Norwegian University of Life Sciences

www.nmbu.no
As, Norway

The Norwegian University of Life science is a public university located in Ås, Norway.It is located at Ås in Akershus, near Oslo, and at Adamstuen in Oslo and has around 5000 students. The university is known for its beautiful campuses, with spectacular, big and old trees, as well as ponds, flowers and bushes. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LOS ALAMOS, N.M., May 18, 2017-- Using neutron crystallography, a Los Alamos research team has mapped the three-dimensional structure of a protein that breaks down polysaccharides, such as the fibrous cellulose of grasses and woody plants, a finding that could help bring down the cost of creating biofuels. The research focused on a class of copper-dependent enzymes called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), which bacteria and fungi use to naturally break down cellulose and closely related chitin biopolymers. "In the long term, understanding the mechanism of this class of proteins can lead to enzymes with improved characteristics that make production of ethanol increasingly economically feasible," said Julian Chen, a Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist who participated in the research. A multi-institution team used the neutron scattering facility at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron X-ray source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study LPMO. Both SNS and ALS are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. Los Alamos Bioscience Division scientists Chen, Clifford Unkefer, and former postdoctoral fellow John Bacik, working with collaborators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, solved the structure of a chitin-degrading LPMO from the bacterium Jonesia denitrificans (JdLPMO10A). The team's results are published in the journal Biochemistry. One of the biggest challenges biofuel scientists face is finding cost-effective ways to break apart polysaccharides such as starches and cellulose, which are widely distributed in plants, into their subcomponent sugars for biofuel production. LPMO enzymes, which are seen as key to this process, use a single copper ion to activate oxygen, a critical step for the enzyme's catalytic degrading action. While the specific mechanism of LPMO action remains uncertain, it is thought that catalysis involves initial formation of a superoxide by electron transfer from the reduced copper ion. By understanding the location of the copper ion and the constellation of atoms near it, the researchers hope to elucidate more about the enzyme's function. To do this, they rely on first determining the structure of the enzyme. Although a number of X-ray crystallographic structures are currently available for LPMOs from fungal and bacterial species, this new structure is more complete. The investigators used X-ray crystallography to resolve the three-dimensional structure in clear detail of all the atoms except for hydrogens, the smallest and most abundant atoms in proteins. Hydrogen atom positions are important for elucidating functional characteristics of the target protein and can best be visualized using a neutron crystallography. The investigators used this complementary technique, to determine the three-dimensional structure of the LPMO, but highlighting the hydrogen atoms. Notably, in this study the crystallized LPMO enzyme has been caught in the act of binding oxygen. Together with the recent structures of LPMOs from a wide variety of fungal and bacterial species, the results of this study indicate a common mechanism of degrading cellulosic biomass despite wide differences in their protein sequences. This study has furthered insight into the mechanism of action of LPMOs, particularly the role of the copper ion and the nature of the involvement of oxygen. Biofuels research is part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission focus on integrating research and development solutions to achieve the maximum impact on strategic national security priorities such as new energy sources. The paper: Neutron and Atomic Resolution X-ray Structures of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Reveal Copper-Mediated Dioxygen Binding and Evidence for N-Terminal Deprotonation. Funding: The Los Alamos component of the research was funded by the DOE Office of Science and imaging analysis was performed at DOE Office of Science user facilities. The work was also supported by The Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, a team composed of Bechtel National, the University of California, BWX Technologies, Inc. and URS Corporation for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health and global security concerns.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: phys.org

