society. We will evaluate these impacts before, during and after the implementation of the landing obligation, allowing comparison between intentions and outcomes. Eliminating discards is as much a societal challenge as a fishery management one, so we will also evaluate stakeholders perception of discards. DiscardLess will describe the changes in management and the associated governance structures needed to cement the process. We will propose approaches to managing discards in a range of case study fisheries across Europe, encompassing differences in specific discarding issues. All these innovations will be combined in integrated Internet based interactive programs (DMS toolbox) that will help fishers to evaluate the present and future situation and to take a more qualified decision of how to adjust to the new regime. Also, we will disseminate the outcome of the project and maximize knowledge transfer across Europe through an educational environment teaching the next generation as well as more conventional routes.

News Article | October 26, 2016

Glass fibres do everything from connecting us to the internet to enabling keyhole surgery by delivering light through medical devices such as endoscopes. But as versatile as today's fiber optics are, scientists around the world have been working to expand their capabilities by adding semiconductor core materials to the glass fibers. Now, a team of researchers has created glass fibers with single-crystal silicon-germanium cores. The process used to make these could assist in the development of high-speed semiconductor devices and expand the capabilities of endoscopes says Ursula Gibson, a physics professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and senior author of the paper. "This paper lays the groundwork for future devices in several areas," Gibson said, because the germanium in the silicon core allows researchers to locally alter its physical attributes. The article, "Laser recrystallization and inscription of compositional microstructures in crystalline SiGe-core fibres," was published in Nature Communications on October 24. To understand what the researchers did, you need to recognize that silicon and germanium have different melting points. When the two substances are combined in a glass fiber, flecks of germanium-rich material are scattered throughout the fiber in a disorderly way because the silicon has a higher melting point and solidifies, or "freezes" first. These germanium flecks limit the fiber's ability to transmit light or information. "When they are first made, these fibers don't look very good," Gibson said. But rapidly heating the fiber by moving it through a laser beam allowed the researchers to melt the semiconductors in the core in a controlled fashion. Using the difference in the solidification behavior, the researchers were able to control the local concentration of the germanium inside the fiber depending upon where they focused the laser beam and for how long. "If we take a fibre and melt the core without moving it, we can accumulate small germanium-rich droplets into a melt zone, which is then the last thing to crystalize when we remove the laser slowly," Gibson said. "We can make stripes, dots... you could use this to make a series of structures that would allow you to detect and manipulate light." An interesting structure was produced when the researchers periodically interrupted the laser beam as it moved along their silicon-germanium fibre. This created a series of germanium-rich stripes across the width of the 150-micrometer diameter core. That kind of pattern creates something called a Bragg grating, which could help expand the capability of long wavelength light-guiding devices. "That is of interest to the medical imaging industry," Gibson said. Another key aspect of the geometry and laser heating of the silicon-germanium fibre is that once the fibre is heated, it can also be cooled very quickly as the fibre is carried away from the laser on a moving stage. Controlled rapid cooling allows the mixture to solidify into a single uniform crystal the length of the fibre -- which makes it ideal for optical transmission. Previously, people working with bulk silicon-germanium alloys have had problems creating a uniform crystal that is a perfect mix, because they have not had sufficient control of the temperature profile of the sample. "When you perform overall heating and cooling, you get uneven composition through the structure, because the last part to freeze concentrates excess germanium," Gibson said. "We have shown we can create single crystalline silicon-germanium at high production rates when we have a large temperature gradient and a controlled growth direction." Gibson says the laser heating process could also be used to simplify the incorporation of silicon-germanium alloys into transistor circuits. "You could adapt the laser treatment to thin films of the alloy in integrated circuits," she said. Traditionally, Gibson said, electronics researchers have looked at other materials, such as gallium arsenide, in their quest to build ever-faster transistors. However, the mix of silicon and germanium, often called SiGe, allows electrons to move through the material more quickly than they move through pure silicon, and is compatible with standard integrated circuit processing. "SiGe allows you to make transistors that switch faster" than today's silicon-based transistors, she said, "and our results could impact their production." Gibson's collaborators are at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden, Newcastle University and the University of Southampton in the UK and Clemson University in the USA. Reference: Laser recrystallization and inscription of compositional microstructures in crystalline SiGe-core fibres. David A. Coucheron, Michael Fokine, Nilesh Patil, Dag Werner Breiby, Ole Tore Buset, Noel Healy, Anna C. Peacock, Thomas Hawkins, Max Jones, John Ballato & Ursula J. Gibson. Nature Communications 7, 13265 (2016) doi:10.1038/ncomms13265.

News Article | January 5, 2017

A brain activity research suggests that babies exposed to stimuli early in life tend to have a faster brain development. For many years, Audrey van der Meer, a professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), has employed advanced EEG technology to study and understand the brain activity of hundreds of babies. She discovered that as the baby learns novel skills and starts to move around, the neural cells in its brain tend to increase in number and specialization. Neurons in toddlers grow up to about thousand new links per second. The research also inferred that the growth of motor skills, brain, and sensory perception occur in synchronization with each other. Van der Meer suggests that from a very early age, babies should be exposed to stimuli and must be challenged at their respective levels. The babies should be made to employ their whole body and senses as they discover the world and materials around them. "Many people believe that children up to three years old only need cuddles and nappy changes, but studies show that rats raised in cages have less dendritic branching in the brain than rats raised in an environment with climbing and hiding places and tunnel," said van der Meer in a press release. She further added that kids born in places early stimulation is practiced develop faster than Western kids. The research explains that since the brains of young kids are very flexible, they are capable of adapting from a variety of activities taking place around them. Van der Meer said that infants are capable of differentiating between sounds of different languages of the world at the age of four months. However, gradually, this ability fades away as the infant turns eight months old. The brain synapses (formations that carry information from one neuron to another neuron) that transmit this information, vanish when they are left unused. According to van der Meer, a lot of things take place in children's brain through the initial years of their life. Therefore, it is easier to encourage learning and avert problems as and when they are young. Early intervention is a concept prevalent in schools and kindergartens which is not only believed to work for six-year-old kids, but also for toddlers ranging from newborns to three-year-olds. It is all about guiding and teaching kids as early in their lives as possible so that they can complete their education efficiently, proceed on to adulthood, and become independent. The concept is believed to works due to the fact that the brain possesses the maximum ability to change under the control of the ambient conditions experienced early in life. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

News Article | November 30, 2015

The report, "Green Energy Choices: The Benefits, Risks and Trade-Offs of Low-Carbon Technologies for Electricity Production," takes a cradle-to-grave look at the environmental and health pros-and-cons of nine different renewable sources of energy. It is the first such comprehensive international report to do so. While the report is filled with important details of the benefits and impacts of different energy choices, the bottom line is clear, says report co-author Thomas Gibon, a PhD candidate at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Industrial Ecology Programme. "Moving away from fossil fuels and coal will help us avoid a lot of environmental impacts, particularly from air pollution and greenhouse gases," Gibon says. And the difference is considerable, the report says: electricity from renewable sources emits between 90-99 percent less greenhouse gases than coal-fired plants, and causes 70-90 percent less pollution. Gibon's PhD research formed the underpinnings for the report's analyses. Pointing out problems to avoid them Perhaps the most important message in the report is the most obvious: continuing with business as usual and without renewable energy use will double greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, "with serious impacts on human health and the environment," the report says. Nevertheless, all forms of electricity generation have their impacts, which is where the new report offers important insights for decision makers contemplating a low-carbon future. One is that building different kinds of renewable energy installations will increase the need for materials such as steel, aluminum, copper, concrete and a variety of rare earth metals compared to "business as usual." There are two reasons for this, Gibon says. The first is that because most renewable energy sources run only intermittently —a wind farm may generate electricity just 20-25 percent of the time, for example. That means each kilowatt-hour of electricity requires more infrastructure than conventional sources. A second challenge is that at least some renewable energy installations have shorter lifespans than their conventional counterparts. "A wind turbine may have a lifespan of 20-25 years," Gibon said. "So all the material investments you make last 20 years, and then you have to rebuild them." The demand for materials is particularly pronounced when it comes to some of the rare earths and metals that go into producing solar cells or the magnets for direct-drive wind turbines, the report notes. The use of these materials is relatively new, which means that there are limited or no recycling systems for them, and relatively little data to estimate how big the demand for them might become, Gibon says. "With the existing collection and recycling schemes we have now, recycling these materials is not really possible," he said. Nor have the supply chains for these materials been clearly identified, he said. "Unless we figure out how to recycle these materials at a large scale this will be a problem in the future," he said. "But we don't have enough information to say how big a problem it will be—we don't have enough retiring (renewable energy) power plants yet to see how it will go." Although it is not a renewable energy source, the researchers looked at the benefits and impacts of retrofitting coal and natural gas fired power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The good news is that CCS does cut greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel plants, with cuts in emissions from modern coal-fired plants of between 74-78 percent compared to plants without emissions controls. These cuts come at a cost, however. For one, controlling greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired plants reduces their efficiency, because the emissions capture process requires energy. "Running CO2 capture facilities requires an increase in energy demand of up to 10 per cent more per kilowatt hour," Gibon said. "It's the energy penalty problem." CCS also can involve the use of toxic compounds to capture CO2, which have their own impacts. Other environmental impacts include an increase in particulate matter and the emission of pollutants that can overfertilize lakes and the marine environment. All told, coal- or gas-fired systems increase pollution harmful to the environment and human health by 5-80 percent compared to the global electricity generation mix in the year 2010, the report says. Another surprise in the report is that the impacts associated with hydropower can vary tremendously depending upon where the installation is located. For example, a tropical hydropower installation that is very large and shallow can result in greenhouse gas emissions when the vegetation that is flooded dies and decomposes. This can release CO2 or methane, CH4, a greenhouse gas that is 30 times more potent than CO2. However, because these emissions come from biological sources, "maybe all we are doing is accelerating the biological process, since eventually that vegetation will die and rot," Gibon said. Nevertheless, new hydropower installations can have other impacts, including displacing human populations and destroying riparian areas along rivers that are flooded by the reservoir, he said. Gibon has been working on the underpinnings for the report for almost 4 years, the entire length of his doctoral research at NTNU. One of the reasons for this is the enormous complexity involved in compiling available information and making it comparable. The report relies on something called life-cycle assessments, in which all of the impacts of the technology—starting with its construction or manufacture, extending through its useful life and ending with its decommissioning—are considered so that the true environmental costs of the technology can be estimated. The problem is that these assessments, called LCA, may not be comparable because they are often for different areas of the globe, or span different time periods, Gibon said. Many studies were also focused on greenhouse gas emissions, but the authors of the report also wanted to look at other environmental and human health effects too, he said. In the end, Gibon and his colleagues were able to make all of the results from the different studies of renewable energy consistent, so the report does compare "apples to apples." Commenting on the study's release, Achim Steiner, Executive Director of UNEP said it was important for policymakers to have access to this comparative analysis. "These technologies will be critical to keeping global warming under 2 degrees C, but we need to remain cognizant of their effects on the environment, such as their higher use of metals like steel and copper in manufacturing. As countries look to meet their energy needs while combating climate change, this report can help identify the most sustainable mix of energy technologies to accomplish that goal," Steiner said. To access the report, go to

