Oslo, Norway

The Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Folkehelseinstituttet ) is a subordinate institution to the Ministry of Health and Care Services. The NIPH acts as a national competence institution for governmental authorities, the health service, the judiciary, prosecuting authorities, politicians, the media and the general public.The institute consists of an administrative division and five scientific divisions: Infectious Disease Control, Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology, Mental Health and Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research.Main objectives: Health surveillance to give a good overview of the population’s health; research to give the best knowledge about what affects public health; and prevention i.e. good preparedness, advice and services of high qualityCurrent and new areas: Preparedness , mental health, drug research, health, population studies, laboratory-based research and surveillance.The NIPH’s activities adapt to diseases in the population and challenges in health care and society. Consequently, the NIPH will give special attention to the following areas; diseases of ageing, lifestyle and health, social inequalities in health, health surveillance and registries, as well as global health challenges. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Novartis and Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Date: 2014-10-29

The present invention is directed to a combination vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis comprising outer membrane proteins from serogroup B and oligosaccharides from serogroup C, and its use for the prevention or treatment of disease.


Eriksen W.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here. © 2014 The Author.


Tapia G.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Objectives:Studies on early life infections and risk of later celiac disease (CD) are inconsistent but have mostly been limited to retrospective designs, inpatient data, or insufficient statistical power. We aimed to test whether early life infections are associated with increased risk of later CD using prospective population-based data.Methods:This study, based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, includes prospective, repeated assessments of parent-reported infectious disease data up to 18 months of age for 72,921 children born between 2000 and 2009. CD was identified through parental questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Registry. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for child’s age and sex (aOR).Results:During a median follow-up period of 8.5 years (range, 4.5–14.5), 581 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with CD. Children with ≥10 infections (≥fourth quartile) up to age 18 months had a significantly higher risk of later CD, as compared with children with ≤4 infections (≤first quartile; aOR=1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06–1.65; per increase in infectious episodes, aOR=1.03; 95% CI=1.02–1.05). The aORs per increase in specific types of infections were as follows: upper respiratory tract infections: 1.03 (95% CI=1.02–1.05); lower respiratory tract infections: 1.12 (95% CI=1.01–1.23); and gastroenteritis: 1.05 (95% CI=0.99–1.11). Additional adjustments for maternal CD, education level, smoking, birth weight, prematurity, infant feeding practices, birth season, and antibiotic treatment yielded largely unchanged results.Conclusions:This is the first large-scale population-based cohort study of this association. Our results are in line with immunological data suggesting that early life infections may have a role in CD development. However, non-causal explanations for this association due to surveillance bias and reverse causation cannot be excluded.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 8 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.287. © 2015 American College of Gastroenterology


Fleten C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct associations between exercise during pregnancy and offspring birth weight and between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. Furthermore, we estimated the indirect association between maternal BMI and birth weight, explained by exercise during pregnancy. METHODS: This study included pregnant women and their offspring recruited from 1999 to 2006 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Linear regression analyses were based on exposure data from two self-administered questionnaires during pregnancy and birth weight data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results: The study included 43,705 pregnancies. The median exercise frequency during the first 17 weeks of gestation was six times per month and four times per month thereafter until week 30. Mean maternal prepregnancy BMI was 24 kg/m, and mean birth weight of the offspring was 3,677 g. The adjusted direct association between exercise and birth weight was a 2.9-g decrease in birth weight per unit increase in exercise (one time per month). In contrast, the adjusted direct association between BMI and birth weight was a 20.3-g increase in birth weight for a one-unit increase in BMI (1 kg/m), and the indirect association explained by exercise was only a 0.3-g increase in birth weight. Conclusion: Exercise during pregnancy has a minor impact on birth weight, whereas maternal prepregnancy BMI has a larger influence. Thus, we suggest that health care professionals should focus on normalizing the BMI of women in fertile ages. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Ystrom E.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2012

Background: Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression.First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy.Methods: To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score), and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking.Results: First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28), and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14). Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between breastfeeding cessation and postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.06). The associations could not be accounted for by the adjusting variables.Conclusions: Breastfeeding cessation is a risk factor for increased anxiety and depression. Women with high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy who stop breastfeeding early are at an additional multiplicative risk for postpartum anxiety and depression. © 2012 Ystrom; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mamelund S.-E.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Epidemics | Year: 2011