"In the long term, understanding the mechanism of this class of proteins can lead to enzymes with improved characteristics that make production of ethanol increasingly economically feasible," said Julian Chen, a Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist who participated in the research. A multi-institution team used the neutron scattering facility at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron X-ray source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study LPMO. Both SNS and ALS are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. Los Alamos Bioscience Division scientists Chen, Clifford Unkefer, and former postdoctoral fellow John Bacik, working with collaborators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, solved the structure of a chitin-degrading LPMO from the bacterium Jonesia denitrificans (JdLPMO10A). The team's results are published in the journal Biochemistry. One of the biggest challenges biofuel scientists face is finding cost-effective ways to break apart polysaccharides such as starches and cellulose, which are widely distributed in plants, into their subcomponent sugars for biofuel production. LPMO enzymes, which are seen as key to this process, use a single copper ion to activate oxygen, a critical step for the enzyme's catalytic degrading action. While the specific mechanism of LPMO action remains uncertain, it is thought that catalysis involves initial formation of a superoxide by electron transfer from the reduced copper ion. By understanding the location of the copper ion and the constellation of atoms near it, the researchers hope to elucidate more about the enzyme's function. To do this, they rely on first determining the structure of the enzyme. Although a number of X-ray crystallographic structures are currently available for LPMOs from fungal and bacterial species, this new structure is more complete. The investigators used X-ray crystallography to resolve the three-dimensional structure in clear detail of all the atoms except for hydrogens, the smallest and most abundant atoms in proteins. Hydrogen atom positions are important for elucidating functional characteristics of the target protein and can best be visualized using a neutron crystallography. The investigators used this complementary technique, to determine the three-dimensional structure of the LPMO, but highlighting the hydrogen atoms. Notably, in this study the crystallized LPMO enzyme has been caught in the act of binding oxygen. Together with the recent structures of LPMOs from a wide variety of fungal and bacterial species, the results of this study indicate a common mechanism of degrading cellulosic biomass despite wide differences in their protein sequences. This study has furthered insight into the mechanism of action of LPMOs, particularly the role of the copper ion and the nature of the involvement of oxygen. Biofuels research is part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission focus on integrating research and development solutions to achieve the maximum impact on strategic national security priorities such as new energy sources. Explore further: Scientists provide new insights into biomass breakdown More information: John-Paul Bacik et al, Neutron and Atomic Resolution X-ray Structures of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Reveal Copper-Mediated Dioxygen Binding and Evidence for N-Terminal Deprotonation, Biochemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00019


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Using neutron crystallography, a Los Alamos research team has mapped the three-dimensional structure of a protein that breaks down polysaccharides, such as the fibrous cellulose of grasses and woody plants, a finding that could help bring down the cost of creating biofuels. The research focused on a class of copper-dependent enzymes called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), which bacteria and fungi use to naturally break down cellulose and closely related chitin biopolymers. "In the long term, understanding the mechanism of this class of proteins can lead to enzymes with improved characteristics that make production of ethanol increasingly economically feasible," said Julian Chen, a Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist who participated in the research. A multi-institution team used the neutron scattering facility at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron X-ray source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study LPMO. Both SNS and ALS are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. Los Alamos Bioscience Division scientists Chen, Clifford Unkefer, and former postdoctoral fellow John Bacik, working with collaborators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, solved the structure of a chitin-degrading LPMO from the bacterium Jonesia denitrificans (JdLPMO10A). The team's results are published in the journal Biochemistry. One of the biggest challenges biofuel scientists face is finding cost-effective ways to break apart polysaccharides such as starches and cellulose, which are widely distributed in plants, into their subcomponent sugars for biofuel production. LPMO enzymes, which are seen as key to this process, use a single copper ion to activate oxygen, a critical step for the enzyme's catalytic degrading action. While the specific mechanism of LPMO action remains uncertain, it is thought that catalysis involves initial formation of a superoxide by electron transfer from the reduced copper ion. By understanding the location of the copper ion and the constellation of atoms near it, the researchers hope to elucidate more about the enzyme's function. To do this, they rely on first determining the structure of the enzyme. Although a number of X-ray crystallographic structures are currently available for LPMOs from fungal and bacterial species, this new structure is more complete. The investigators used X-ray crystallography to resolve the three-dimensional