Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Oslo, Norway

The Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Folkehelseinstituttet ) is a subordinate institution to the Ministry of Health and Care Services. The NIPH acts as a national competence institution for governmental authorities, the health service, the judiciary, prosecuting authorities, politicians, the media and the general public.The institute consists of an administrative division and five scientific divisions: Infectious Disease Control, Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology, Mental Health and Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research.Main objectives: Health surveillance to give a good overview of the population’s health; research to give the best knowledge about what affects public health; and prevention i.e. good preparedness, advice and services of high qualityCurrent and new areas: Preparedness , mental health, drug research, health, population studies, laboratory-based research and surveillance.The NIPH’s activities adapt to diseases in the population and challenges in health care and society. Consequently, the NIPH will give special attention to the following areas; diseases of ageing, lifestyle and health, social inequalities in health, health surveillance and registries, as well as global health challenges. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 1, 2017

Development assistance for health targets largely ignores older age groups, with 90 percent of the assistance going to people below the age of 60, according to a new study led by a researcher at the Robert N. Butler Columbia Aging Center, Mailman School of Public Health. Children below the age of 5 receive the most development assistance for health. Findings from the study, Vast Majority of Development Assistance for Health Funds Target Those Below Age Sixty, will be published online and in the May issue of the journal, Health Affairs. Development assistance for health globally was $3.13 per person younger than age 60 in recipient countries, per DALY, defined as the sum of years lived with disability and years of life lost because of premature mortality. This is in contrast to $0.91 per person aged 60 and older. The gap was even higher at the extremes of the age distribution: People ages 70 and older received only $0.80 per DALY. Funds earmarked for low- and middle-income countries to improve health have more than quadrupled since 1990, reaching $36.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2015. The researchers used publicly available data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Financing Global Health 2015 report and the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. They examined 27 assistance program areas that identified the cause of disease or the type of intervention targeted for the period 1990-2013. Country- and year-specific disability-adjusted life-years were calculated for each cause. "When we compared changes in development assistance for health and DALYs from 1990 to 2013 -- a period of epidemiological and demographic change during which the disease burden shifted toward older ages--we found that assistance was directed increasingly to children," said the study's lead author, Vegard Skirbekk, PhD, of the Columbia Aging Center and professor of Population and Family Health at the Mailman School of Public Health. For example, people younger than age five had $6.49 billion more assistance in 2013 than they had in 1990. The largest increases were for people ages 5-14 years. People in their twenties and thirties also received relatively large amounts of the spending for development assistance for health, some of it driven by HIV/AIDS funding. In 2013 the assistance benefited people younger than age five the most, with spending on this age group over three times more than any other age group. Many programs areas benefit this age group, especially assistance for child health, maternal and newborn health, and malaria. "Our results revealed that development assistance for health is likely to target diseases that occur early in life," noted Skirbekk. One driver for prioritizing younger over older populations may be that children are seen as representing the future. "Another idea is that younger people--especially children--should be given priority because they are more innocent, and that health risks and diseases that affect them are hardly due to behavior for which they could be held responsible," observed Skirbekk. Co-authors: Trygve Ottersen, Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Centre for Global Health, University of Oslo; Hannah Hamavid, Nafis Sadat, and Joseph L. Dieleman, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. The study was supported by the Robert N. Butler Columbia Aging Center at Columbia University, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Founded in 1922, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health pursues an agenda of research, education, and service to address the critical and complex public health issues affecting New Yorkers, the nation and the world. The Mailman School is the third largest recipient of NIH grants among schools of public health. Its over 450 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing such issues as preventing infectious and chronic diseases, environmental health, maternal and child health, health policy, climate change & health, and public health preparedness. It is a leader in public health education with over 1,300 graduate students from more than 40 nations pursuing a variety of master's and doctoral degree programs. The Mailman School is also home to numerous world-renowned research centers including ICAP (formerly the International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs) and the Center for Infection and Immunity. For more information, please visit http://www. .

