Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation

Oslo, Norway

Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation

Oslo, Norway
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Nawasreh Z.,University of Delaware | Nawasreh Z.,Jordan University of Science and Technology | Logerstedt D.,University of the Sciences in Philadelphia | Logerstedt D.,University of Delaware | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: The variability in outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) might be related to the criteria that are used to determine athletes' readiness to return to their preinjury activity level. A battery of return-to-activity criteria (RTAC) that emphasize normal knee function and movement symmetry has been instituted to quantitatively determine athletes' readiness to return to preinjury activities. Purpose: To investigate performance-based and patient-reported measures at 12 and 24 months after ACLR between patients who passed or failed RTAC at 6 months after ACLR. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 108 patients who had participated in International Knee Documentation Committee level 1 or 2 sports activities completed RTAC testing at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The RTAC included the isometric quadriceps strength index (QI), 4 single-legged hop tests, the Knee Outcome Survey-activities of daily living subscale (KOS-ADLS), and the global rating scale of perceived function (GRS). Patients who scored ≥90% on all RTAC were classified as the pass group, and those who scored <90% on any RTAC were classified as the fail group. At 12- and 24-month follow-ups, patients were asked if they had returned to the same preinjury activity level. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, there were 48 patients in the pass group and 47 in the fail group. At the 12-month follow-up, 31 patients (73.8%) from the pass group and 15 patients (39.5%) from the fail group passed RTAC, and at the 24-month follow-up, 25 patients (75.8%) from the pass group and 14 patients (51.9%) from the fail group passed RTAC. The rate of return to activities in the pass group was 81% and 84% at 12 and 24 months after ACLR, respectively, compared with only 44% and 46% in the fail group (P ≤.012), respectively; however, some patients in the fail group participated in preinjury activities without being cleared by their therapists. At 12 and 24 months, 60.5% and 48.1% of patients continued to fail again on the criteria, respectively. A statistically significant group × time interaction was found for the single hop and 6-m timed hop limb symmetry indices (LSIs) (P ≤.037), with only the fail group demonstrating a significant improvement over time. A main effect of group was detected for the QI and the crossover hop and triple hop LSIs (P <.01), with patients in the pass group demonstrating higher performance. A main effect of time was detected for the crossover hop and triple hop LSIs and the GRS, with improvements seen in both groups (P <.05). Conclusion: Patients who passed the RTAC early after ACLR were more likely to demonstrate normal knee function and movement symmetry at 12 and 24 months postoperatively, while patients who failed the RTAC early were more likely to demonstrate impaired knee function and movement asymmetry at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Patients in the pass group had a higher rate of return to their preinjury activity level compared with those in the fail group. A group of patients chose to return to their preinjury activities, even though they were functionally not ready. © 2017 The Author(s).


Lynch A.D.,University of Pittsburgh | Lynch A.D.,Center for Sports Medicine | Logerstedt D.S.,University of Delaware | Grindem H.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: No gold standard exists for identifying successful outcomes 1 and 2 years after operative and non-operative management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This limits the ability of a researcher and clinicians to compare and contrast the results of interventions. Purpose: To establish a consensus based on expert consensus of measures that define successful outcomes 1 and 2 years after ACL injury or reconstruction. Methods: Members of international sports medicine associations, including the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, the European Society for Sports Traumatology, Surgery, and Knee Arthroscopy and the American Physical Therapy Association, were sent a survey via email. Blinded responses were analysed for trends with frequency counts. A summed importance percentage (SIP) was calculated and 80% SIP operationally indicated consensus. Results: 1779 responses were obtained. Consensus was achieved for six measures in operative and non-operative management: the absence of giving way, patient return to sports, quadriceps and hamstrings' strength greater than 90% of the uninvolved limb, the patient having not more than a mild knee joint effusion and using patient-reported outcomes (PRO). No single PRO achieved consensus, but threshold scores between 85 and 90 were established for PROs concerning patient performance. Conclusions: The consensus identified six measures important for successful outcome after ACL injury or reconstruction. These represent all levels of the International Classification of Functioning: effusion, giving way, muscle strength (body structure and function), PRO (activity and participation) and return to sport (participation), and should be included to allow for comparison between interventions.