structure in clear detail of all the atoms except for hydrogens, the smallest and most abundant atoms in proteins. Hydrogen atom positions are important for elucidating functional characteristics of the target protein and can best be visualized using a neutron crystallography. The investigators used this complementary technique, to determine the three-dimensional structure of the LPMO, but highlighting the hydrogen atoms. Notably, in this study the crystallized LPMO enzyme has been caught in the act of binding oxygen. Together with the recent structures of LPMOs from a wide variety of fungal and bacterial species, the results of this study indicate a common mechanism of degrading cellulosic biomass despite wide differences in their protein sequences. This study has furthered insight into the mechanism of action of LPMOs, particularly the role of the copper ion and the nature of the involvement of oxygen. Biofuels research is part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission focus on integrating research and development solutions to achieve the maximum impact on strategic national security priorities such as new energy sources.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

For the first time, researchers have measured a new class of fire retardants in Arctic Ocean sediments, far from the compounds’ intended end uses in couch cushions and television sets (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00755). The findings add to growing evidence that organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) might have many of the same properties that led to the phase-out of their predecessors, brominated flame retardants. After decades of research, manufacturers and regulators curtailed the use of brominated flame retardants known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the early 2000s. Numerous studies cataloged how these compounds interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and animals and contaminate substances including mothers’ milk and arctic sediment. In 2009, the parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) added two kinds of PBDEs to their POPs list. The parties determined that the compounds met the criteria: The listed PBDEs are persistent, toxic, travel long range, and accumulate in food chains. As concerns grew over PBDEs, manufacturers turned to OPEs as alternative flame retardants, but scientists are concerned that these replacements may also meet the Stockholm Convention’s criteria for POPs. Not much is known about the human health effects of OPEs, yet some governments have listed them as cancer-causing agents, and in vitro and animal data suggest that the compounds may be endocrine disrupters—so they may meet the criterion of toxicity. They do not appear to increase in concentration as they move up the food chain, although like the brominated retardants they are replacing, OPEs readily escape into the environment and have been found in fish and in human breast milk, research shows. But gaseous OPEs readily break down in sunlight with a half-life of less than two days. Therefore researchers initially assumed that the retardants did not meet the criteria of persistence and long-range travel. “However, other researchers have reported OPEs in arctic air, suggesting that they are transported long distances as are traditional POPs,” says Yuxin Ma, an environmental chemist at Shanghai Ocean University. Because no one had looked for OPEs in Arctic marine sediments, Ma and her team decided to investigate. The scientists sailed aboard an icebreaker from the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean as part of the fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2010, scooping up sediments along the way. At the same time, they tracked flame retardants in the air (Env. Sci. Technol. 2012, DOI: 10.1021/es204272v). Back in the lab, Ma’s group measured OPEs and PBDEs in the sediment using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The scientists detected OPEs in all the samples, ranging in concentration from 159-4658 pg per g dry sediment, higher than DDT levels noted in earlier research on arctic sediment. The samples that Ma took from the central Arctic Ocean posted the highest average amounts of OPEs in the study. “These concentrations of OPEs are 5 to 10 times higher than the levels of PBDEs that we found, suggesting that OPEs are just as prone to long-range transport as PBDEs are,” Ma says. She speculates that by adsorbing to solid particles in air, OPEs hitch a free ride to the Arctic, shielded from destruction by sunlight. Her shipmates who detected flame retardants in the arctic air also found OPEs at higher levels than PBDE concentrations on air particles. Taken together, the evidence suggests that OPEs are more efficiently transported to arctic sediments than PBDEs. “This study contributes to a wider view of long-range atmospheric transport than found in the Stockholm Convention,” says Roland Kallenborn, an environmental chemist at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. OPEs are not classic POPs because on their own they have a short half-life and easily degrade in sunlight. But nonetheless they make their way to remote arctic sediments, raising the question whether the Stockholm convention’s way of evaluating chemicals’ long-range transport should be changed to account for other ways of transport besides just the pure chemical moving on its own, he concludes. CORRECTION: This story was updated on April 6, 2017, to reflect that organophosphate esters are flame retardants, not fire retardants.