News Article | May 25, 2017

10-12-years-olds can be taught how to think critically at school, even with few teachers and limited resources. Parents can also be taught to assess claims about health effects. These findings come from two research articles published in The Lancet. In a randomised trial of 120 schools and over 10,000 children in Uganda, researchers evaluated the effects of a programme aimed to teach 10-12-year-old pupils how to critically assess health effect claims. In a parallel study, the effect of a podcast intended to teach over 500 parents was also evaluated. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate whether teaching primary school pupils how to critically assess health claims had any effect. "The educational programme led to nearly 50 per cent more children passing a test where they were asked to assess treatment claims. This is a significant effect. We did not register any negative consequences of the programme but the time spent (13 hours over a 3 month period) was necessarily at the expense of other school activities," explains Atle Fretheim, head of the Centre for Informed Health Choices at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This was also the first attempt to evaluate how podcasts can help adults who are not healthcare personnel to critically assess health claims. "Among those who listened to the podcast, 34 per cent more people passed the test that measured their ability to critically assess health claims. This group was compared with those who were asked to listen to a series of public health information announcements about similar topics," continues Fretheim. May stop the spread of "fake news" and alternative facts "In a time of rapidly spreading fake news, it is more important than ever that people are able to distinguish the truth from "alternative facts." In addition, we need to be able to assess what is a sensible interpretation of facts, particularly when facts are used to argue for or against implementing measures. This applies to claims about what causes better or worse health, says Fretheim. "Based on this and the results of our research, this type of education programme should be considered in other countries, including Norway," he adds. It is uncertain how applicable the results are to other countries but the programme was pilot tested at a school in Norway. The school chose to continue using the programme after the testing ended. In poorer countries it is paramount that decisions and measures are knowledge-based, so that valuable resources are not wasted on ineffective measures, or even those with a negative effect. "Even though Norway has more resources than Uganda, resources are also wasted here. Studies have shown that children and adults in Norway struggle to assess health claims," ​​concludes Fretheim. The studies were funded by the Research Council of Norway's GLOBVAC-programme.

News Article | May 13, 2017

The Ebola epidemic that began in west Africa in 2013 killed 11,300 people and led to a clinical vaccine trial (AFP Photo/CELLOU BINANI) Kinshasa (AFP) - The first Ebola outbreak since the crisis in West Africa that killed 11,300 people has been declared in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo, the World Health Organization said Friday, after the virus caused three deaths in the area. In a television address, Health Minister Oly Ilunga confirmed the cases while urging the population "not to panic". The country "has taken all necessary measures to respond quickly and efficiently to this new outbreak", he said. The DR Congo outbreak is the first there in three years. The three deaths all occurred since April 22. The WHO said it was working closely with DR Congo authorities to help deploy health workers and protective equipment in the remote area, which is difficult for teams to access, in order to "rapidly control the outbreak". The organisation underlined the importance of tracing people who had contact with confirmed victims to prevent the disease spreading. Sufferers are advised to keep themselves isolated while awaiting treatment for a disease whose incubation period is 21 days. The WHO said the outbreak, the eighth to date in DR Congo, had affected an equatorial forest region difficult to access in Bas-Uele province, bordering Central African Republic. The last instance of Ebola in Congo in 2014, which was not linked to an outbreak in neighbouring states at the time, was quickly contained and killed 49 people according to official figures. That outbreak saw 66 registered cases hit the district of Boende some 800 kilometres (500 miles) northeast of Kinshasa for an official fatality rate of 74.2 percent. The United Nations at the time saluted the "immense work" DR Congo authorities had put in to contain the disease spread. In 2013, an Ebola crisis began in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Liberia was the last of those states to be declared clear in January 2016. Congo's outbreaks have all been in areas not linked to the West African cases. The WHO was criticised at the time for responding too slowly and failing to grasp the gravity of the latest outbreak of a disease first recorded in DR Congo in 1976. Last week, the WHO said almost 12,000 people had participated in a ground-breaking vaccine trial the agency organised in Guinean capital Conakry through to January last year. Final results from the trial published in The Lancet released last December showed the experimental vaccine offered protection against the virus and would help to bolster an early response to future outbreaks. The WHO led the trial with Guinea’s ministry of health, Medecins sans Frontieres and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, in conjunction with other international partners. The vaccine is now awaiting formal licensing clearance. Ebola is a viral illness whose initial symptoms may include a sudden fever, aching muscles and a sore throat, with subsequent symptoms including diarrhoea and vomiting and, on occasion, internal and external bleeding. Humans can catch the illness from close contact with infected animals. Inter-human transmission can then occur through direct contact with infected blood or bodily fluids. Mourners can also catch it if they have direct contact with the bodies of victims at funerals. The WHO said specialist teams were headed for the area and hoped to arrive within 48 hours. It said the health zone at Likati some 1,300 km from Kinshasa was very difficult to access but stressed it was crucial to pinpoint who had had contact with those affected in order to nip the latest outbreak in the bud. "RDC has very experienced human resources to do this," the WHO noted in calling on partner organisations to rally and provide a "coordinated and appropriate" response. The Alliance For International Medical Action said in a statement one of its teams was on its way to Likati with protective gear and medicine to treat "suspected and confirmed cases."

