Norwegian Meat Research Center

Oslo, Norway

Norwegian Meat Research Center

Oslo, Norway
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Lunde K.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Lunde K.,University of Life Science | Egelandsdal B.,University of Life Science | Skuterud E.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences. © 2012 Lunde et al.


Lunde K.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Lunde K.,University of Life Science | Skuterud E.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Skuterud E.,University of Life Science | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The aim of work was to study Norwegian consumers' acceptance of pork meat with different levels of skatole and androstenone. One group of androstenone sensitive consumers (N. = 46) and one group of non sensitive consumers (N. = 55) participated in a home test and evaluated 11 samples with different skatole (range 0-0.35 ppm) and androstenone (range 0-9.0 ppm) levels. Liking of odour during frying and odour and flavour of the fried meat were evaluated. Results showed that the non sensitive consumers accepted all levels of androstenone in the samples. Sensitive consumers gave a significantly lower liking score for androstenone samples containing 3 ppm (and more) than the reference sample when evaluating these samples above the frying pan, but no significant difference were found between 3 ppm samples and reference samples when liking of fried meat was evaluated. This indicated that the sensitive consumers accepted 3 ppm in fried meat, but not if 3 ppm was present in the sample during the frying process. The same consumer's differentiated skatole samples with regard to flavour at 0.15 ppm. The Norwegian established practise with a threshold value of 0.21 ppm skatole is higher than the value accepted by the consumers. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.


Lunde K.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Lunde K.,University of Life Science | Skuterud E.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Skuterud E.,University of Life Science | And 8 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

Four European sensory panels where all (38) assessors, when recruited, were able to detect dry androstenone crystals through smelling, were reclassified in terms of sensitivity using a recently developed sensitivity method based both on the assessor's ability to detect androstenone and the spontaneous descriptor used to describe the odour. The reclassification reduced the number of assumed androstenone sensitive assessors from 38 to 28. All 38 assessors evaluated 6 samples (at approx. 60 °C) of minced meat low in skatole (≤0.05ppm) with androstenone contents from 3 to 9. ppm. The 28 androstenone sensitive assessors were able to detect androstenone odour in samples with androstenone ≥4.5. ppm and androstenone flavour in samples with androstenone ≥3.7. ppm; all concentrations in the fat. The 10 insensitive assessors could not detect androstenone even at 9. ppm despite the fact that all assessors detected dry androstenone crystals. The 10 insensitive assessors were present in 3 panels, the panels then having from 50% to 88.8% sensitive assessors. This showed that the method of recruiting assessors to a sensory panel was critical for the evaluation of androstenone tainted meat. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kathrine L.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Kathrine L.,University of Life Science | Ellen S.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Ellen S.,University of Life Science | And 4 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers showed little variation in liking scores for bacon produced with the different technologies. Assessors trained for recognizing skatole flavour, nevertheless identified the odour and flavour of skatole for more samples and technologies than the consumers did. However, trained sensory panellists could not identify taint in all dry salted bacons fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus even at a skatole level of 0.43 mg/kg fat. Sufficient liquid smoke in brine injected bacons masked the skatole flavour of bacons having 0.43 mg skatole/kg fat. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hallenstvedt E.,Felleskjopet Forutvikling | Hallenstvedt E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kjos N.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Rehnberg A.C.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

A total of 72 crossbred [(Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] male and female growing-finishing pigs were restrictedly fed diets containing fish oil to study the fatty acid composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi and sensory quality of belly and neck. Six diets were used: two low-fat diets with or without 0.5% fish oil added, and four medium-fat diets with palm kernel oil to fish oil in ratios given as % inclusion: 4.1:0.0, 3.9:0.3, 3.6:0.5 and 3.4:0.7. Feeding fish oil gave a dose-dependent response between fatty acids in the diets and in the M. longissimus dorsi and increased the level of very long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially the C22:5n-3 (DPA). A more efficient n-3 fatty acids deposition was obtained when given as a medium-fat diet rather than the low-fat diet. Female pigs had a significant higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and C18:1 than males suggesting a gender related difference in the delta-9-desaturase activity. No significant differences were found in sensory attributes for short-term stored neck and belly. For pigs fed the highest level of fish oil (0.7%) long-term stored (12 months at -80 °C, 6 months at -20 °C) belly showed a slight increase in fish oil flavour. After warmed-over treatment, fish oil odour and flavour as well as rancid flavour were increased in this group. The results suggest levels of dietary fish oil up to 0.5% produce a healthier meat fatty acid composition, without negative effects on sensory attributes, even in long-termed stored belly. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hallenstvedt E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Overland M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Rehnberg A.,Norwegian Meat Research Center | Kjos N.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Thomassen M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Predicting aspects of pork quality is becoming increasingly important from a nutritional as well as a technological point of view. Here, the influence of increasing PUFA and iodine values (IV) in feed and pigs on sensory qualities of short- and long-term frozen stored products was investigated. Entire male and female grower-finisher pigs were fed diets with iodine value products of 48 (LowIVP), 77 (MedIVP) or 99 (HighIVP) according to a restricted feeding scale. Ribs, chops and meat balls were short- (0-3. months) and long-term (6-9. months) frozen stored before sensory profiling. C18:2. n-6 increased linearly in backfat with increased dietary inclusion. No negative effect on sensory quality was found in short-term stored products. After long-term storage the lean chops was the product most affected. Increasing the dietary IVP led to an increased rancid and total odour and flavour intensity, and to reduced meat and sour odour and flavour. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Norwegian Meat Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences.


PubMed | Norwegian Meat Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

The present study addresses sensory quality and liking for pork (eight samples) varying in quality due to adrenaline injection resulting in elevated ultimate pH post-slaughter (24h), meat ageing, cooking temperature and warmed-over flavour (WOF) among consumers (n=288) in Scandinavia. The consumers preferred meat with higher pH (pH(24h)=6.0), cooked to the lowest temperature (65C versus 80C). Consumers least preferred samples with WOF described as metallic, acidic and off-flavour by a trained panel. Elevated pH(24h) meat cooked to 65C resulted in a more sweet and tender meat. Juiciness, tenderness and the absence of off-flavour were the most important characteristics for consumers liking of pork. Consumption frequency and liking of pork were positively related. The consumers that were most satisfied with pork quality reported highest consumption frequency. Elderly people and males expressed the highest liking score and consumption frequency, respectively.


PubMed | Norwegian Meat Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2010

The aim of work was to study Norwegian consumers acceptance of pork meat with different levels of skatole and androstenone. One group of androstenone sensitive consumers (N=46) and one group of non sensitive consumers (N=55) participated in a home test and evaluated 11 samples with different skatole (range 0-0.35 ppm) and androstenone (range 0-9.0 ppm) levels. Liking of odour during frying and odour and flavour of the fried meat were evaluated. Results showed that the non sensitive consumers accepted all levels of androstenone in the samples. Sensitive consumers gave a significantly lower liking score for androstenone samples containing 3 ppm (and more) than the reference sample when evaluating these samples above the frying pan, but no significant difference were found between 3 ppm samples and reference samples when liking of fried meat was evaluated. This indicated that the sensitive consumers accepted 3 ppm in fried meat, but not if 3 ppm was present in the sample during the frying process. The same consumers differentiated skatole samples with regard to flavour at 0.15 ppm. The Norwegian established practise with a threshold value of 0.21 ppm skatole is higher than the value accepted by the consumers.


PubMed | Norwegian Meat Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

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