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Very strong start to 2017 with sales growth of 60 percent CEOs comments CellaVision had an exceptionally good first quarter in 2017. Sales for the Group grew by 60 percent to SEK 93.1 million (58.3) and the operating profit increased to SEK 34.3 million (13.9), corresponding to an operating margin of 36.9 percent (23.9). Cash flow for the quarter was SEK 15.6 million (13.0). Market development In the Americas, sales increased by 104 percent in the quarter and amounted to SEK 56.0 million (27.6). In the USA and Canada we now see a market maturity in which the majority of the human healthcare market chooses digital image analysis rather than traditional microscopy. APAC also reported strong growth compared with the relatively weak first quarter of 2016. Sales growth was 188 percent, with sales of SEK 14.8 million (5.1) after a positive performance, above all in Japan and China. During the quarter we also completed the first installations in Korea, India and Indonesia. In EMEA sales decreased by 13 percent to SEK 22.3 million (25.6) compared with the strong first quarter of 2016. We have great confidence in EMEA and are currently investing in local market support organizations in France and Germany, which are important markets for CellaVision. Geographical expansion The recent years' growth in the Americas is mainly due to our having had a presence for a long time, with our own local organizations for market support in the USA and Canada. This long-term work has meant that CellaVision's technology is the accepted industry standard in these countries, with consequent sound market penetration. In 2016 we established our own local organizations for market support in four countries. We will continue with more establishments, starting first with Germany in 2017. The ambition is to build up strong positions over time in several important markets. The veterinary market In the first quarter of 2017 we received our first veterinary order outside the Americas, from NMBU (the Norwegian University of Life Sciences). After having adjusted the business model in 2016 for our veterinary offer, enabling us to work via different distribution partners just as in the human healthcare market, we contracted two different partners for distribution in the veterinary market; Semacare for Oceania and Sysmex for the Americas. Innovation Development of a new technology platform, aimed at broadening our offer to include small and mid-size laboratories in both human healthcare and the veterinary market, is going as planned. The project has just entered an intensive phase with careful market preparations ahead of the launch in 2018. Developed partnerships  CellaVision works continually to develop collaboration with our various distribution partners. An important part of this work is the e-learning platform CellaVision® Academy, which enables our distribution partners and end customers to receive training in the use of CellaVision's analyzers cost effectively. In the first quarter of the year another training module was launched for preparation of blood smears. CellaVision's successes in recent years have generated a strong net cash balance and this makes accelerated business development possible. The first quarter of the year showed strong growth and CellaVision's assessment continues to be that the long-term opportunities for growth are good. However, we see that even in the future we will experience major fluctuations in sales between individual quarters. Questions concerning the interim report can be addressed to: Zlatko Rihter, VD, CellaVision AB, Tel: 0733-62 11 06, E-mail: zlatko.rihter@cellavision.se About CellaVision CellaVision is an innovative, global medical technology company that develops and sells its own leading systems for routine analysis of blood and other body fluids in health care services. The products rationalize manual laboratory work, and secure and support effective workflows and skills development within and between hospitals. The company has leading-edge expertise in image analysis, artificial intelligence and automated microscopy. Sales are via global partners with support from the mother company in Lund and by the market support organizations in the US, Canada, China, Japan, Dubai, Korea, Australia, France and Germany.  In 2016 sales were SEK 265 million and sales continue to increase, with a growth target of at least 15 % per year over an economic cycle. CellaVision's registered office is in Lund, Sweden. The share is listed on the Nasdaq Stockholm, Small Cap list. Read more at www.cellavision.com