News Article | August 25, 2016

The Stuxnet computer worm discovered in 2012 set alarm bells ringing in industry and public sector offices all over the world. This very advanced software worm had the ability to infect and disable industrial process control systems. The scary thing was that the worm had crept its way into many of the most common industrial control systems. If a state or a hacker is able to spread malignant software so widely, what can we expect next? The Internet of Things, virtually connecting everything to everyone, is rapidly proliferating to businesses, public sector offices and our homes. How can we defend ourselves against a threat when we don't know what it looks like, or where it will strike next? Researchers at SINTEF are working to find a way of counteracting such threats. They are developing methods that will enable companies and public sector agencies to manage threats and attacks, including those that no-one has thought of. "Society is under pressure from new threat and vulnerability patterns", says Tor Olav Grøtan, a Senior Research Scientist at SINTEF. "Standard approaches involving defence systems based on clear control procedures and responsibility are inadequate when the risk is moving around between a diversity of areas and sectors. There is an urgent need for innovative thought and new approaches", he says. Grøtan is heading the project "New Strains of Society", which is aiming to develop new scientific theories in the field of hidden, dynamic and, what researchers call, "emergent" vulnerabilities. SINTEF's research partners are the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), and the University of Tulsa in the USA. Professor Sujeet Shenoi at the University of Tulsa is closely involved. He lectures his students on "ethical hacking", with the aim of raising expertise in the US public sector to the same levels as those possessed by malicious experts and hackers. For the last twenty years, Professor Shenoi has been instructing almost 400 Master's and Doctoral (PhD) students in how to hack into public and private sector networks. The students need security clearance and must undertake to work in the American public sector after they have qualified. With the consent of the owners, the students have penetrated deep into computer systems controlling payment terminals, smart electricity meters, gas pipelines, coal mines and wind farms. They have succeeded every time. "Someone or other, not necessarily us, has the ability to break into any computer system", says Shenoi. "We have to live with this and manage it, and that is why the concept of resilience (the dynamic ability to resist and adapt) is so important", he says. Professor Shenoi sees Norway as an ideal location for the development of such resilience. "Norway is one of the most digital countries in the world", he says. "With a relatively small population of 5.2 million, it can become a whole-world laboratory. This is not easy to achieve in the USA, which is too big and too diverse", he says. SINTEF and its partners are looking into three so-called 'threat landscapes': oil industry activity in the high north, a global pandemic, and ICT systems embedded in critical infrastructure in the oil and electrical power sectors. A workshop was held recently with the aim of addressing vulnerabilities in the energy sector. It was attended by representatives from the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security, the Norwegian National Security Authority (NSM), the Norwegian Communications Authority (NKOM), the US National Security Agency (NSA), the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority, research scientists, consultants and businesses. "We were there to test a new method of exposing unknown threats and vulnerabilities, and to prepare a stress test", says Grøtan. "People from the oil and electrical power sectors, who aren't normally thinking on the same wavelength, had the chance to work and reflect on issues together. We will apply this experience as the project progresses as part of our work to develop a stress test method designed to investigate how well an organisation is equipped to handle an unexpected situation", he says. And the need is urgent. In 2014 Statnett and hundreds of other Norwegian energy sector companies were subject to a large-scale hacker attack. They are not alone. All sectors of society are under attack and the number of attacks increases every year. For example, Statoil intercepts 10 million spam e-mails every month. Opening an e-mail attachment is a very common way of allowing malignant software to enter a company's computer systems. Another is when careless employees give system access to subcontractors and other external parties. Explore further: Iran says Duqu malware under 'control'

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 18.30M | Year: 2010

The aim of the HiPRwind project is to develop and test new solutions for very large offshore wind turbines at an industrial scale. The project addresses critical issues of offshore WT technology such as extreme reliability, remote maintenance and grid integration with particular emphasis on floating wind turbines, where weight and size limitations of onshore designs can be overcome. HiPRWind will test a cost effective approach to floating offshore WTs at a 1:10 lower MW scale as a first of its kind worldwide. Innovative engineering methods, new rotor blade designs and built-in active control features will reduce the dynamic loads and thus weight and cost drastically compared to existing designs. It will overcome the gap in technology development between small scale tank testing and full scale offshore deployment. Thus HiPRwind will significantly reduce risk and cost of deep offshore technology commercialisation. The HiPRwind project benefits from close cooperation with the Norwegian FlexWT consortium, who provides the offshore test area with a favourable permitting situation and suitable infrastructure. In WP 1, a floating support structure and the moorings system will be designed and manufactured. WP 2 covers the operation of the research projects of the platform. Within WP 3 to 6, critical aspects of the floating wind turbine are investigated, such as the structure and its system dynamics, the controller, high reliability power electronics to be tested in the lab at a MultiWM scale, the condition and structural health monitoring systems and the rotor based on innovative blade designs and features. The results feed into WP 7 to identify and refine new concepts for very large offshore wind turbines. The full impact of the project is ensured by a strong participation of leading industrial as well as R&D stakeholders from the offshore-maritime and the wind energy sector with a strong background in harsh environment industrial developments.

News Article | February 23, 2017

Norwegian, the World’s Best Low-Cost Long-Haul Airline and Europe’s Best Low-Cost Airline, announces that tickets for its Boeing 737-MAX transatlantic service are now on sale at an introductory fare of $65 one-way including taxes. The airline will launch 10 new routes from Stewart International Airport north of New York City, T.F. Green Airport in Providence, RI, and Bradley International Airport in Hartford, CT, to Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Scotland this summer. Norwegian’s new routes from Providence to Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Edinburgh and Shannon are the first-ever year-round European routes for Rhode Island’s largest airport. From Stewart, New York’s Hudson Valley airport, Norwegian will be the first carrier to provide European service with four routes to Belfast, Dublin, Edinburgh and Shannon. Norwegian will also operate one route from Bradley, New England’s second largest airport, to Edinburgh. In addition to launching service, Norwegian will open a base for its pilots and cabin crew and station two Boeing 737-MAX aircraft at both T.F. Green and Stewart airports. Norwegian already has more U.S.-based cabin crew than any other foreign airline, and these two new bases will create another 150 American jobs. “We are pleased to announce our new highly-anticipated transatlantic routes. Our new, non-stop service will enable tens of thousands of new travelers to fly between the continents much more comfortably and affordably. Norwegian’s latest transatlantic offering is not only great news for the traveling public, but also for the local U.S. economies as we will bring more tourists that will increase spending, consequently creating thousands of new local jobs. We are excited to finally be able to launch service to Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland and we would like to express a big gratitude for the extensive support from consumer groups, government officials, airports, tourism organizations and the travel and tourism industry on both sides of the Atlantic in our quest to offer affordable transatlantic flights for all,” said Bjørn Kjos, CEO and Founder of Norwegian. Tickets are on sale now at, with fares from $65 one-way, including taxes. Passengers have the option to receiving additional savings by bundling a seat reservation, pre-ordering a meal service (including alcoholic beverages) and pre-paying for checked luggage. Norwegian does not charge customers for carry-on luggage. These new transatlantic routes will be operated by Norwegian Air International, Norwegian’s Irish subsidiary, and will predominantly use U.S.-based crew from the two new crew bases, as well as crew from the new Edinburgh base in the UK. Norwegian is the European launch customer of the Boeing 737-MAX, a state-of-the-art new aircraft, which offers a longer range and greater seat capacity. “Today’s announcement is more good news for Irish tourism from the United States, following a record year in 2016 when an estimated 1.4 million American travelers visited Ireland, and augurs well for prospects for tourism from the US to Ireland in 2017. These flights will certainly help boost tourism from the US and offer more choice for potential travelers living in the Northeast. As an island, the importance of convenient, non-stop flights cannot be overstated – they are critical to achieving growth in inbound tourism. Tourism Ireland looks forward to working and partnering with Norwegian and Belfast, Dublin, Shannon and Cork airports through various initiatives to drive demand for the new flights,” said Alison Metcalfe, Executive Vice President, USA & Canada, Tourism Ireland. Year-round service to Edinburgh from Stewart International Airport will operate daily beginning June 15 for the summer season, and thrice weekly during the winter season; from Providence, flights will operate four times a week starting June 16 and twice weekly during the winter season; from Hartford, flights will operate thrice weekly beginning June 17, and twice weekly during the winter season. Days of operations will change between the summer 2017 and the winter 2017/2018 winter season. Service to Belfast from Stewart International Airport will be thrice weekly during summer and twice weekly during winter as of July 1; twice weekly from Providence as of July 2 during summer. Days of operations will change between the summer 2017 and the winter 2017/2018 winter season. Service to Dublin from Stewart International Airport begins on July 1 with daily flights during the summer and thrice weekly during the winter seasons; and from Providence, flights will operate five weekly flights starting July 2 during the summer and thrice weekly during winter. Days of operations from Providence will change between the summer 2017 and the winter 2017/2018 winter season. Service to Shannon from Stewart International Airport will begin on July 2 with twice-weekly flights; and from Providence on July 3 with twice-weekly flights. Days of operations will change between the summer 2017 and the winter 2017/2018 winter season. Year-round service to Cork from Providence will start on July 1 with three weekly flights during summer and a twice-weekly service during winter season. Days of operations will change between the summer 2017 and the winter 2017/2018 winter season. With these new routes, Norwegian offers 55 routes from the U.S.; 48 to Europe and seven to the French Caribbean. Other upcoming 2017 launches from the U.S. include: Oakland/San Francisco to Copenhagen (March 28); Los Angeles to Barcelona (June 5); New York/Newark to Barcelona (June 6); Oakland/San Francisco to Barcelona (June 7); Orlando to Paris (July 31); and Fort Lauderdale to Barcelona (August 22). About Norwegian Norwegian is the world’s sixth largest low-cost airline and carried 30 million passengers in 2016. The airline operates 450 routes to 150 destinations in Europe, North Africa, Middle East, Thailand, Caribbean and the U.S. Norwegian has a fleet of more than 110 aircraft, with an average age of 3.6 years, making it one of the world’s youngest fleets. Norwegian was named the Most Fuel-Efficient Airline on Transatlantic Routes by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Norwegian was named the World’s Best Low-Cost Long-Haul Airline by the renowned SkyTrax World Airline Awards in 2015 and 2016, and for the fourth consecutive year, named Europe’s Best Low-Cost Airline. Norwegian employs 5,500 people. The airline offers 48 nonstop routes from the U.S. to Barcelona, London, Paris, Edinburgh, Ireland, Scandinavia and the Caribbean. Follow @Fly_Norwegian on Twitter, join the discussion on Facebook and keep up with our adventures on Instagram. For more information on Norwegian and its network, visit