Kise N.J.,Martina Hansens Hospital | Risberg M.A.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Risberg M.A.,University of Oslo | Risberg M.A.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | And 5 more authors.
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. Design: Randomised controlled superiority trial. Setting: Orthopaedic departments at two public hospitals and two physiotherapy clinics in Norway. Participants: 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Interventions: 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial meniscectomy alone. Main outcome measures: Intention to treat analysis of between group difference in change in knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS 4), defined a priori as the mean score for four of five KOOS subscale scores (pain, other symptoms, function in sport and recreation, and knee related quality of life) from baseline to two year follow-up and change in thigh muscle strength from baseline to three months. Results: No clinically relevant difference was found between the two groups in change in KOOS 4 at two years (0.9 points, 95% confidence interval â'4.3 to 6.1; P=0.72). At three months, muscle strength had improved in the exercise group (P≤0.004). No serious adverse events occurred in either group during the two year follow-up. 19% of the participants allocated to exercise therapy crossed over to surgery during the two year follow-up, with no additional benefit. Conclusion: The observed difference in treatment effect was minute after two years of follow-up, and the trial's inferential uncertainty was sufficiently small to exclude clinically relevant differences. Exercise therapy showed positive effects over surgery in improving thigh muscle strength, at least in the short term. Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option. © 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.


Eitzen I.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Eitzen I.,University of Oslo | Fernandes L.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Fernandes L.,University of Southern Denmark | And 4 more authors.
Gait and Posture | Year: 2014

The Sit-To-Stand (STS) transition is a mechanically demanding task that may pose particular challenges for individuals with lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). Biomechanical features of STS have been investigated in patients with OA, but not in patients with early stage hip OA. The purpose of this study was to explore inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetries (WBA) and selected kinematic and kinetic variables during STS in patients with mild-to-moderate hip OA compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one hip OA patients and 23 controls were included in the study. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with two force plates embedded in the floor. There were no distinctive biomechanical alterations in sagittal or frontal plane kinematics or kinetics, movement time, or time to reach peak ground reaction force (GRF) in hip OA patients compared with controls. However, the hip OA patients revealed a distinct pattern of WBA compared with the controls, in unloading their involved limb by 18.4% at peak GRF. These findings indicate that patients with early stage hip OA are not yet forced into a stereotypical movement strategy for STS; however, the observed pattern of WBA requires clinical attention. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Eitzen I.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Eitzen I.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Eitzen I.,University of Oslo | Hakestad K.A.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate inter- and intrarater reliability of isokinetic muscle strength measurements during knee extension and flexion in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Design: Reliability study assessing inter- and intrarater reliability. Setting: General community. Participants: A convenience sample of 27 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD, 68.2±7.3y) with defined osteopenia from a bone mineral density T score of less than 1.5 and a wrist fracture within the last 2 years. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Isokinetic concentric muscle strength during knee extension and flexion was measured for 2 test conditions: 5 repetitions at 60°/s, and 25 repetitions at 180°/s. Agreement between tests was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1). Mean difference between tests, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%), and smallest real difference (SRD and SRD%) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. SRD% and SEM% are emphasized in the results to allow congruent comparisons between the different test conditions. Results: ICC 2,1 reflected high agreement both for inter- and intrarater reliability, with most of the values .90 or greater. There were no significant differences between the left and the right leg at any of the 3 tests. Some differences were apparent between the test sessions, but these were not systematic. Agreements were overall higher for assessments during knee extension than knee flexion. The SEM% was between 3.5% and 10.2% for knee extension, and 7.0% and 17.7% for knee flexion. SRD% was suggested to be between 15% and 20% for knee extension, and 25% and 30% for knee flexion. Conclusions: Isokinetic assessments of thigh muscle strength in postmenopausal women with osteopenia are of high reliability, with a level of agreement comparable to the levels found in previous reliability studies concerning both the healthy elderly and elderly with different health conditions. The measurement errors are small to moderate. The established SRD% provides thresholds for whether observed changes in strength in this patient group represent true change, which allows evaluations of minimal clinical importance in future studies. © 2012 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.