Seasonal influenza takes its most pronounced toll on children and the elderly, giving the crude age-specific mortality rates a U-shape. In contrast, A(H1N1) 1918-20 pandemic mortality was W-shaped. When adjusting for the seasonal baseline, young adults had higher but the elderly lower than expected mortality. The lower than expected mortality for the elderly is one reason why total mortality in urban societies were relatively low in 1918-20 (< 1%). Why mortality peaked at age 30 but declined into old age is still not clear. It has been suggested that cohorts > 30. years was protected because they were exposed to H1-like viruses prior to 1889. This hypothesis assumes that people lived within the reach of the urban disease pools. Here I analyze mortality after age 30 in aboriginal populations assumed to be infrequently exposed to influenza due to their geographic isolation. Results show that Arctic and Pacific peoples also experienced a decline in relative mortality after age 30. However, the remotely living elderly did not have lower than expected mortality, suggesting that they had less prior exposure to influenza than their urban counterpart. Crude total mortality and mortality for all adults > 30. years was nevertheless extremely high in the remote populations. Parish records quantitatively confirmed the anecdotes that children 5-14. years were the only survivors in some Arctic communities. Low exposure to H1-like viruses in adults could not alone explain the high total mortality in remote populations (up to 90%). A high concurrent disease load, crowding, low genetic variability, a lack of basic care, and infrequent exposure to other forms of influenza virus 1890-1917 may have played a role as well. This form of immunological cross-protection from previous exposure to A-type influenza viruses other than H1N1 can only be explained as a consequence of cellular immunity against internal proteins that show less inter-strain variation than the surface proteins. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data from self-administered questionnaires were used in linear regression analyses. Crude analyses showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations; the mean difference in offspring BMI was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.16) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in maternal BMI and 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.17) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in paternal BMI. After all adjustments, the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of maternal BMI was 0.12, and the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of paternal BMI was 0.13. There was no strong support for heterogeneity between the associations (P > 0.6). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based study showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations when the offspring were 3 years of age, which indicates that the maternal-offspring association may be explained by shared familial (environmental and genetic) risk factors rather than by the intrauterine environment.


Budin-Ljosne I.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health
BMC medical genomics | Year: 2011

The ability to share human biological samples, associated data and results across disease-specific and population-based human research biobanks is becoming increasingly important for research into disease development and translation. Although informed consent often does not anticipate such cross-domain sharing, it is important to examine its plausibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of bridging consent between disease-specific and population-based research. Comparative analyses of 1) current ethical and legal frameworks governing consent and 2) informed consent models found in disease-specific and population-based research were conducted. Ethical and legal frameworks governing consent dissuade cross-domain data sharing. Paradoxically, analysis of consent models for disease-specific and population-based research reveals such a high degree of similarity that bridging consent could be possible if additional information regarding bridging was incorporated into consent forms. We submit that bridging of consent could be supported if current trends endorsing a new interpretation of consent are adopted. To illustrate this we sketch potential bridging consent scenarios. A bridging consent, respectful of the spirit of initial consent, is feasible and would require only small changes to the content of consents currently being used. Under a bridging consent approach, the initial data and samples collection can serve an identified research project as well as contribute to the creation of a resource for a range of other projects.


Patent
Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Armauer Hansen Research Institute | Date: 2016-08-24

A method of detecting the presence of lymphocytes reactive with an antigen in an individual comprising contacting a lymphocyte sample containing T cells and/or B cells from the individual with an agent that non-specifically expands and/or activates a T cell and/or B cell population and said antigen, in order to generate a stimulated lymphocyte population. The detection of an indicator of T cell and/or B cell binding to said antigen in the stimulated lymphocyte population is indicative of the presence of lymphocytes reactive with the antigen being present in the individual.


Patent
Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Date: 2013-03-27

A recombinant fusion protein comprising at least one antigenic region comprising an amino acid sequence with at least 80% sequence identity to any of SEQ. ID NOS. 1 to 3, 8, 4, 7, 6 or 5, or an antigenic fragment thereof. The recombinant fusion protein also comprises an anchoring region comprising a sequence of at least 25 amino acids.

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