News Article | December 15, 2016

NEW YORK NY (December 15, 2016)--Gastric tumors are started by specialized cells in the stomach that signal nerves to make more acetylcholine, according to a study in mice. The multinational team of researchers who conducted the study also identified a substance called nerve growth factor that stimulates nerve development and, when blocked, inhibits stomach cancer development. The findings were published today in Cancer Cell. Previous studies have shown that nerves are abundant in the gastric tumor microenvironment. In an earlier paper, the researchers demonstrated that inhibiting signaling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, by severing the vagus nerve in the stomach or treating with Botulinum toxin, shrank or prevented the growth of gastric tumors in mouse models. "Nerves and acetylcholine clearly play a key role in regulating the development and growth of cancer cells, particularly cancer stem cells, in the gastric tumor microenvironment," said Timothy C. Wang, MD, the Dorothy L. and Daniel H. Silberberg Professor of Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and senior author of the paper. "But little is known about what is driving cancer in the earliest stage of development, before the expansion of nerves in the microenvironment. We also wanted to find out where acetylcholine is coming from before the growth of nerves." Through a series of experiments in mouse models, the researchers determined that a neurotrophin (substance that triggers nerve growth) called nerve growth factor is highly expressed in gastric cancer cells. They also discovered that tuft cells--specialized cells found in the lining of the digestive tract that, like nerves, communicate with other cells--provide another source of acetylcholine for cancer cell growth, particularly during the formation of tumors. "We learned that tuft cells are increased during the earliest stage of gastric tumor development, making acetylcholine and stimulating the production of nerve growth factor within the lining of the stomach," said Dr. Wang. "As nerves grow in around the tumor, tuft cells decrease." In additional experiments, the scientists showed that overexpression of nerve growth factor in the mouse stomach drove tumorigenesis. Furthermore, administration of a nerve growth factor receptor inhibitor prevented stomach cancer in the mice. "Our study provides some insight into the cellular crosstalk that leads to the development of stomach cancer, and points to a viable therapeutic target for this type of cancer," said Dr. Wang. "Using our findings as a paradigm, additional studies can be done to identify the specific neurotrophins and neurotransmitters that are involved in tumor development in other areas of the body." The study is titled, "Nerve growth factor promotes gastric tumorigenesis through aberrant cholinergic signaling." The other contributors are: Yoku Hayakawa (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), Kosuke Sakitani (University of Tokyo), Mitsuru Konishi (University of Tokyo), Samuel Asfaha (University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada), Ryota Niikura (University of Tokyo), Hiroyuki Tomita (Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan), Bernhard W. Renz (Hospital of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany), Yagnesh Taylor (CUMC), Marina Macchini (CUMC). Moritz Middlehoff (CUMC), Zhengyu Jiang (CUMC), Takayuki Tenaka (CUMC), Zinaida A. Dubeykovskaya (CUMC), Woosook Kim (CUMC), Xiaowei Chen (CUMC), Aleksandra M. Urbanska (CUMC), Karan Nagar (CUMC), Christoph B. Westphalen (Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany), Michael Quante (Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany), Chyuan-Sheng Lin (CUMC), Michael D. Gershon (CUMC), Akira Hara (Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine), Chun-Mei Zhao (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. Norway), Duan Chen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Daniel L. Worthley (University of Aidelaide, Australia), and Kazuhiko Koike (University of Tokyo). The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (U54CA126513, R01CA093405, R01CA120979, and R01DK052778), the Clyde Wu Family Foundation, the Nakayama Cancer Research Institute, the Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, and the Project for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Evolution from the Japan Agency of Medical Research and Development. Y.H. and K.S. were supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and Y.H. and T.T. were supported by Uehara Memorial Foundation. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Columbia University Medical Center provides international leadership in basic, preclinical, and clinical research; medical and health sciences education; and patient care. The medical center trains future leaders and includes the dedicated work of many physicians, scientists, public health professionals, dentists, and nurses at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Mailman School of Public Health, the College of Dental Medicine, the School of Nursing, the biomedical departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and allied research centers and institutions. Columbia University Medical Center is home to the largest medical research enterprise in New York City and State and one of the largest faculty medical practices in the Northeast. The campus that Columbia University Medical Center shares with its hospital partner, NewYork-Presbyterian, is now called the Columbia University Irving Medical Center. For more information, visit or

Aune I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Moller A.,Nordic School of Public Health
Midwifery | Year: 2012

Objective: to increase our understanding of how pregnant women experience early ultrasound examination that includes a risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies and how such women perceive the test results. Design/setting: qualitative study at St. Olavs Hospital in Norway. Both pre- and post-examination interviews were conducted with ten pregnant women who underwent risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies. Grounded theory was used to analyse the results. Findings: the study generated a core category (I want a choice, but I don't want to decide), which related to the conflict between choice and decision making. There were also five main categories (existential choices, search for knowledge, anxiety, feeling of guilt and counselling and care). The main categories describe the complex feelings experienced by the women regarding the risk assessment. Factors contributing to the difficulty of choice included loss of control and coping, emotional connection to the fetus and social pressure. As the women sought independent choices without any external influence, they also felt greater responsibility. The women's understanding of the actual risk varied, and they used different types of logic and methods to evaluate the risk and reach a decision. Conclusions: the pregnant women in this study wanted prenatal diagnostic information and easy access to specialty services. Stress-related feelings and non-transparent information about the actual and perceived risks as well as personal moral judgments made the decision-making process complicated. Improved distribution of information and frequent contact with health professionals may help such women to make informed choices in accordance with their values and beliefs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hoyvik I.-M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Jorgensen P.,University of Aarhus
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2016

The scope of this review article is to discuss the locality of occupied and virtual orthogonal Hartree-Fock orbitals generated by localization function optimization. Locality is discussed from the stand that an orbital is local if it is confined to a small region in space. Focusing on locality measures that reflects the spatial extent of the bulk of an orbital and the thickness of orbital tails, we discuss, with numerical illustrations, how the locality may be reported for individual orbitals as well as for sets of orbitals. Traditional and more recent orbital localization functions are reviewed, and the locality measures are used to compare the locality of the orbitals generated by the different localization functions, both for occupied and virtual orbitals. Numerical illustrations are given also for large molecular systems and for cases where diffuse functions are included in the atomic orbital basis. In addition, we have included a discussion on the physical and mathematical limitations on orbital locality. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Giacinti G.,University of Oxford | Kachelriess M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Semikoz D.V.,AstroParticle and Cosmology APC
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We investigate the possibility that the cosmic ray (CR) knee is entirely explained by the energy-dependent CR leakage from the Milky Way. We test this hypothesis calculating the trajectories of individual CRs with energies between E/Z=1014eV and 1017eV propagating them in the regular and turbulent Galactic magnetic field. We find a knee-like structure of the CR escape time τesc(E) around E/Z=few×1015eV for a coherence length lc≃2pc of the turbulent field, while the decrease of τesc(E) slows down around E/Z≃1016eV in models with a weak turbulent magnetic field. Assuming that the injection spectra of CR nuclei are power laws, the resulting CR intensities in such a turbulence are consistent with the energy spectra of CR nuclei determined by KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande. We calculate the resulting CR dipole anisotropy as well as the source rate in this model. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Martelli E.,Polytechnic of Milan | Nord L.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bolland O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