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Very strong start to 2017 with sales growth of 60 percent CEOs comments CellaVision had an exceptionally good first quarter in 2017. Sales for the Group grew by 60 percent to SEK 93.1 million (58.3) and the operating profit increased to SEK 34.3 million (13.9), corresponding to an operating margin of 36.9 percent (23.9). Cash flow for the quarter was SEK 15.6 million (13.0). Market development In the Americas, sales increased by 104 percent in the quarter and amounted to SEK 56.0 million (27.6). In the USA and Canada we now see a market maturity in which the majority of the human healthcare market chooses digital image analysis rather than traditional microscopy. APAC also reported strong growth compared with the relatively weak first quarter of 2016. Sales growth was 188 percent, with sales of SEK 14.8 million (5.1) after a positive performance, above all in Japan and China. During the quarter we also completed the first installations in Korea, India and Indonesia. In EMEA sales decreased by 13 percent to SEK 22.3 million (25.6) compared with the strong first quarter of 2016. We have great confidence in EMEA and are currently investing in local market support organizations in France and Germany, which are important markets for CellaVision. Geographical expansion The recent years' growth in the Americas is mainly due to our having had a presence for a long time, with our own local organizations for market support in the USA and Canada. This long-term work has meant that CellaVision's technology is the accepted industry standard in these countries, with consequent sound market penetration. In 2016 we established our own local organizations for market support in four countries. We will continue with more establishments, starting first with Germany in 2017. The ambition is to build up strong positions over time in several important markets. The veterinary market In the first quarter of 2017 we received our first veterinary order outside the Americas, from NMBU (the Norwegian University of Life Sciences). After having adjusted the business model in 2016 for our veterinary offer, enabling us to work via different distribution partners just as in the human healthcare market, we contracted two different partners for distribution in the veterinary market; Semacare for Oceania and Sysmex for the Americas. Innovation Development of a new technology platform, aimed at broadening our offer to include small and mid-size laboratories in both human healthcare and the veterinary market, is going as planned. The project has just entered an intensive phase with careful market preparations ahead of the launch in 2018. Developed partnerships  CellaVision works continually to develop collaboration with our various distribution partners. An important part of this work is the e-learning platform CellaVision® Academy, which enables our distribution partners and end customers to receive training in the use of CellaVision's analyzers cost effectively. In the first quarter of the year another training module was launched for preparation of blood smears. CellaVision's successes in recent years have generated a strong net cash balance and this makes accelerated business development possible. The first quarter of the year showed strong growth and CellaVision's assessment continues to be that the long-term opportunities for growth are good. However, we see that even in the future we will experience major fluctuations in sales between individual quarters. Questions concerning the interim report can be addressed to: Zlatko Rihter, VD, CellaVision AB, Tel: 0733-62 11 06, E-mail: zlatko.rihter@cellavision.se About CellaVision CellaVision is an innovative, global medical technology company that develops and sells its own leading systems for routine analysis of blood and other body fluids in health care services. The products rationalize manual laboratory work, and secure and support effective workflows and skills development within and between hospitals. The company has leading-edge expertise in image analysis, artificial intelligence and automated microscopy. Sales are via global partners with support from the mother company in Lund and by the market support organizations in the US, Canada, China, Japan, Dubai, Korea, Australia, France and Germany.  In 2016 sales were SEK 265 million and sales continue to increase, with a growth target of at least 15 % per year over an economic cycle. CellaVision's registered office is in Lund, Sweden. The share is listed on the Nasdaq Stockholm, Small Cap list. Read more at www.cellavision.com


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Very strong start to 2017 with sales growth of 60 percent CEOs comments CellaVision had an exceptionally good first quarter in 2017. Sales for the Group grew by 60 percent to SEK 93.1 million (58.3) and the operating profit increased to SEK 34.3 million (13.9), corresponding to an operating margin of 36.9 percent (23.9). Cash flow for the quarter was SEK 15.6 million (13.0). Market development In the Americas, sales increased by 104 percent in the quarter and amounted to SEK 56.0 million (27.6). In the USA and Canada we now see a market maturity in which the majority of the human healthcare market chooses digital image analysis rather than traditional microscopy. APAC also reported strong growth compared with the relatively weak first quarter of 2016. Sales growth was 188 percent, with sales of SEK 14.8 million (5.1) after a positive performance, above all in Japan and China. During the quarter we also completed the first installations in Korea, India and Indonesia. In EMEA sales decreased by 13 percent to SEK 22.3 million (25.6) compared with the strong first quarter of 2016. We have great confidence in EMEA and are currently investing in local market support organizations in France and Germany, which are important markets for CellaVision. Geographical expansion The recent years' growth in the Americas is mainly