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Krogenaes A.K.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Ropstad E.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Gutleb A.C.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Gutleb A.C.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Muller M.,University of Liege | Dalcq J.,University of Liege | Aceto J.,University of Liege | Larbuisson A.,University of Liege | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology

Osteoporosis is one of the major concerns for an ageing human population and for passengers on long-term space flights. Teleosts represent a potentially interesting alternative for studying bone physiology. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the cartilaginous elements that form the pharyngeal arches derive from cranial neural crest cells, whose proper patterning and morphogenesis require reciprocal interactions with other tissue types such as pharyngeal endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. We show how the zebrafish can be used to study the function of signal transduction pathways, such as the Fgf pathway, or that of particular genes, such as the zinc finger transcription factor Egr1, in pharyngeal skeleton formation and maintenance. We investigate the changes caused by microgravity and chemical treatments on zebrafish. We analyze early gene expression modification using whole genome microarray experiments and the long-term consequences by staining bone structures. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin. Source

Tremoen N.H.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Fowler P.A.,University of Aberdeen | Ropstad E.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Verhaegen S.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science | Krogenaes A.,Norwegian School Veterinary Science
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R). After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including protein synthesis, stress response, and apoptosis. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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