One option for pre-combustion CO2 capture in power plants is the integrated reforming combined cycle (IRCC). IRCCs have previously been studied from multiple viewpoints: thermo-economic analysis, process optimization, environmental impact, and plant flexibility. This paper is focused on the design of the heat recovery steam cycle (HRSC), including the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and aims to define the optimal steam cycle configurations for plant efficiency and dual-fuel flexibility. A recently developed optimization algorithm was successfully applied to obtain a set of flexible and efficient designs for IRCCs. Results showed that the preferred designs consisted of a dual-pressure level HRSG with reheat and limited supplementary firing in duct burners, high-pressure evaporators and economizers in the syngas coolers, limited high-pressure level (140-154bar), and feedwater preheating. The most attractive optimized dual-pressure designs showed improvements of approximately 0.5% points in the net plant efficiency compared to the non-optimized base case. The resulting net plant efficiency was about 45.8% with a net power output of around 425MW for the best cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Jonsson A.K.,Linköping University | Spigset O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hagg S.,Linköping University
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Since chlorpromazine was introduced to the market in the early 1950s, the use of antipsychotic drugs has been associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a number of reports. During the last decade the evidence has been strengthened with large epidemiological studies. Whether all antipsychotics increase the risk for VTE or the risk is confined to certain drugs is still unclear. The aim of this article is to present an updated critical review focusing on the incidence, mechanisms and management of VTE in users of antipsychotics. After searching the databases PubMed and Scopus for relevant articles we identified 12 observational studies, all of which were published after the year 2000. In most of these studies an elevated risk of VTE was observed for antipsychotic drugs, with the highest risk for clozapine, olanzapine and low-potency first-generation antipsychotics. The risk seems to be correlated with dose. The elderly, who mainly use lower doses, do not show an increased risk of VTE to the same extent as younger subjects.The underlying biological mechanisms explaining the association between antipsychotic medication and VTE are to a large extent unknown. Several hypotheses have been proposed, such as body weight gain, sedation, enhanced platelet aggregation, increased levels of antiphospholipid antibodies, hyperprolactinaemia and hyperhomocysteinaemia. The risk of VTE in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders may also be related to the underlying disease rather than the medication.Very limited evidence exists to guide how cases of VTE in subjects using antipsychotics should be handled. An attempt to compile an algorithm where the patients individual risk of VTE is assessed and preventive clinical measures are suggested has been published recently. Strong consideration should be given to discontinuation of the offending antipsychotic drug in patients experiencing a VTE, and another antipsychotic drug with a presumably lower risk should be chosen if antipsychotic drug treatment is still indicated. It is essential that physicians and patients are aware that VTE may be an adverse drug reaction to the antipsychotic treatment so the condition is identified early and treated appropriately. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2015

BBMRI-ERIC: the Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Infrastructure - European Research Infrastructure Consortium, aims to establish, operate and develop a Pan-European distributed research infrastructure in order to facilitate the access to biological resources as well as facilities and to support high quality biomolecular and biomedical research. The ADOPT BBMRI-ERIC proposal aims at boosting and accelerating implementation of BBMRI-ERIC and its services. Its main deliverables are designed to complete or launch the construction of key Common Services of the Research Infrastructure as required for ESFRI-projects under implementation, reflecting the targets of the European Research Area (ERA). One of the challenges in the post-genomic era is the research on common complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimers disease. Revealing these diseases will depend critically on the study of human biological samples and data from large numbers of patients and healthy individuals. The EUs ageing population is will result in an increase in many of those diseases and consequently an increased healthcare expenditure for senior citizens. BBMRI-ERIC is a specific European asset having become a fundamental component in addressing the ongoing and future requirements particularly of Europes health service frameworks, including competitiveness and innovativeness of health-related industries. Its implementation is essential for the understanding of the diversity of human diseases, biological samples and corresponding data, which are required for the development of any new drug or diagnostic assay and are, therefore, critical for the advancement in health research, ultimately leading to personalised medicine. BBMRI-ERIC will provide a gateway access to the collections of the European research community, expertise and services building on the outcome of ADOPT BBMRI-ERIC.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EeB-07-2015 | Award Amount: 6.89M | Year: 2016

The estimated average gap between calculated and actual energy performance of the European building stock is 25% for energy performance and 1,5% for comfort performance (as scored by building occupants). Comprehensive research has shown that faultily commissioned and operated building management systems are a main cause for this gap mainly caused by the lack of appropriate and coherent quality management systems for building performance. The objective of this project is therefore to develop and demonstrate pragmatic services and appropriate tools supporting quality management in the design, construction, commissioning and operation phase as a means to close this gap in European buildings. The project will integrate different innovative ICT-driven tools supporting the quality management process into building and energy services, and will apply them to a representative set of European buildings (taking into account different climate zones and different energy services). The result of this project will be a comprehensive QUANTUM quality management platform integrating tools, services and processes. The partners will implement EU-wide dissemination activities to inform the stakeholders about the advantages of comprehensive quality management systems for the building industry, and to promote the tools validated in the project. Stakeholders that will benefit from the results of this project include building owners, tenants, ESCOs, developers, architects, engineering and consulting firms, students and public authorities. Aside from savings on the energy costs CO2 emissions will be reduced and employee productivity in buildings equipped with the tools and services will increase as well due to increased occupant comfort. From previous preliminary data and own estimations, the QUANTUM partners expect that the reduction in energy consumption achieved by coherent quality management for building performance to be more than 10%.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-13e-2015 | Award Amount: 2.01M | Year: 2015

Primary and secondary raw materials are fundamental to Europes economy and growth. They represent the most important link in the value chain of industrial goods production, which plays a prominent role as a source of prosperity in Europe. However, as stated in the call, there exists to-date no raw materials knowledge infrastructure at EU level. The Mineral Intelligence Capacity Analysis (MICA) project contributes to on-going efforts towards the establishment of such an infrastructure by projects such as ProMine, EURare, Minventory, EuroGeoSource, Minerals4EU, ProSum, I2Mine, INTRAW, MINATURA2020 and others. The main objectives of MICA are: - Identification and definition of stakeholder groups and their raw material intelligence (RMI) requirements, - Consolidation of relevant data on primary and secondary raw materials, - Determination of appropriate methods and tools to satisfy stakeholder RMI requirements, - Investigation of (RMI-) options for European mineral policy development, - Development of the EU-Raw Materials Intelligence Capacity Platform (EU-RMICP) integrating information on data and methods/tools with user interface capable of answering stakeholder questions, - Linking the derived intelligence to the European Union Raw Materials Knowledge Base developed by the Minerals4EU project. The MICA project brings together a multidisciplinary team of experts from natural and technical sciences, social sciences including political sciences, and information science and technology to ensure that raw material intelligence is collected, collated, stored and made accessible in the most useful way corresponding to stakeholder needs. Furthermore, the MICA project integrates a group of 15 European geological surveys that contribute to the work program as third parties. They have specific roles in the fulfilment of tasks and will provide feedback to the project from the diverse range of backgrounds that characterizes the European geoscience community.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.2-5 | Award Amount: 6.48M | Year: 2009

In this project we seek to develop new smart imaging molecular tools for combating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and prion diseases. Emphasis is put on translational applied research for the development and validation of novel properly functionalized luminescent conjugated polymers (LCP) that via modern imaging technology can give rise to entirely new and innovative methodology for studying neurodegenerative diseases. The objectives include the development of novel imaging agents that can be utilized for biomedical research, diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis, and for support and guidance of therapeutic interventions for Alzheimers disease and prion diseases. The consortium is composed of expert groups in experimental optics, polymer synthesis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), synthesis of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, amyloid structure, AD mouse models, clinical AD, and prion diseases. At the same time this project establishes strategic links between mainly SME based Industries, expert researchers at universities and principal users in terms of hospitals. The project consortium will develop and share an efficient plan for dissemination and exploitation of the project results.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.4.3 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2009

There is a need to reduce the knowledge worker time-to-competence. The main aim is to develop a new genre of TEL environment that supports rapid competence development within the domains of innovation and project management.\n\nThe TARGET environment consists of a learning process supported by the TARGET platform, consisting of a main core of a serious game. Here, the learner is presented with complex situations in the form of game scenarios. Interacting with the game results in experiences that are gradually honed into knowledge.\n\nTARGET integrates five developments: a) Threshold Concepts, resembling knowledge gateways that transform a persons understanding of a knowledge domain b) Knowledge Ecology, defines knowledge as a living organism c) Cognitive Load Theory, a learners attention and working memory is limited, therefore learning processes must be designed to allow effective internalization without overload d) Learning Communities, where members of a community develop their competences by leveraging the experience of their peers e) Experience Management, to allow learners to accumulate lessons learned through real and theoretical situations.\n\nThe TARGET aims will be realized through the following specific objectives: a) Conceptual Framework, the conceptual blueprint of TARGET b) Knowledge model, how the game scenarios, concept thresholds, and competences are related c) TARGET Learning Process, supported by a pedagogical framework d) TARGET Platform, of which the core is the Virtual Business Environment e) Pedagogical Agents, available to assume unfilled roles within a game scenario f) TARGET Communities, four sustainable communities revolving around the TARGET environment g) HRM Integration, integration of TARGET within an organization h) Evaluation Framework, for assessing a learners competence development.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2013.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 6.29M | Year: 2014