Wilkens P.,University of Oslo | Wilkens P.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Scheel I.B.,Sintef | Grundnes O.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Chronic low back pain (LBP) with degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis (OA) is widespread in the adult population. Although glucosamine is increasingly used by patients with chronic LBP, little is known about its effect in this setting. Objective: To investigate the effect of glucosamine in patients with chronic LBP and degenerative lumbar OA. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled trial conducted at Oslo University Hospital Outpatient Clinic, Oslo, Norway, with 250 patients older than 25 years of age with chronic LBP (>6 months) and degenerative lumbar OA. Interventions: Daily intake of 1500 mg of oral glucosamine (n=125) or placebo (n=125) for 6 months, with assessment of effect after the 6-month intervention period and at 1 year (6 months postintervention). Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was pain-related disability measured with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Secondary outcomes were numerical scores from pain-rating scales of patients at rest and during activity, and the quality-of-life EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. Data collection occurred during the intervention period at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and again 6 months following the intervention at 1 year. Group differences were analyzed using linear mixed models analysis. Results: At baseline, mean RMDQ scores were 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-10.0) for glucosamine and 9.7 (95% CI, 8.9-10.5) for the placebo group (P=.37). At 6 months, the mean RMDQ score was the same for the glucosamine and placebo groups (5.0; 95% CI, 4.2-5.8). At 1 year, the mean RMDQ scores were 4.8 (95% CI, 3.9-5.6) for glucosamine and 5.5 (95% CI, 4.7-6.4) for the placebo group. No statistically significant difference in change between groups was found when assessed after the 6-month intervention period and at 1 year:RMDQ(P=.72), LBP at rest (P=.91), LBP during activity (P=.97), and quality-of-life EQ-5D (P=.20). Mild adverse events were reported in 40 patients in the glucosamine group and 46 in the placebo group (P=.48). Conclusions: Among patients with chronic LBP and degenerative lumbar OA, 6-month treatment with oral glucosamine compared with placebo did not result in reduced painrelated disability after the 6-month intervention and after 1-year follow-up. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00404079 ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Oiestad B.E.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | Oiestad B.E.,University of Oslo | Holm I.,University of Oslo | Aune A.K.,Drammen Private Hospital | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Few prospective long-term studies of more than 10 years have reported changes in knee function and radiologic outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Purpose: To examine changes in knee function from 6 months to 10 to 15 years after ACL reconstruction and to compare knee function outcomes over time for subjects with isolated ACL injury with those with combined ACL and meniscal injury and/or chondral lesion. Furthermore, the aim was to compare the prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis between subjects with isolated ACL injuries and those with combined ACL and meniscal and/or chondral lesions 10 to 15 years after ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Follow-up evaluations were performed on 221 subjects at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 10 to 15 years after ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Outcome measurements were KT-1000 arthrometer, Lachman and pivot shift tests, Cincinnati knee score, isokinetic muscle strength tests, hop tests, visual analog scale for pain, Tegner activity scale, and the Kellgren and Lawrence classification. Results: One hundred eighty-one subjects (82%) were evaluated at the 10- to 15-year follow-up. A significant improvement over time was revealed for all prospective outcomes of knee function. No significant differences in knee function over time were detected between the isolated and combined injury groups. Subjects with combined injury had significantly higher prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis compared with those with isolated injury (80% and 62%, P =.008), but no significant group differences were shown for symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (46% and 32%, P =.053). Conclusion: An overall improvement in knee function outcomes was detected from 6 months to 10 to 15 years after ACL reconstruction for both those with isolated and combined ACL injury, but significantly higher prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis was found for those with combined injuries. © 2010 The Author(s).


PubMed | Norwegian research Center for Active Rehabilitation and University of Oslo
Type: | Journal: Journal of negative results in biomedicine | Year: 2015

It is unknown whether gait biomechanics in hip osteoarthritis patients with mild to moderate symptoms change following exercise therapy interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare stance phase gait characteristics in hip osteoarthritis patients with mild to moderate symptoms participating in a randomized trial with two different interventions; patient education only or patient education followed by a 12-week supervised exercise therapy program.The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Patients aged 40 to 80 years, with hip osteoarthritis verified from self-reported pain and radiographic changes, were included. The final material comprised 23 patients (10 males/13 females, mean (SD) age 58.2 (10.02) years) in the patient education only group, and 22 patients (9 males/13 females, mean (SD) age 60.2 (9.49) years) in the patient education + exercise therapy group. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted at baseline and at four month follow-up. Sagittal and frontal plane joint angle displacement and external joint moments of the hip, knee and ankle were compared from a one-way analysis of covariance between the groups at follow-up, with baseline values as covariates (p < 0.05). No group differences were observed at the four-month follow-up in gait velocity, joint angle displacement, or moments. As the compliance in the exercise therapy group was inadequate, we calculated possible associations between the number of completed exercise sessions and change in each of the kinematic or kinetic variables. Associations were weak to neglible. Thus, the negative findings in this study cannot be explained from inadequate compliance alone, but most likely also suggest the exercise therapy program itself to be insufficient to engender gait alterations.Adding a 12-week supervised exercise therapy program to patient education did not induce changes in our selected biomechanical variables during the stance phase of gait, even when adjusting for poor compliance. Thus, we did not find evidence to support our exercise therapy program to be an efficacious intervention to induce gait alterations in this population of hip osteoarthritis patients.NCT00319423 at ClinicalTrials.gov (registration date 2006-04-26).


