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Eidvin T.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Ullmann C.V.,Copenhagen University | Dybkjaer K.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Rasmussen E.S.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Piasecki S.,Geological Museum
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2014

One hundred and fifty-six 87Sr/86Sr analyses have been performed on 129 samples from 18 outcrops and boreholes in Oligocene-Miocene deposits from Jylland, Denmark. These analyses were mainly conducted on mollusc shells but foraminiferal tests, Bolboforma and one shark tooth were also analysed.The main purpose of the study is to compare the ages of the Danish succession suggested by the biostratigraphic zonation on dinoflagellate cysts (Dybkjær and Piasecki, 2010) with the ages based on analyses of the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine calcareous fossils in the same succession.Analyses of samples from the Danish Brejning, Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved, Arnum, Odderup, Hodde, Ørnhøj and Gram formations gave ages between 25.7My (late Oligocene) and 10.3My (late Miocene). The Sr isotope ages from the lower part of the succession, i.e. Brejning to Odderup formations, agree with the age estimates based on biostratigraphy. However, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of fossil carbonates from the middle-upper Miocene, Hodde to Gram succession consistently indicate ages older than those recorded by biostratigraphy. Post-depositional processes as an explanation for this offset are inconsistent with good preservation of shell material and little reworking. A palaeoenvironmental cause for the observed mismatch is therefore indicated.Search for geological events that could explain the older ages obtained by Sr isotope compositions have not led to any conclusions and we had recognised the same problem in earlier reports and communications. We conclude that this is a general and possibly global, middle-late Miocene problem that has to be reconsidered and explained geologically. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lunde P.,University of Bergen | Lunde P.,Christian Michelsen Research | Lunde P.,The Michelsen Center for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology | Froysa K.-E.,Christian Michelsen Research | And 6 more authors.
28th International North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop 2010 | Year: 2010

A "Handbook of uncertainty calculations - Ultrasonic fiscal oil metering stations" [1] is being developed in a cooperation between NFOGM, NPD, Tekna and CMR, addressing fiscal metering of oil using multipath ultrasonic transit time flow meters (USM). The many different approaches to calculating the uncertainty of ultrasonic oil metering stations have been a source of confusion; - varying practice in this respect has definitely been experienced. The intention of the present initiative has been that a handbook together with a Microsoft Excel program EMU - USM Fiscal Oil Metering Station, based upon the principles laid down in the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM)" [2] and ISO 5168:2005 [3], would satisfy the need for a modern method of uncertainty evaluation in the field of ultrasonic fiscal oil measurement. Three metering system scenarios are addressed in [1]: (A) a USM duty meter which is in-situ proved using a large volume prover (at specified time intervals, such as typically every 4th day), which is in-situ flow calibrated using a portable small-volume prover system (typically once a year), (B) a USM duty meter which is in-situ proved using a USM master meter (at specified time intervals), which is in-situ flow calibrated using a portable small-volume prover system (typically once a year), and (C) a USM duty meter which is in-situ proved using a turbine (TM) master meter (at specified time intervals), which is in-situ flow calibrated using a portable small-volume prover (typically once a year). Scenario A has been addressed in ref. [4]. In the present paper, Scenario B with a USM duty and a USM master meter is analyzed. The situation with use of master meter in addition to the prover, and that the duty and master meters are of the same type (USM), necessitates dedicated treatment of correlated and uncorrelated uncertainty contributions to the metering system. The uncertainty model for Scenario B necessarily differs from the Scenario A and C uncertainty models. However, synergies between the three different scenarios can be exploited in the formulation of the uncertainty models. Calculation of the expanded uncertainties of the following three measurands are addressed: the actual volumetric flow rate, the standard volumetric flow rate and the mass flow rate. The uncertainty model accounts for metering station instrumentation such as pressure transmitters, temperature elements and transmitters, density measurement (vibrating element densitometer), an in situ flow calibrated ultrasonic gas flow master meter (USMMM) and an in-situ proved multipath ultrasonic gas flow duty meter (USMDM). The expanded uncertainties of each of these measurands and instruments can be calculated and analyzed, isolated and combined, for the complete metering system (station). The basis for the handbook and the Microsoft Excel uncertainty evaluation program is described, together with an example of a metering station uncertainty evaluation. Source

Olesen O.,Geological Survey of Norway | Bro Nner M.,Geological Survey of Norway | Ebbing J.,Geological Survey of Norway | Gellein J.,Geological Survey of Norway | And 8 more authors.
Petroleum Geology Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

The Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) has produced new aeromagnetic and gravity maps from Norway and adjacent areas, compiled from ground, airborne and satellite data. Petrophysical measurements on core samples, hand specimens and on in situ bedrock exposures are essential for the interpretation of these maps. Onshore, the most prominent gravity and magnetic anomalies are attributed to lower crustal rocks that have been brought closer to the surface. The asymmetry of the gravity anomalies along the Lapland Granulite Belt and Kongsberg-Bamble Complex, combined with the steep gradient, points to the overthrusted highdensity granulites as being the main source of the observed anomalies. The Kongsberg-Bamble anomaly can be traced southwards through the Kattegat to southern Sweden. This concept of gravity field modelling can also be applied to the Mid-Norwegian continental shelf and could partially explain the observed high-density rocks occurring below the Møre and Vøring basins and in the Lofoten area. Extrapolations of Late-Caledonian detachment structures occurring on the mainland can be traced on aeromagnetic and gravimetric images towards the NW across the continental margin. Subcropping Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary units along the mid-Norwegian coast produce a conspicuous magnetic anomaly pattern. The asymmetry of the lowamplitude anomalies, with a steep gradient and a negative anomaly to the east and a gentler gradient to the west, relates the anomalies to gently westward dipping strata. Recent aeromagnetic surveys in the Barents Sea have revealed negative magnetic anomalies associated with shallow salt diapirs. Buried Quaternary channels partly filled with gravel and boulders of crystalline rocks generate magnetic anomalies in the North Sea. The new maps also show that the opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea occurred along stable continental margins without offsets across minor fracture zones, or involving jumps in the spreading axis. A triple junction formed at 48 Ma between the Lofoten and Norway Basins. © Petroleum Geology Conferences Ltd. Published by the Geological Society, London. Source

Eidvin T.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Riis F.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Rasmussen E.S.,Geological Survey of Denmark
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014

This study provides the results of the first integrated study of Oligocene-Pliocene basins around Norway.Within the study area, three main depocentres have been identified where sandy sediments accumulated throughout the Oligocene to Early Pliocene period. The depocentre in the Norwegian-Danish Basin received sediments from the southern Scandes Mountains, with a general progradation from north to south during the studied period. The depocentre in the basinal areas of the UK and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea north of 58°N received sediments from the Scotland-Shetland area. Because of the sedimentary infilling there was a gradual shallowing of the northern North Sea basin in the Oligocene and Miocene. A smaller depocentre is identified offshore northern Nordland between Ranafjorden (approximately 66°N) and Vesterålen (approximately 68°N) where the northern Scandes Mountains were the source of the Oligocene to Early Pliocene sediments. In other local depocentres along the west coast of Norway, sandy sedimentation occurred in only parts of the period. Shifts in local depocentres are indicative of changes in the paleogeography in the source areas.In the Barents Sea and south to approximately 68°N, the Oligocene to Early Pliocene section is eroded except for distal fine-grained and biogenic deposits along the western margin and on the oceanic crust. This margin was undergoing deformation in a strike-slip regime until the Eocene-Oligocene transition. The Early Oligocene sediments dated in the Vestbakken Volcanic Province and the Forlandssundet Basin represent the termination of this strike-slip regime.The change in the plate tectonic regime at the Eocene-Oligocene transition affected mainly the northern part of the study area, and was followed by a quiet tectonic period until the Middle Miocene, when large compressional dome and basin structures were formed in the Norwegian Sea. The Middle Miocene event is correlated with a relative fall in sea level in the main depocentres in the North Sea, formation of a large delta in the Viking Graben (Frigg area) and uplift of the North and South Scandes domes. In the Norwegian-Danish Basin, the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone was reactivated in the Early Miocene, possibly causing a shift in the deltaic progradation towards the east. A Late Pliocene relative rise in sea level resulted in low sedimentation rates in the main depositional areas until the onset of glaciations at about 2.7 Ma when the Scandes Mountains were strongly eroded and became a major source of sediments for the Norwegian shelf, whilst the Frigg delta prograded farther to the northeast. © 2014 Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD). Source

Pham V.T.H.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Riis F.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Gjeldvik I.T.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | Halland E.K.,Norwegian Petroleum Directorate NPD | And 2 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2013

To estimate the capacity of CO2 storage in a southern part of Utsira/Skade aquifer, a reservoir model was built to simulate the long-term behavior of CO2 injection. The model covers 1600km2 in the southern part of the Norwegian sector. The study illustrates potential migration and to forecast possible migration of CO2 from the Skade Formation into the Utsira Formation above. CO2 from Skade sand can penetrate through a clay layers into Utsira sand if the clay between Skade sand and Utsira sand has permeability from 0.1mD and higher. About 170Mt (million tonne) CO2 can be injected in Utsira sand in the segment model with 4 horizontal wells over 50 years, BHP (bottom-hole pressure) change of 10bars, no water production. After 8000 years of storage, the dissolved part is nearly 70%, residual trapping is less than 1% and mobile CO2 has decreased to 29% of total amount of injected CO2. These results are based on a residual saturation of CO2 of 0.02. If a residual saturation of CO2 is 0.3, CO2 trapped by residual mechanisms is 13% of total CO2 injected after 8000 years. Mineral trapping by geochemical reactions was not considered in the simulation, but will add additional storage capacity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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