The overall aim of GLAMURS (Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability) is to develop a theoretically-based and empirically-grounded understanding of the main obstacles and prospects for transitions to sustainable lifestyles and a green economy in Europe, as well as of the most effective means to support and speed them up. The call states explicitly that for transitions to be possible there is a need to address the demand side, reevaluate growth models and find appropriate ways to produce lifestyle changes and economic paradigm shifts. The result will be the development, testing and assessing of several integrated pathways for transitions to a low-carbon Europe. GLAMURS will develop theory, models and evidence on obstacles and prospects for the transformation to green economies and lifestyles in Europe. It will do this through multi-scale, multi-region integrated research involving psychologists, economists and policy experts studying individual and societal levels, combined with environmental impact modeling of the effects of scenarios and policy interventions on lifestyle and economic transitions. The research will engage policymakers and stakeholders at the European and regional scales, studying citizens everyday lives in the present, and emerging initiatives: early adopters of more sustainable lifestyle practices and behaviors. It will provide recommendations on the best governance designs and policy mixes for achieving a sufficiently-fast paced transition in Europe in line with the objectives established in the Europe 2020 strategy and the Resource Efficiency Flagship Initiative. It will also evaluate the context the project creates to understand how citizens, researchers, stakeholder organizations and policymakers come to know what it is they need to do to bring about individually, socially, environmentally and economically sustainable living, disseminating our work through diverse media.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.24M | Year: 2015

It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earths surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. ARISE2 capitalizes upon the work of the EU-funded first ARISE project combining for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE2 proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. Compared to the first ARISE project, ARISE2 focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation. The data portal will provide high-quality data and advanced data products to a wide scientific community.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2016

Social and economic growth, security and sustainability in Europe are at risk of being compromised due to aging and failing railway infrastructure systems. This partly reflects a recognised skill shortage in railway infrastructure engineering. This project, RISEN, aims to enhance knowledge creation and transfer using both international and intersectoral secondment mechanisms among European Advanced Rail Research Universities/SMEs and Non-EU, world-class rail universities including the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (USA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), Southwest Jiaotong University (China) and University of Wollongong (Australia). This project adds research skill mobility and innovation dimension to existing bilateral collaborations between universities through research exchange, joint research supervision, summer courses, international training and workshops, and joint development of innovative inventions. It spans over 4 years from April 2016 to March 2020. RISEN aims to produce the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to meet the challenge of providing sustainable, smart and resilient railway infrastructure systems critical for maintaining European competitiveness. The emphasis will be placed on the resilience and adaptation of railway and urban transport infrastructures using integrated smart systems. Such critical areas of the research theme will thus be synergised to improve response and resilience of rail infrastructure systems to climate change, extreme events from natural and human-made hazards, and future operational demands. In addition, researchers will benefit from the co-location of engineering education, training and research alongside world-class scientists and industry users through this initiative. Lessons learnt from rail infrastructure management will be shared and utilised to assure integrated and sustainable rail transport planning for future cities and communities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FoF-ICT-2011.7.4 | Award Amount: 12.56M | Year: 2011

What is clearly missing in the current ICT landscape for manufacturing is an integrated, holistic view on data across the full product lifecycle. Especially the design and engineering of products and manufacturing processes is decoupled from the actual process execution. As experiences of the past show, a tight integration of all tools used throughout a product lifetime is not feasible.\nLinkkME addresses these shortcomings by providing an integrated, holistic view on data, persons and processes across the product lifecycle as a vital resource for the outstanding competitive design of novel products and manufacturing processes. To achieve this goal the project will develop the Linked Engineering and mAnufacturing Platform (LEAP) as an integrated information system for manufacturing design. LEAP federates all product lifecycle information relevant to drive engineering and manufacturing processes, independent of its format, location, originator, and time of creation. Besides the unified access to the integrated information, LEAP will provide specific knowledge exploitation solutions like sentiment analysis and design decision support systems to analyse the integrated information.\nWithin LinkkME we aim for a user-centric lifecycle information management. LEAP will provide a context-driven access to federated information and knowledge and foster cross-discipline collaborations between users by novel approaches for collaborative engineering.\nFinally, LinkkME will provide tight feedback connections to existing engineering tools (e.g., CAx Systems) in order to push back formalised knowledge to enable the automated design of elementary product components.\nAll concepts and components developed within the LinkkME project will be evaluated using three application prototypes deployed at the application partners industry sites. Further, the project team will develop four show case demonstrators in the Living Labs associated to the consortium.\nIn terms of impact, partners estimate reductions of up to 50% in time spent for search and knowledge acquisition through the improved (collaborative) information access and reductions of over 20% in time to market through support and automation of product and manufacturing design provided by the engineering platform.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2016

Deictic communication is fundamental to understanding communication in both typical and atypical populations, and forms the key connection between language and objects/locations in the world. It is therefore critical to understanding human-human interaction, and human-system interaction in a range of technology applications from mobile phones to cognitive robotics and to the enhancement of clinical and educational interventions with typical and atypical populations. This ETN will train the next generation of scientists in the full range of multidisciplinary and cross-sectorial methods necessary to make significant progress in understanding deictic communication, with direct synergies between basic research and application. Training is structured around two interdisciplinary research themes Understanding Deictic Communication and Deictic Communication in Application both involving extensive and systematic co-supervision and collaboration across sites with key interplay between academic and nonacademic beneficiaries and partners. In turn we expect that a range of applications will be enhanced with increased usability, with associated societal and economic benefit. The training of the cohort of ESR fellows is based on innovative PhD training approaches, providing not only training in interdisciplinary methods, but also employing peer-assisted methods and the latest in educational innovation. This will produce a cohort of highly skilled researchers who will be highly employable given the potential contribution they will make to future research and innovation in the public and private sectors.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.4.1-2 | Award Amount: 14.74M | Year: 2014

Earth provides natural resources, such as fossil fuels and minerals, that are vital for Europes economy. As the global demand grows, especially for strategic metals, commodity prices rapidly rise and there is an identifiable risk of an increasing supply shortage of some metals, including those identified as critical to Europes high technology sector. Hence a major element in any economys long-term strategy must be to respond to the increasing pressure on natural resources to ensure security of supply for these strategic metals. In todays rapidly changing global economic landscape, mining in the deep sea, specifically at hydrothermal vents and the vast areas covered by polymetallic nodules, has gone from a distant possibility to a likely reality within just a decade. The extremely hostile conditions found on the deep-ocean floor pose specific challenges, both technically and environmentally, which are demanding and entirely different from land-based mining. At present, European offshore industries and marine research institutions have some global advantage through their significant experience and technology and are well positioned to develop engineering and knowledge-based solutions to resource exploitation in these challenging and sensitive environments. However, against an international backdrop of state-sponsored research and development in sea floor resource discovery, assessment and extraction technologies, European operators are at an increasing disadvantage. Hence the recognised need to initiate pilot studies to develop breakthrough methodologies for the exploration, assessment and extraction of deep-sea minerals, as well as investigate the implications for economic and environmental sustainability. The Blue Mining project will address all aspects of the entire value chain in this field, from resource discovery (WP1) to resource assessment (WP2), from exploitation technologies (WP3) to the legal and regulatory framework (WP5).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2011

EUBORDERRREGIONS will investigate the manifold consequences of increasing cross-border interaction for the development of regions at the EUs external borders and, in this way, contribute to scientific and policy debate on the future of economic, social and territorial cohesion within the EU. Importantly, the project will contextualise development issues in selected EU Borderlands with regard to interaction between the EU and countries of the immediate neighbourhood. Within the context of these challenges, the regions at issue here are struggling to define new opportunities for social and economic development and are also attempting to create greater capacities for territorial cooperation with other regions. Despite all criticisms levelled at the European Commission, the EU as market and political institution has been absolutely essential in preparing the ground for greater economic and political interaction. Much will therefore depend on how EU policies and policy discourses translate into political capital for local/regional cross-border cooperation in the new borderlands. At the same time, the issue of capacity building and exploitation of the benefits of strategic cross-border co-operation must be clearly addressed at the local and regional level.As such, these border regions will be treated as interfaces between development dynamics and policy frameworks operating within the EU, on the one hand, and in neighbouring countries, on the other. In doing this, the project will also contribute to the state of the art of policy-oriented research on regional development and cohesion within Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-32-2016 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2017

SHAPE-ENERGY Social Sciences and Humanities for Advancing Policy in European Energy will develop Europes expertise in using and applying energy-SSH to accelerate the delivery of Europes Energy Union Strategy. Our consortium brings together 7 leading academic partners and 6 highly respected policy, industry and communications practitioners from across the Energy, Social Sciences and Humanities (energy-SSH) research field, to create an innovative and inclusive Platform. Our partners are involved in numerous European energy projects, have extensive, relevant networks in the energy domain, and represent exceptional coverage across SSH disciplines across Europe. These enable us to maximise the impact of our Platform delivery within an intensive 2-year project. SHAPE-ENERGY brings together those who demand energy-SSH research and those who supply that research to collaborate in shaping Europes energy future. A key deliverable will be a 2020-2030 research and innovation agenda to underpin post-Horizon 2020 energy-focused work programmes. It will highlight how energy-SSH can be better embedded into energy policymaking, innovation and research in the next decade. Our SHAPE-ENERGY Platform activities will involve >12,114 stakeholders and begin with scoping activities including: an academic workshop, call for evidence, interviews with business leaders and NGOs, online citizen debates and multi-level policy meetings. We will build on our scoping to then deliver: 18 multi-stakeholder workshops in cities across Europe, an Early Stage Researcher programme, Horizon 2020 sandpits, interdisciplinary think pieces, a research design challenge, and a pan-European conference. Our expert consortium will bring their considerable expertise to overcome difficulties in promoting interdisciplinary and cross-sector working, and reach out to new parts of Europe to create an inclusive, dynamic and open Platform. SHAPE-ENERGY will drive forward Europes low carbon energy future.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-5.1-01 | Award Amount: 15.54M | Year: 2008

