Norwegian School of Management
Oslo, Norway

BI Norwegian Business School is the largest business school in Norway and the second largest in all of Europe. BI has in total 5 campuses with the main one located in Oslo. The university has 831 employees consisting of an academic staff of 419 people and 412 administrative staff. In 2013, BI Norwegian Business School had 19 649 students, of which 10 889 were full-time students. BI Norwegian Business School is a private foundation and is accredited by NOKUT as a specialised university institution. Wikipedia.

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Muller R.,Norwegian School of Management
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2010

This study examines the leadership competency profiles of successful project managers in different types of projects. Four hundred responses to the Leadership Development Questionnaire (LDQ) were used to profile the intellectual, managerial and emotional competences (IQ, MQ and EQ, respectively) of project managers of successful projects. Differences by project type were accounted for through categorization of projects by their application type (engineering & construction, information & telecommunication technology, organizational change), complexity, importance and contract type. Results indicate high expressions of one IQ sub-dimension (i.e. critical thinking) and three EQ sub-dimensions (i.e. influence, motivation and conscientiousness) in successful managers in all types of projects. Other sub-dimensions varied by project type. Comparison was made to existing profiles for goal oriented, involving and engaging leadership styles. Implications derived are the need for practitioners to be trained in the soft factors of leadership, particular for their types of projects. Theoretical implications include the need for more transactional styles in relatively simple projects and more transformational leadership styles in complex projects. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA.

Foldnes N.,Norwegian School of Management | Hagtvet K.A.,University of Oslo
Psychological Methods | Year: 2014

The unconstrained product indicator (PI) approach is a simple and popular approach for modeling nonlinear effects among latent variables. This approach leaves the practitioner to choose the PIs to be included in the model, introducing arbitrariness into the modeling. In contrast to previous Monte Carlo studies, we evaluated the PI approach by 3 post hoc analyses applied to a real-world case adopted from a research effort in social psychology. The measurement design applied 3 and 4 indicators for the 2 latent 1st-order variables, leaving the researcher with a choice among more than 4,000 possible PI configurations. Sixty so-called matched-pair configurations that have been recommended in previous literature are of special interest. In the 1st post hoc analysis we estimated the interaction effect for all PI configurations, keeping the real-world sample fixed. The estimated interaction effect was substantially affected by the choice of PIs, also across matched-pair configurations. Subsequently, a post hoc Monte Carlo study was conducted, with varying sample sizes and data distributions. Convergence, bias, Type I error and power of the interaction test were investigated for each matched-pair configuration and the all-pairs configuration. Variation in estimates across matched-pair configurations for a typical sample was substantial. The choice of specific configuration significantly affected convergence and the interaction test's outcome. The all-pairs configuration performed overall better than the matched-pair configurations. A further advantage of the all-pairs over the matched-pairs approach is its unambiguity. The final study evaluates the all-pairs configuration for small sample sizes and compares it to the non-PI approach of latent moderated structural equations. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Randers J.,Norwegian School of Management
GAIA | Year: 2012

40 years ago, the Club of Rome published the report The Limits to Growth. In our focus, Jorgen Randers, one of the authors, reflects on the book's message - and whether it has stood the test of time. Michael Thompson then discusses the influence of the report. Outlining perspectives for a post-growth society, Irmi Seidl and Angelika Zahrnt explore the societal dependence on economic growth that prevents policy-making within the limits to growth. Finally, Graham Turner provides evidence that the LtG standard run scenario aligns well with real-world developments. © 2012 J. Randers; licensee oekom verlag.

Narbel P.A.,Norwegian School of Management
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

This study investigates the partial correlations between the share of new renewable electricity in a country and income, energy security and climate change mitigation. For the purpose of this paper, new renewables refer to the electricity generating technologies that have not yet reached grid-parity (e.g. wind, solar). The author proposes a measure of energy security depending on the role of inputs (coal and natural gas) in electricity generation as well as a measure of a country's potential to mitigate climate change based on the quantity of fossil-based electricity generated per capita. Findings from 2007, 2008 and 2009 data on 107 middle and high-income economies show that rich countries relying on coal imports to generate their power, are also those with the highest shares of electric power from new renewables. © 2013 International Energy Initiative.