due to our having had a presence for a long time, with our own local organizations for market support in the USA and Canada. This long-term work has meant that CellaVision's technology is the accepted industry standard in these countries, with consequent sound market penetration. In 2016 we established our own local organizations for market support in four countries. We will continue with more establishments, starting first with Germany in 2017. The ambition is to build up strong positions over time in several important markets. The veterinary market In the first quarter of 2017 we received our first veterinary order outside the Americas, from NMBU (the Norwegian University of Life Sciences). After having adjusted the business model in 2016 for our veterinary offer, enabling us to work via different distribution partners just as in the human healthcare market, we contracted two different partners for distribution in the veterinary market; Semacare for Oceania and Sysmex for the Americas. Innovation Development of a new technology platform, aimed at broadening our offer to include small and mid-size laboratories in both human healthcare and the veterinary market, is going as planned. The project has just entered an intensive phase with careful market preparations ahead of the launch in 2018. Developed partnerships  CellaVision works continually to develop collaboration with our various distribution partners. An important part of this work is the e-learning platform CellaVision® Academy, which enables our distribution partners and end customers to receive training in the use of CellaVision's analyzers cost effectively. In the first quarter of the year another training module was launched for preparation of blood smears. CellaVision's successes in recent years have generated a strong net cash balance and this makes accelerated business development possible. The first quarter of the year showed strong growth and CellaVision's assessment continues to be that the long-term opportunities for growth are good. However, we see that even in the future we will experience major fluctuations in sales between individual quarters. Questions concerning the interim report can be addressed to: Zlatko Rihter, VD, CellaVision AB, Tel: 0733-62 11 06, E-mail: zlatko.rihter@cellavision.se About CellaVision CellaVision is an innovative, global medical technology company that develops and sells its own leading systems for routine analysis of blood and other body fluids in health care services. The products rationalize manual laboratory work, and secure and support effective workflows and skills development within and between hospitals. The company has leading-edge expertise in image analysis, artificial intelligence and automated microscopy. Sales are via global partners with support from the mother company in Lund and by the market support organizations in the US, Canada, China, Japan, Dubai, Korea, Australia, France and Germany.  In 2016 sales were SEK 265 million and sales continue to increase, with a growth target of at least 15 % per year over an economic cycle. CellaVision's registered office is in Lund, Sweden. The share is listed on the Nasdaq Stockholm, Small Cap list. Read more at www.cellavision.com


Sapci Z.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Biogas production from microwave-pretreated agricultural residual straws that are used as feedstock was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Barley, spring wheat, winter wheat and oat straw were examined. To investigate the effect of changing the physicochemical structure of the straws on biogas production, the pretreatment processes were applied to two sample groups. The first group contained milled straw and the second group comprised milled wet straw that was prepared by the addition of deionized water. Both groups were subjected to microwave irradiation until oven temperatures of 200 or 300°C were attained. Sixty-six identical batch anaerobic reactors were run under mesophilic conditions for 60. days. Preliminary test results showed that the microwave pretreatment of the different straws did not improve their anaerobic digestion. An increase in the treatment temperature led to lower biogas production levels. An inverse relationship between the thermal conversion yield and cumulative biogas production was observed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Angelsen A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and - more importantly - create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.


Liland K.H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

This article presents some of the multivariate methods used in metabolomics, and addresses many of the data types and associated analyses of current instrumentation and applications seen from the point of view of data analysis. I cover most of the statistical pipeline - from pre-processing to the final results of statistical analysis (i.e. pre-processing of the data, regression, classification, clustering, validation and related subjects). Most emphasis is on descriptions of the methods, their advantages and weaknesses, and their usefulness in metabolomics. Of course, the selection of methods presented is not an exhaustive, but should shed some light on some of the more popular and relevant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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