DECARBit responds to the urgent need for further research and development in advanced pre-combustion capture techniques to substantially reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel power plants. The project will accelerate the technology development and contribute to the deployment of large scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) plants in line with the adopted European policies for emission reductions. DECARBit- short for Decarbonise it, is established by 16 legal entities constituting the core group of the project. These encompass 5 leading industrial technology providers, 2 technology end-users (1 utility and 1 oil&gas company) and 9 highly ranked RTD providers representing in totality 8 countries. The project focus is to pursue the search for improved and new pre-combustion technologies that can meet the cost target of 15/ton CO2 captured as stated in the Work Programme. DECARBit is designed as a Collaborative Large-scale Integrating Project. The RTD activities are structured in 5 sub-projects directly responding to the objectives of the Work Programme: SP1 System integration and optimization SP2 Advanced pre-combustion CO2 separation SP3 Advanced oxygen separation technologies SP4 Enabling technologies for pre-combustion SP5 Pre-combustion pilots The project activities comprise theoretical and experimental investigations leading to extended pilot testing. Key expected impacts of DECARBit, all complying with the Work Programme are: * Cost reduced pre-combustion capture of CO2 promoting the development and deployment of large scale CCS plants (10-12 by 2020). Further industrial uptake is strengthened through an Industrial Contact Group established within the project framework * Strengthen the competitiveness of the European industry and economy by maintaining and reinforcing the leading position in CCS technologies, also exploring the potential impacts for other energy intensive industries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETHPC-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.53M | Year: 2015

High Performance Computing (HPC) has become a major instrument for many scientific and industrial fields to generate new insights and product developments. There is a continuous demand for growing compute power, leading to a constant increase in system size and complexity. Efficiently utilizing the resources provided on Exascale systems will be a challenging task, potentially causing a large amount of underutilized resources and wasted energy. Parameters for adjusting the system to application requirements exist both on the hardware and on the system software level but are mostly unused today. Moreover, accelerators and co-processors offer a significant performance improvement at the cost of increased overhead, e.g., for data-transfers. While HPC applications are usually highly compute intensive, they also exhibit a large degree of dynamic behaviour, e.g., the alternation between communication phases and compute kernels. Manually detecting and leveraging this dynamism to improve energy-efficiency is a tedious task that is commonly neglected by developers. However, using an automatic optimization approach, application dynamism can be detected at design-time and used to generate optimized system configurations. A light-weight run-time system will then detect this dynamic behaviour in production and switch parameter configurations if beneficial for the performance and energy-efficiency of the application. The READEX project will develop an integrated tool-suite and the READEX Programming Paradigm to exploit application domain knowledge, together achieving an improvement in energy-efficiency of up to 22.5%. Driven by a consortium of European experts from academia, HPC resource providers, and industry, the READEX project will develop a tools-aided methodology to exploit the dynamic behaviour of applications to achieve improved energy-efficiency and performance. The developed tool-suite will be efficient and scalable to support current and future extreme scale systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 3.25M | Year: 2015

ECCSEL aims at gaining recognition as a world-class research infrastructure based within leading European Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) institutions and knowledge centres. It will be due for registration in 2015, forming a legal entity allocating efforts and resources to selected scientific and technological aspects of the CCS chain. ECCSEL will enable high-ranking researchers and scientists from all regions of Europe (and from third countries) to access state-of-the-art research facilities to conduct advanced technological research actions relevant to CCS. The proposed project aims to: implement ECCSEL as a not-for-profit organisation consistent with the European Research Infrastructure Consortium legal framework; initiate operations of ECCSEL as a world-class CCS research infrastructure in accordance with the principles developed during the preparatory phase; develop the research infrastructure to an upgraded common standard in terms of quality of services, management and access provision.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.9. | Award Amount: 10.48M | Year: 2013

In recent years, biomedical research has crossed international borders in large, collaborative studies showing the value of multidisciplinarity and scale advantage. This has yielded valuable insights and some led to new and better medicines and treatments for diseases. However, disease-focused studies provide less insight in the real disease onset, the relative disease burden in the population, and the actual comparability of selected patients. Large prospective cohort (LPC) studies following up initially healthy participants for years or decades are considered more reliable and different diseases can be studied. LPC studies require large numbers of subjects which are costly but particularly benefited from the advent of high throughput techniques providing opportunities for powerful study designs. This project unites the large study sets of the European Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure (BBMRI) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), thus achieving a worldwide unique scale of integration. Specifically, we aim to:1)Evaluate/improve the harmonization of individual data on health, lifestyle and other exposures;2)Develop/implement harmonized definitions of diseases;3)Improve biobanking and research technologies and develop innovative solutions facilitating high-quality, fair access to samples and data;4)Provide free transnational access by users, through study proposals selected by an open, pan-European call;5)In the framework of these studies, generate and provide access to whole genome sequences, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and methylome data;6)Build new public-private partnerships involving large-scale prospective cohorts, and strengthening existing ones, allowing transparent industrial access to academic expertise;7) Build a network transferring the expertise of established European large-scale biobanks to new biobank initiatives under development in other countries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 7.43M | Year: 2013

Integrated assessment and energy-economy models have become central tools for informing long-term global and regional climate mitigation strategies. There is a large demand for improved representations of complex system interactions and thorough validation of model behaviour in order to increase user confidence in climate policy assessments. ADVANCE aims to respond to this demand by facilitating the development of a new generation of integrated assessment models. This will be achieved by substantial progress in key areas where model improvements are greatly needed: end use and energy service demand; representation of heterogeneity, behaviour, innovation and consumer choices; technical change and uncertainty; system integration, path dependencies and resource constraints; and economic impacts of mitigation policies. In the past, methodological innovations and improvements were hindered by the unavailability of suitable input data. The ADVANCE project will make a large and coordinated effort to generate relevant datasets. These datasets, along with newly developed methodologies, will be made available to the broader scientific community as open-access resources. ADVANCE will also put a focus on improved model transparency, model validation, and data handling. A central objective of ADVANCE is to evaluate and to improve the suitability of models for climate policy impact assessments. The improved models will be applied to an assessment of long-term EU climate policy in a global context, and disseminated to the wider community. The ADVANCE consortium brings together long-standing expertise in integrated assessment and energy-economy modelling with a strong expertise in material flows, energy system integration, and energy service demand.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-2.2.3. | Award Amount: 1.91M | Year: 2013

The proposed project constitutes the second part of a preparatory project aimed at forming a new distributed research infrastructure devoted to world-class experimental research pertaining to CCS. The project will bring the new research infrastructure up to the level of legal and financial maturity. Pursuant to this endeavour, a consortium has been established to provide the techno-economic, legal and commercial framework required to shift from planning to operation of the pan-European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory, ECCSEL. The consortium will settle all prerequisites associated with the organising and structuring of the new research infrastructure operating under a joint hallmark, ECCSEL. Efforts will be diverted towards management planning, governance, financing, legal issues, strategy and technical work. This will be made in due accordance with the project idea and the vision of ECCSEL, pursuant to objectives and targets as stated in the proposal. Emphasis will be placed on a) outlining and preparing the commercial setting of ECCSEL (to be established in 2015) resulting in the format of a prospectus (ECCSEL Business Plan), b) implementation planning of the research infrastructure as required to form ECCSEL, c) knowledge and innovation management in science and technology pertaining to the systemic handling of distributed research laboratory facilities improvement of the research infrastructure and its related services second (and third) generation CCS technology aiming especially to reduce the energy penalty, lowering the cost of electricity (or industrial yields) and cutting the lead time for CCS. The consortium, made up by world-leading research and demonstration providers within the field of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), offers an extensive collection of profound knowledge and experience within CCS-related research. This implies that the project and its succeeding operational phase will

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.03M | Year: 2010

Alpha-Mannosidosis is a rare Lysosomal Storage Disorder with a worldwide incidence of about 1:500 000. This orphan and devastating disease is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN) which is responsible for the intralysosomal degradation of mannosyl linked oligosaccharides. To date no causative treatment for alpha-Mannosidosis is available and since most of the children are born healthy, an early initiated therapy could contribute to a normal development. To develop an efficient therapy for this disease the collaborative research project EURAMAN and HUE-MAN were initiated within FP5 and FP6, respectively. Within these collaborative networks, European scientists, clinicians and the industry successfully i) developed an efficient pre-clinical Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) protocol using recombinant human (rh) LAMAN in a mouse model for alpha-Mannosidosis, ii) built up a database collecting patient data and iii) defined clinical endpoints for the future clinical trials in alpha-Mannosidosis patients by an European wide natural history study. Furthermore, the HUE-MAN network developed the conditions for a large-scale production of the recombinant enzyme and the way is now paved for the first clinical trials in man, which we aim to realize within FP7. The main objectives of the ALPHA-MAN project are i) the performance of efficient clinical trials (phase I-III) in alpha-Mannosidosis patients, ii) a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the mechanism of how the recombinant enzyme enters the cells of the central nervous system by performing ERT in a newly generated immuntolerant alpha-Mannosidosis mouse model, which allows chronic treatment and iii) the determination of the minimal effective dose with chronic treatment in the immuntolerant mice.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 2.72M | Year: 2015