Solli-Saether H.,Norwegian School of Management
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into how individuals are affected by an outsourcing arrangement. The aim of this exploratory case study was to develop an understanding of individual level role stress and work outcomes among transferred employees in IT outsourcing relationships. Design/methodology/approach - A research model was developed based on role theory. Through a field survey conducted in one outsourcing vendor, the research confirms the hypothesis that proposes role stress as prevalent among transferred information technology (IT) employees. Findings - Perceived role stress was found to influence behavioural work outcomes measured as task performance, turnover intention, and affective commitment. The effect of role stress on work outcomes indicates that carefully crafted outsourcing strategies must take into account the unique position of transferred IT employees since the outsourcing arrangement may affect their work outcome. Originality/value - The original value of the paper is the use of role theory to extend the scientific research and theory of outsourcing and inform managers of outsourcing decisions. The study is applied at the individual level, which is new in the sense that most outsourcing studies are applied at the organisational level. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Stoknes P.E.,Norwegian School of Management
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2014

Climate science has provided ever more reliable data and models over the last 20-30 years, thereby indicating increasingly severe impacts in the coming decades and centuries. Nonetheless, public concern for climate change and the issue's perceived importance has been declining over the past few decades, thus giving less public support for ambitious climate policies. Conventional climate communication strategies have failed to resolve this "climate paradox." This article reviews research on the psychology of the climate paradox, and rethinks new emerging strategies for how to resolve it in the coming decades. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Olson E.L.,Norwegian School of Management
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2013

Although green products and technologies are heavily promoted by those worried about global climate change and sustainable development, they are frequently unsuccessful in displacing conventional "brown" products in numbers large enough to create meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and natural resource use. This paper introduces the green innovation value chain (GIVC) as a tool for analyzing the financial viability of green products using a multi-stakeholder perspective that includes manufacturers, distribution channels, consumers, the environment, and governments as separate links in the chain. Hybrid vehicles, such as the Toyota Prius, are used as an illustrative case and are found to be financially unattractive compared with conventional vehicles across the entire GIVC. © 2013 Product Development & Management Association.

Olson E.L.,Norwegian School of Management
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Governments around the world have employed a variety of generous subsidies to help promote and develop clean energy technologies in the hope that they will widely replace dirtier carbon-based power sources. Unfortunately these subsidies have not prevented numerous green technology bankruptcies including the infamous 2011 closure of the California based solar panel producer Solyndra, and these failures have cost taxpayers and private investors billions in lost capital. The Green Innovation Value Chain (GIVC) provides a possible framework for determining the diffusion prospects of green technologies through environmental and financial comparisons to conventional alternatives across the separate chain links comprised of manufacturers, distributors, customers, government, and the environment. The GIVC framework is used here to analyze the photovoltaic solar power chain, where financial deficits are found in each link that will need to be reduced or eliminated through technology advancements, subsidies, or changes in market conditions in order to provide the conditions necessary for the technology to achieve mass-market acceptance and positive financial returns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Randers J.,Norwegian School of Management
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis.If all nations reduce their "GHG emissions per unit of GDP" by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the global economy continues to grow at its historical rate of 3.5% per year. The suggested 5% per year decline can be translated into a corporate resolution to reduce corporate "GHG emissions per unit of value added" (GEVA) by 5% per year.If all corporations cut their GEVA by 5% per year, the same global result will be achieved. The suggested 5% per year decline can be used as a guideline for responsible action on a voluntary basis. The guideline is unlikely to be made mandatory soon, but compulsory publication of the necessary emissions and productivity data by nations and corporations could help civil society highlight top performers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Measuring safety as an outcome variable within the ultra-safe civil aviation industry during periods of deliberate organizational change is a difficult, and often fruitless, task. Anticipating eroding safety processes, based on measuring nothing happening over time, does not adequately capture the true state of an evolving safe system, and this is particularly relevant for leaders and managers in a civil aviation industry responsible for maintaining and improving ultra-safe performance while simultaneously managing demanding strategic business goals.In this paper, I will look at the difficulties of measuring safety as an outcome measure in high reliability organizations (HROs) using the traditional measures of incident and accident reporting during periods of deliberate organizational change inspired by the results from a 3. year longitudinal case study of the Norwegian Air Navigation Services provider - Avinor. I will first review the current safety literature relating to safety management systems (SMSs) used in the civil aviation industry. I will then propose a more holistic model that shifts the focus from the traditional safety monitoring mechanisms of risk analysis and trial and error learning, to the natural interactivity within socio-technical systems as found in high reliability organizations. And finally, I will present a summary of the empirical results of an alternate methodology for measuring perceived changes in safety at the operational level as leading indicators of evolving safety at the organizational level. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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