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Oslo, Norway

Baltuck M.,CSIRO | Briggs S.,European Space Agency | Loyche-Wilkie M.,FAO | McGee A.,Khan Research Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Carbon Management | Year: 2013

Multilateral organization incentives and emerging carbon credit markets could benefit national governments, which can demonstrate reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Such demonstration requires a credible national forest monitoring system. The Global Forest Observations Initiative was developed to foster the sustained availability of satellite Earth observations for national forest monitoring systems and assist countries to make the best use of these observations in multinational framework reporting or for improved management of their natural resources. © 2013 Future Science Ltd.

Sejourne A.,University Paris - Sud | Sejourne A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Costard F.,University Paris - Sud | Fedorov A.,North-Eastern Federal University | And 5 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2015

As observed in most regions in the Arctic, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost (thermokarst) has been developing in Central Yakutia. However, the relationship between thermokarst development and climate variations is not well understood in this region, in particular the development rate of thaw slumps. The objective of this paper is to understand the current development of thermokarst by studying the evolution of the banks of thermokarst lakes. We studied retrogressive thaw slumps and highly degraded ice-wedge polygons (baydjarakhs), indicative of thermokarst, using high resolution satellite images taken in 2011-2013 and conducting field studies. The retrogressive thaw slump activity results in the formation of thermocirque with a minimum and maximum average headwall retreat of 0.5 and 3.16m·yr-1 respectively. The thermocirques and the baydjarakhs are statistically more concentrated on the south- to southwest-facing banks of thermokarst lakes. Moreover, the rate of headwall retreat of the thermocirques is the most important on the south-facing banks of the lakes. These observations indicate a control of the current permafrost thaw on the banks of thermokarst lakes by insolation. In the context of recent air temperature increase in Central Yakutia, the rate of thermocirque development may increase in the future. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sigernes F.,University Center in Svalbard | Dyrland M.,University Center in Svalbard | Brekke P.,Norwegian Space Center | Gjengedal E.K.,Storm Weather Center | And 4 more authors.
Optica Pura y Aplicada | Year: 2011

A method to forecast, up to one hour in the future, the size and location of the aurora oval is described. The work is based on a mathematical description of the aurora oval coupled to predicted values of the planetary K p index. As a result, a real time animation of the oval mapped onto the Earth's surface is created. The night- and dayside are visualized together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the aurora oval. © Sociedad Española de Óptica.

Brekke P.,Norwegian Space Center
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2013

Norway has long traditions as a space nation, much due to our northern latitude. Our space science activities are concentrated into relatively few areas. This concentration is necessary due to limited resources, both in funding and personnel. The main scientific activities are within Solar-terrestrial physics and cosmology. The first field has been a priority since before the space age and is still the major priority. The usage of the ground infrastructure in Northern Norway and on Svalbard is essential in studying the middle and upper atmosphere and the interaction with the Sun. This includes the utilization of sounding rockets, both small and large, and ground based installations like radars, lidars and other optical instrumentation. The planned use of Svalbard as a launch site for large stratospheric balloons may allow the cosmology community access to our northern infrastructure. The solar physics community is also heavily involved in the HINODE and IRIS missions and Norway is supporting downlink of data via the Svalbard Station for these missions. The sounding rocket program is in close collaboration with many countries like Germany, USA, France, Canada and Japan. Two scientific sounding rocket programs are currently being pursued: The ICI series (from Svalbard) and MaxiDusty (from Andøya). A series of scientific publications have recently appeared from the ECOMA campaign a few years ago. A significant improvement of today's polar and ionospheric research infrastructure in Northern Norway and Svalbard has recently been put on the ESFRI roadmap for European research infrastructure through the SIOS and EISCAT 3D initiatives. The Norwegian government has recently decided to upgrade the VLBI facilities at Svalbard.

De Pontieu B.,Lockheed Martin | De Pontieu B.,University of Oslo | Title A.M.,Lockheed Martin | Lemen J.R.,Lockheed Martin | And 89 more authors.
Solar Physics | Year: 2014

The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33 - 0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, two-second temporal resolution, and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec × 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332 - 1358 Å, 1389 - 1407 Å, and 2783 - 2834 Å, including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg ii h 2803 Å and Mg ii k 2796 Å) and transition region (C ii 1334/1335 Å and Si iv 1394/1403 Å). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C ii 1330, Si iv 1400, Mg ii k 2796, and Mg ii wing 2830 Å) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec × 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial samplings (from 0.33 arcsec and up). IRIS is sensitive to emission from plasma at temperatures between 5000 K and 10 MK and will advance our understanding of the flow of mass and energy through an interface region, formed by the chromosphere and transition region, between the photosphere and corona. This highly structured and dynamic region not only acts as the conduit of all mass and energy feeding into the corona and solar wind, it also requires an order of magnitude more energy to heat than the corona and solar wind combined. The IRIS investigation includes a strong numerical modeling component based on advanced radiative-MHD codes to facilitate interpretation of observations of this complex region. Approximately eight Gbytes of data (after compression) are acquired by IRIS each day and made available for unrestricted use within a few days of the observation. © 2014 The Author(s).

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