SAF21 is an interdisciplinary and intersectoral network that embeds the social scientists of the future into EU fisheries management systems. It trains experts in analysis of human social behaviour for the better management of socio-ecological complex systems such as fisheries. Behaviour of fishers is complex as trust building and norms acceptance influence compliance with fishing regulations in unpredictable ways. The desired behaviour of fishers is often different from the actual subsequent one as those involved adapt to and find ways around new regulatory regimes, often with catastrophic consequences on resources. Therefore, an integrated understanding of the fine mechanisms governing fishers behaviour in relation with the regulative processes is needed, to the benefit of decision makers, fishing industry and the environment alike. Academic research and training have insufficiently reflected this need. SAF21 will contribute to rectifying this by training researchers in using tools of the 21st century, e.g. computational sociology techniques, to analyse this topic from a multitude of angles: public understanding of fisheries, trust and norms, social and regulative norms, social marketing of fisheries norms, stakeholders interaction in different management systems and socio-economic resilience. This knowledge will initiate the development of innovative management strategies, especially when it comes to shifting to new regulatory regimes. The wide-ranging training envisaged will offer a structured doctoral training in academic and transferable skills in addition to highly intersectoral non-academic mobility opportunities. Thus, the SAF21 candidates will have the necessary skills and experience to cross disciplines and work sectors. SAF21 will provide researchers the opportunity to fulfill their scientific social responsibility at a higher level than conventional doctoral programs, by ensuring significant time and training for public engagement and outreach.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 2.55M | Year: 2011

In this call the EU supports activities strengthening space foundations reducing the vulnerability of space assets from space weather events. Solar activity affects the entire Earth environment from the magnetosphere down to the ionosphere and even to the lower atmosphere climate system. The natural hazards of space weather do not only modify the atmosphere but also can catastrophically disrupt the operations of many technological systems, thus causing disruption to peoples lives and jobs. The AFFECTS collaborative project uniquely addresses these key topics through state of the art analysis and modeling of the Sun-Earth Chain of Effects on the Earths ionosphere and their subsequent impacts on communication systems. Multipoint space observations enable world-leading experts at the highest level of interdisciplinary excellence to forecast the relevant space weather effects on the ionosphere quantitatively. The unique set of measurements from satellites in different orbits is complemented by dedicated ground-based monitoring of auroral electrojet and ionospheric activity. The AFFECTS team consists of key European space weather research teams and the US Space Weather Prediction Center of NOAA. To date no dedicated space weather forecast system for ionospheric applications exists in an operational manner, and thus this project would lead to an entirely new capability in Europe that is not only important for society but also does not exist elsewhere. AFFECTS is an unprecedented project which in time of the expected next solar maximum around 2012 will provide advanced prediction, assessment and early warning capabilities of disruptive space weather events that are expected to be particularly poignant to society and thereby meets the needs of Europes community of users. AFFECTS will provide Europe with the first advanced early warning and space weather forecast system to help European citizens mitigating the impact on its communication systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.4 | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2013

The EXCESS project aims at providing radically new energy execution models forming foundations for energy-efficient computing paradigms that will enable two orders of magnitude improvements in energy efficiency for computing systems. A holistic approach that involves both hardware and software aspects together has the best chances to successfully address the energy efficiency problem and discover innovative solutions. EXCESS proposed models will try to describe and bridge embedded processors models with general purpose ones. EXCESS will take a holistic approach and will introduce novel programming methodologies to drastically simplify the development of energy-aware applications that will be energy-portable in a wide range of computing systems while preserving relevant aspects of performance.\nThe EXCESS project is going to be driven by the following technical components that are going to be developed during EXCESS:\n Complete software stacks (including programming models, libraries/algorithms and runtimes) for energy- efficient computing.\n Uniform, generic development methodology and prototype software tools that enable leveraging additional optimisation opportunities for energy-efficient computing by coordinating optimisation knobs at the different levels of the system stack, enabled by appropriate modelling abstractions at each level.\n Configurable energy-aware simulation systems for future energy-efficient architectures.\n\nThe EXCES consortium unites Europes leading experts in both high-performance computing and embedded computing. The consortium consists of world-class research centres and universities (Chalmers, LIU, UiT), a high performance computing centre (HLRS at USTUTT), and a European embedded multi-core SME (Movidius), and has the required expertise to accomplish the ambitious but realistic goals of EXCESS.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.1 | Award Amount: 5.64M | Year: 2008

Dynamic spectrum allocation has become a key research activity in wireless communications field and in particular a key technology for The Network of the Future objective proposed in ICT Work Programme 2007.\n\nFollowing these current trends towards dynamic spectrum allocation, the SENDORA project will focus on developing innovative techniques based on sensor networks, that will support the coexistence of licensed and unlicensed wireless users in a same area. The SENDORA project ideas stem from recent fundamental works on cognitive radio technology.\nThe capability to detect spectrum holes, without interfering with the primary network currently in use, is the actual major difficulty faced by the cognitive radio. The innovative concept proposed in SENDORA project consists in developing a sensor network aided cognitive radio technology which will allow to solve this issue, thanks to the introduction of sensor networks and associated networking capabilities.\n\nThe sensor network aided cognitive radio proposed and studied in SENDORA project will address many different advanced techniques, but will also propose an analysis of the potential exploitation of these techniques. First, scenarios of interest will be defined and will provide the technical activities with requirements to cover. Different types of scenarios will be proposed, corresponding to real needs, mainly identified by the potential integrators of the solutions. On the technical point of view, novel spectrum sensing techniques will be first proposed to be able to identify spectrum holes. Corresponding information management and exploitation will be studied to achieve the co-existence of cognitive radios with primary licensed technology without generating harmful interferences. The design, dimensioning and networking of the wireless sensor network will be deeply addressed. Finally, a proof-of-concept demonstration will be developed to assess the theoretical research.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

Circuit the Circular European Economy Innovative Training Network - creates a cohort of future leaders in research, policy & business through its innovative training programme focused on the Circular Economy. Circular business models, based on leasing or providing functionality rather than products, often called Product Services Systems, are widely seen as a way how business can create sustainable jobs and growth. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF) and McKinsey calculated that circular business will create billions of value. This opportunity has become an important development area for researchers engaged in the sustainability, engineering and design and business fields. Seven top universities well embedded in the EIT KIC Raw materials, supported by the EMF, their CE100 network and various companies propose here a multi-disciplinary approach to ensure a range of research perspectives are included across the circular field. 5 main areas of research are relevant to understand how to create such business models. 1. Businesses and business models: how to stimulate circular provisioning? 2. Supply chains: how to organize supply and delivery chains for circularity? 3. Users: how to motivate stimulate circular consumption? 4. Design: how to design circular value propositions? 5. Systems: How to ensure economic and environmental benefits can support for change to circularity? We choose these areas as our main Work Packages, and appoint PhD students in each of these areas with as main goals: 1. Create new business model innovation across Europe that helps to support the economy while at the same time reduce ecological burden 2. Create a new, sustainable and cross-disciplinary network of trained experts who will have the skills, qualifications, and professional connections to drive future innovation. 3. Create new links between industry and academia in training ESRs to develop new approaches to PSS which will help orgs to compete, create growth and innovation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.4.2.2-1 | Award Amount: 4.49M | Year: 2011

The main idea behind this project is to refine and elaborate economic and environmental accounting principles as discussed in the London Group and consolidated in the future SEEA 2012, to test them in practical data gathering, to troubleshoot and refine approaches, and show added value of having such harmonized data available via case studies. This will be done in priority areas mentioned in the call, i.e. waste and resources, water, forest and climate change / Kyoto accounting. In this, the project will include work and experiences from major previous projects focused on developing harmonized data sets for integrated economic and environmental accounting (most notably EXIOPOL, FORWAST, a series of Eurostat projects in Environment Accounting, and to a lesser extent EU KLEMS and WIOD). Where possible data gathered in the project will be consolidated in and enrich such existing databases (most notably the EXIOPOL and FORWAST databases). The project will be executed by a mix of National Statistical Institutes and top research institutes in this field Europe, of whom the majority was involved already in EXIOPOL, FORWAST and various EUROSTAT projects setting up environmental and economic accounts, or have dedicated expertise on key domain areas. The project has made special provisions for further engagement of (European) participants in the London Group.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2012

One of the strategic objectives of the industrial initiative of the SET Plan on wind energy is to reduce cost of energy by improving reliability of wind turbines and their components and optimizing operation and maintenance (O&M) strategies. Increasing reliability and optimizing O&M have a direct impact on the availability of wind turbines and thus reduce cost and increase energy output. This strategy considerably contributes to making wind energy fully competitive. This is particularly evident in the offshore sector, where O&M represents a high percentage of total costs. MARE-WINT will contribute to the achievement of this goal by proving training in the context of doctoral programmes for 14 researchers in multi-disciplinary area of future generation of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) engineering focusing on issues having a major impact on the mechanical loading of OWT and which are still not sufficiently understood. OWT is a complex energy conversion fluid flow machine which entails coupled hydro-aero-mechanical issues. To design, built and operate a reliable OWT knowledge from disciplines like mechanical engineering, material science, metrology, fluid mechanics, condition monitoring, and computer simulation need to be combined. It is the ambition of MARE-WINT network to bring together specific partners capabilities and know-how to realize tailored training trajectories, focusing on increased reliability OWT design. Balanced industry-academia network consortium includes 6 Universities, 7 Research Institutes, 4 SMEs and 7 Large Industry Partners. The participation of 13 private sector Partners active in off-shore developments is essential to achieving the full impact of the project. Industrial partners are involved in hosting, training and defining the training needs of the researchers. Strong involvement of the industry will give PhD students the widest possible employment prospects. There are 4 Industrial PhD programmes identified within MARE-WINT