Daniel Hausman's book 'Valuing Health' is a valuable contribution to our understanding of QALYs and DALYs and to moving health economics to adopting a broader perspective than that taken in conventional costeffectiveness analysis. Hausman's attempt at constructing a public value table for health states without having recourse to data from population preferences studies is also a fascinating read. But I have serious concerns about his resulting table. Hausman's views on which dimensions of health a benevolent liberal state should care about are essentially not different from what has long been emphasized in health economists' work on valuations of health outcomes. His table would have been helpful as a sketch if it was the first attempt in health economics to quantify numerically the societal value of different types and degrees of health improvement. But research in the field has gone far beyond that. Multi-attribute utility instruments with much more accurate health classification systems than Hausman's sketch are now at hand. Available also are models of societal valuations of QALYs that (i) are broadly consistent with general population values, (ii) incorporate wider concerns than Hausman's table does and (iii) do not have the questionable numerical properties that characterize Hausman's sketch. © The Author 2016.

Novartis and Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Date: 2014-10-29

The present invention is directed to a combination vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis comprising outer membrane proteins from serogroup B and oligosaccharides from serogroup C, and its use for the prevention or treatment of disease.

Fleten C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct associations between exercise during pregnancy and offspring birth weight and between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. Furthermore, we estimated the indirect association between maternal BMI and birth weight, explained by exercise during pregnancy. METHODS: This study included pregnant women and their offspring recruited from 1999 to 2006 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Linear regression analyses were based on exposure data from two self-administered questionnaires during pregnancy and birth weight data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results: The study included 43,705 pregnancies. The median exercise frequency during the first 17 weeks of gestation was six times per month and four times per month thereafter until week 30. Mean maternal prepregnancy BMI was 24 kg/m, and mean birth weight of the offspring was 3,677 g. The adjusted direct association between exercise and birth weight was a 2.9-g decrease in birth weight per unit increase in exercise (one time per month). In contrast, the adjusted direct association between BMI and birth weight was a 20.3-g increase in birth weight for a one-unit increase in BMI (1 kg/m), and the indirect association explained by exercise was only a 0.3-g increase in birth weight. Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy has a minor impact on birth weight, whereas maternal prepregnancy BMI has a larger influence. Thus, we suggest that health care professionals should focus on normalizing the BMI of women in fertile ages. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ystrom E.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2012

Background: Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression.First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy.Methods: To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score), and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking.Results: First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28), and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14). Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between breastfeeding cessation and postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.06). The associations could not be accounted for by the adjusting variables.Conclusions: Breastfeeding cessation is a risk factor for increased anxiety and depression. Women with high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy who stop breastfeeding early are at an additional multiplicative risk for postpartum anxiety and depression. © 2012 Ystrom; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data from self-administered questionnaires were used in linear regression analyses. Crude analyses showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations; the mean difference in offspring BMI was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.16) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in maternal BMI and 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.17) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in paternal BMI. After all adjustments, the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of maternal BMI was 0.12, and the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of paternal BMI was 0.13. There was no strong support for heterogeneity between the associations (P > 0.6). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based study showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations when the offspring were 3 years of age, which indicates that the maternal-offspring association may be explained by shared familial (environmental and genetic) risk factors rather than by the intrauterine environment.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Armauer Hansen Research Institute | Date: 2016-08-24

A method of detecting the presence of lymphocytes reactive with an antigen in an individual comprising contacting a lymphocyte sample containing T cells and/or B cells from the individual with an agent that non-specifically expands and/or activates a T cell and/or B cell population and said antigen, in order to generate a stimulated lymphocyte population. The detection of an indicator of T cell and/or B cell binding to said antigen in the stimulated lymphocyte population is indicative of the presence of lymphocytes reactive with the antigen being present in the individual.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Date: 2013-03-27

A recombinant fusion protein comprising at least one antigenic region comprising an amino acid sequence with at least 80% sequence identity to any of SEQ. ID NOS. 1 to 3, 8, 4, 7, 6 or 5, or an antigenic fragment thereof. The recombinant fusion protein also comprises an anchoring region comprising a sequence of at least 25 amino acids.

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