Marlovits S.,Medical University of Vienna | Marlovits S.,Al Ain Hospital | Marlovits S.,Vienna University Hospital | Aldrian S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: To date, few studies have been published reporting the 5-year follow-up of clinical and radiological outcomes for chondral defects treated with matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI). Hypothesis: A significant improvement in clinical and radiological outcomes after treatment of symptomatic, traumatic chondral defects of the knee with the MACI implant will be maintained up to 5 years after surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A prospective evaluation of the MACI procedure was performed in 21 patients with chondral defects of the knee. After the MACI procedure, patients were clinically assessed with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tegner-Lysholm score, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, and the modified Cincinnati score at years 1, 2, and 5. The quality of repair tissue was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score at months 3 and 6 and years 1, 2, and 5. Results: Significant improvements (P<.05) were observed for all 5 KOOS subcategories at year 1 and were maintained through year 5 in 90.5%of patients (19/21). Treatment failure occurred in only 9.5%of patients (2/21). Significant improvements (P<.05) from baseline to year 5 were also observed for the IKDC score (30.1 to 74.3), the modified Cincinnati score (38.1 to 79.6), and the Tegner-Lysholm activity score (1.8 to 4.3). Similarly, the MOCART score significantly improved (P<.001) from baseline to year 5 (52.9 to 75.8). After 5 years, complete filling (83%) and integration (82%) of the graft were seen in the majority of patients. Signs of subchondral bone edema were still present in 47% of patients at 5 years. No product-specific adverse events were reported over the 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Patients treated with a MACI implant demonstrated significant clinical improvement and good quality repair tissue 5 years after surgery. The MACI procedure was shown to be a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic, traumatic chondral knee defects in this study. © 2012 The Author(s).


Pachowsky M.L.,Medical University of Vienna | Pachowsky M.L.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Trattnig S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Wondrasch B.,Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation | And 8 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2014

Purpose: To determine in vivo biomechanical properties of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue of the patella, using biochemical MRI by means of quantitative T2 mapping. Methods: Twenty MR scans were achieved at 3T MRI, using a new 8-channel multi-function coil allowing controlled bending of the knee. Multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping was prepared in healthy volunteers and in age- and sex-matched patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the patella. MRI was performed at 0° and 45° of flexion of the knee after 0 min and after 1 h. A semi-automatic region-of-interest analysis was performed for the whole patella cartilage. To allow stratification with regard to the anatomical (collagen) structure, further subregional analysis was carried out (deep-middle-superficial cartilage layer). Statistical analysis of variance was performed. Results: During 0° flexion (decompression), full-thickness T2 values showed no significant difference between volunteers (43 ms) and patients (41 ms). Stratification was more pronounced for healthy cartilage compared to cartilage repair tissue. During 45° flexion (compression), full-thickness T2 values within volunteers were significantly increased (54 ms) compared to patients (44 ms) (p < 0.001). Again, stratification was more pronounced in volunteers compared to patients. The volunteer group showed no significant increase in T2 values measured in straight position and in bended position. There was no significant difference between the 0- and the 60-min MRI examination. T2 values in the patient group increased between the 0- and the 60-min examination. However, the increase was only significant in the superior cartilage layer of the straight position (p = 0.021). Conclusion: During compression (at 45° flexion), healthy patellar cartilage showed a significant increase in T2-values, indicating adaptations of water content and collagen fibril orientation to mechanical load. This could not be observed within the patella cartilage after cartilage repair (MACT) of the patella, most obvious due to a lack of biomechanical adjustment. Level of evidence: III. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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