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Oslo, Norway

The Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Folkehelseinstituttet ) is a subordinate institution to the Ministry of Health and Care Services. The NIPH acts as a national competence institution for governmental authorities, the health service, the judiciary, prosecuting authorities, politicians, the media and the general public.The institute consists of an administrative division and five scientific divisions: Infectious Disease Control, Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology, Mental Health and Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research.Main objectives: Health surveillance to give a good overview of the population’s health; research to give the best knowledge about what affects public health; and prevention i.e. good preparedness, advice and services of high qualityCurrent and new areas: Preparedness , mental health, drug research, health, population studies, laboratory-based research and surveillance.The NIPH’s activities adapt to diseases in the population and challenges in health care and society. Consequently, the NIPH will give special attention to the following areas; diseases of ageing, lifestyle and health, social inequalities in health, health surveillance and registries, as well as global health challenges. Wikipedia.

Tapia G.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Objectives:Studies on early life infections and risk of later celiac disease (CD) are inconsistent but have mostly been limited to retrospective designs, inpatient data, or insufficient statistical power. We aimed to test whether early life infections are associated with increased risk of later CD using prospective population-based data.Methods:This study, based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, includes prospective, repeated assessments of parent-reported infectious disease data up to 18 months of age for 72,921 children born between 2000 and 2009. CD was identified through parental questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Registry. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for child’s age and sex (aOR).Results:During a median follow-up period of 8.5 years (range, 4.5–14.5), 581 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with CD. Children with ≥10 infections (≥fourth quartile) up to age 18 months had a significantly higher risk of later CD, as compared with children with ≤4 infections (≤first quartile; aOR=1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06–1.65; per increase in infectious episodes, aOR=1.03; 95% CI=1.02–1.05). The aORs per increase in specific types of infections were as follows: upper respiratory tract infections: 1.03 (95% CI=1.02–1.05); lower respiratory tract infections: 1.12 (95% CI=1.01–1.23); and gastroenteritis: 1.05 (95% CI=0.99–1.11). Additional adjustments for maternal CD, education level, smoking, birth weight, prematurity, infant feeding practices, birth season, and antibiotic treatment yielded largely unchanged results.Conclusions:This is the first large-scale population-based cohort study of this association. Our results are in line with immunological data suggesting that early life infections may have a role in CD development. However, non-causal explanations for this association due to surveillance bias and reverse causation cannot be excluded.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 8 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.287. © 2015 American College of Gastroenterology Source

Fleten C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct associations between exercise during pregnancy and offspring birth weight and between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. Furthermore, we estimated the indirect association between maternal BMI and birth weight, explained by exercise during pregnancy. METHODS: This study included pregnant women and their offspring recruited from 1999 to 2006 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Linear regression analyses were based on exposure data from two self-administered questionnaires during pregnancy and birth weight data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results: The study included 43,705 pregnancies. The median exercise frequency during the first 17 weeks of gestation was six times per month and four times per month thereafter until week 30. Mean maternal prepregnancy BMI was 24 kg/m, and mean birth weight of the offspring was 3,677 g. The adjusted direct association between exercise and birth weight was a 2.9-g decrease in birth weight per unit increase in exercise (one time per month). In contrast, the adjusted direct association between BMI and birth weight was a 20.3-g increase in birth weight for a one-unit increase in BMI (1 kg/m), and the indirect association explained by exercise was only a 0.3-g increase in birth weight. Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy has a minor impact on birth weight, whereas maternal prepregnancy BMI has a larger influence. Thus, we suggest that health care professionals should focus on normalizing the BMI of women in fertile ages. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Ystrom E.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2012

Background: Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression.First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy.Methods: To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score), and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking.Results: First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28), and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14). Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between breastfeeding cessation and postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.06). The associations could not be accounted for by the adjusting variables.Conclusions: Breastfeeding cessation is a risk factor for increased anxiety and depression. Women with high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy who stop breastfeeding early are at an additional multiplicative risk for postpartum anxiety and depression. © 2012 Ystrom; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zahl P.-H.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Gotzsche P.C.,Copenhagen University | Maehlen J.,University of Oslo
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy. Methods: We compared cumulative breast cancer incidence in age-matched cohorts of women living in seven Swedish counties before and after the initiation of public mammography screening between 1986 and 1990. Women aged 40-49 years were invited to screening every year and women aged 50-74 years were invited every 2 years. A screened group including all women aged 40-69 years (n=328 927) was followed-up for 6 years after the first invitation to the programme. A control group including all women in the same age range (n=317 404) was also followed-up for 6 years-4 years without screening and 2 years when they entered the screening programme. Screening attendance was much the same in both groups (close to 80%). Counts of incident invasive breast cancers were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry (in-situ cancers were excluded). Findings: Before the age-matched controls were invited to be screened at the end of their follow-up period, the 4-year cumulative incidence of invasive breast cancer was significantly higher in the screened group (982 per 100 000) than it was in the control group (658 per 100 000) (relative risk [RR] 1·49, 95% CI 1·41-1·58). Even after prevalence screening in the control group, the screened group had higher 6-year cumulative incidence of invasive breast cancer (1443 per 100 000 vs 1269 per 100 000; RR 1·14, 1·10-1·18). Interpretation: Because the cumulative incidence among controls did not reach that of the screened group, we believe that many invasive breast cancers detected by repeated mammography screening do not persist to be detected by screening at the end of 6 years, suggesting that the natural course of many of the screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to spontaneously regress. Funding: None. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Budin-Ljosne I.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC medical genomics | Year: 2011

The ability to share human biological samples, associated data and results across disease-specific and population-based human research biobanks is becoming increasingly important for research into disease development and translation. Although informed consent often does not anticipate such cross-domain sharing, it is important to examine its plausibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of bridging consent between disease-specific and population-based research. Comparative analyses of 1) current ethical and legal frameworks governing consent and 2) informed consent models found in disease-specific and population-based research were conducted. Ethical and legal frameworks governing consent dissuade cross-domain data sharing. Paradoxically, analysis of consent models for disease-specific and population-based research reveals such a high degree of similarity that bridging consent could be possible if additional information regarding bridging was incorporated into consent forms. We submit that bridging of consent could be supported if current trends endorsing a new interpretation of consent are adopted. To illustrate this we sketch potential bridging consent scenarios. A bridging consent, respectful of the spirit of initial consent, is feasible and would require only small changes to the content of consents currently being used. Under a bridging consent approach, the initial data and samples collection can serve an identified research project as well as contribute to the creation of a resource for a range of other projects. Source

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