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.4 | Award Amount: 2.58M | Year: 2011

The ECCSEL consortium teams up selected Centres of Excellence on CCS across Europe (Norway, Poland, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Greece, UK, Netherlands and Switzerland). The mission is to develop (i.e. build and operate) a European distributed, goal-oriented, integrated Research Infrastructure, to: Provide a dynamic scientific foundation to respond systematically to the urgent R&D needs in CCS at a pan-European level in a short and long term perspective; Maintain Europe at the forefront of the international CCS scientific community; Increase the attractiveness of the European Research Area, reinforcing the research-based clusters and improving their socio-economic impacts; Optimise the value of the Community financial support The existing and new ECCSEL laboratories will be owned by the involved partner institutions. They will, however, be developed and made available for the ECCSEL program, governed by an overall agreement. It is foreseen that ECCSEL will gradually become ready and accessible starting from 2015. The main objective of the ECCSEL Preparatory Phase project (PP) is to address the primary tasks necessary to establish a new distributed, goal-oriented, integrated pan-European infrastructure for state-of-the-art research on technologies enabling CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). The PP Consortium has 15 participants from 8 member states and 2 associated countries. The PP will be split into two phases, phase I and II, that will build on each other. The first phase will last for two years and focus on legal, financial and strategic work. It will be structured in six Work Packages; WP1 Legal and governance structure, WP2 Financial strategy, WP3 Infrastructure development plan, WP4 Dissemination and outreach measures, WP5 Implementation strategy, and WP6 Project management and coordination. The most important outcomes of the first phase include: Identification of suitable legal and governance structure, including rules for IPR, access to and use of the facilities, and HSE standards. Development of a financial strategy Review of priority research needs, mapping and subsequent gap analysis to create the Infrastructure development plan. The formal output of phase I will be the Implementation strategy report, which will be developed in WP5.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2010-3.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.28M | Year: 2011

Light weight component and solutions are increasingly important for a more sustainable world, and aluminium wrought alloys have large potentials for dramatic weight reduction of structural parts. The production of virgin aluminium is, however, highly energy consuming and a higher degree of recycling of aluminium is needed to achieve sustainable industry models for aluminium based components and products. The SuPLight project will address new industrial models for sustainable light weight solutions with 75% recycling in high-end structural components based on wrought alloys. Advanced optimisation algorithms will be used for product and process optimisation with up to 50% increased weight/performance ratio. The project will bridge from atomic scale to continuum FEM simulations as well as tolerance simulations. Novel business models with a holistic life cycle view and higher reactivity to customer contribute to a better impact from the new methods and technology developed in the project. SuPLight will be a multidisciplinary research project, combining physics at the atomic scale level, metallurgy, continuum mechanics, structural mechanics, optimization algorithms, tolerance analysis, life cycle analysis, manufacturing and business modelling. This multidisciplinary is a large challenge but also the key to the real step-change from the project. SuPLight goes beyond prior knowledge on how to reduce weight in structural parts and improve the holistic eco-design of aluminium wrought alloys and to build novel sustainable industry models with a holistic life cycle approach. The project aims to develop new theories, methods and concepts that will be thoroughly tested and demonstrated through the project period. The results will be transformed into new business models, showing how these new approaches can be enabled for other industries as well. Industrial exploitation of the results and to create impact for the European society will be in focus throughout the project

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2011-5 | Award Amount: 10.49M | Year: 2011

The goal of zero defect manufacturing encompasses both short and long term perspectives. The short term perspective is to develop and implement a real time process control system that eliminates the production of any faulty component due to variances in materials, components and process properties. The long term perspective is to minimize all failures by continuous optimizing of the production process and the manufacturing system. A framework of an Intelligent Fault Correction and self Optimizing Manufacturing system (IFaCOM) will be developed, which can become a general framework for manufacturing equipment and processes for different industrial branches. In this framework it is proposed to extend the use of closed loop control to all vital parameters of a component or product. In todays manufacturing it is still the case that many vital parameters are controlled indirectly, thus creating a larger variability in the output than acceptable within the zero-defect paradigm. The project will create a basic understanding of the method of direct closed loop control of vital parameters and apply this control principle both to single operations and to the entire part manufacturing process in order to eliminate the propagation of defects along the process stages. The principles can be extended to processes where the input material has too large variability leading to high defect rates in production. This involves both the development of suitable measurement and monitoring techniques of the input condition of components as well as development of the necessary actuation methods and mechanisms to implement the necessary control actions. To establish and continuously improve the closed loop methods and to extend them over the entire process chain of part manufacturing, the control models must be upgraded in accordance with the increased insight in the operations that can be obtained by analysis of large amounts of data available from multiple sensors both in the manufacturin

News Article | February 21, 2017

Contrary to what was previously assumed, physical exercise does not lead to harmful ventricular enlargement. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim (NTNU) have disproved this earlier hypothesis and issued recommendations for designing a training program for persons with congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure is among the most frequent causes of death in industrialized countries. As a consequence of this condition, the patient's heart is no longer capable of adequately supplying the body with blood and oxygen. Until now, the prognosis for congestive heart failure has been poor and comparable to that of cancer. "Previously, congestive heart failure was primarily treated with drugs. The range of treatments was expanded by the use of cardiac pacemakers to optimize heart muscle contraction and the implantation of defibrillators intended to improve myocardial function and prevent sudden cardiac death due to arrhythmia", explained Professor Martin Halle, Professor of Preventive and Rehabilitative Sports Medicine at TU Munich. Heart failure patients were in fact strictly forbidden from engaging in physical training because of fears that this would further compromise the heart's pumping function. However, studies in recent years have already shown that by adding physical training, one can achieve positive effects on endurance and reduce the chances of rehospitalization due to worsening of the symptoms (rehospitalization rate). For a study conducted in nine European centers and recently published in the American Heart Association journal Circulation investigated the effects of different forms of physical training on a damaged heart. "With this study, we are able to prove that exercise training does not deteriorate dilatation and function of the heart and seems to be safe", concluded Halle. Between 2009 and 2014, 261 patients with heart failure were assigned to three groups, and over 52 weeks, they underwent different intensities of training. Initially, all three groups underwent supervised training for three months and in addition, they were given the recommendation to continue the intervention for another nine months. Patients that participated in 12 weeks of regular supervised exercise had better effects than those who just got a recommendation to train on their own. "We actually observed a decrease in the size of the left ventricle, and with it, an improvement in pumping function", said Professor Halle. "This increased their physical fitness." The study did not detect any significant differences between a new program of interval training at high intensity and a standard therapy with continuous exercise at moderate intensity. "We actually observed that this training revealed the best improvements and that not exercising was significantly worse regarding pump function and hospitalization", said Professor Halle. "Overall, this new study underscores how advisable regular physical training at moderate intensity is for patients with systolic heart failure", Halle concluded - "but I would rather discourage high intensity exercise until larger studies will prove this to be as safe." The doctor also offered the following concrete tip: Moderate training means around one hundred steps per minute or 3,000 steps in 30 minutes. Øyvind Ellingsen, Martin Halle, Viviane M. Conraads, Asbjørn Støylen, Håvard Dalen, Charles Delagardelle, Alf-Inge Larsen, Torstein Hole, Alessandro Mezzani, Emeline M. Van Craenenbroeck, Vibeke Videm, Paul J. Beckers, Jeffrey W. Christle, Ephraim B. Winzer, Norman Mangner, Felix Woitek, Robert Höllriegel, Axel P. Pressler, Tea Monk-Hansen, Martin Snoer, Patrick Feiereisen, Torstein Valborgland, John K. Kjekshus, Rainer Hambrecht, Stephan Gielen, Trine Karlsen, Eva B. Prescott, Axel Linke and the SMARTEX Heart Failure Study Group: High Intensity Interval Training in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction, Circulation 01/2017. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022924

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-CSO | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 1.52M | Year: 2009

The goal of the One Planet Economy Network Europe project (OPEN: EU) is to help transform the EU economy to a One Planet Economy by 2050. As the worlds largest economy, Europe must embark upon an immediate and major transformation to avert dangerous climate change and prevent ecosystem collapse. Currently, the impact of the European economy is nearly three times larger than what is required for a sustainable world. A shift to a more sustainable future for Europe must be achieved by building an economy that respects all environmental limits and is socially and financially sustainable. CSOs are well placed to help catalyse this transformation through bringing insights, concerns and issues into the public debate and making them communicable, relevant and timely. The achievement of a One Planet Economy will require a range of actors to come together to deliver this transformation. In this context the convening power of major CSOs is a significant asset. Through a project consortium of CSOs and RTD performers, OPEN: EU will: 1. Build the evidence base and enhance sustainable development indicators by developing an academically robust and policy relevant footprint family (Ecological, Carbon and Water footprints); 2. Build the application by developing a new scenario modelling tool for evidence-based policy, increasing the policy relevance of sustainable development indicators and helping CSOs to illustrate the links between economic growth and environmental degradation to policy makers and the public; 3. Build capacity through a new One Planet Economy Network an online network of decision-makers, CSOs and businesses leaders. This will provide a forum for the visions, knowledge and interests of different stakeholders and facilitate dialogue and debate on solutions to achieve a One Planet Economy. The network will enable a targeted dissemination of communication materials, workshop programme and website to CSOs, policy makers and other key audiences.