Bergen, Norway

The Norwegian Institute of Marine Research is a national consultative research institute which is owned by the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. The Institute performs research and provides advisory services in the fields of marine ecosystems and aquaculture. With a staff of almost 700, the Institute of Marine Research is the largest centre of marine research in Norway. The Institute has a highly qualified scientific staff, high-technology research stations and laboratories in Austevoll, Bergen , Flødevigen and Matre, a department in Tromsø and several vessels.The primary responsibility of the Institute of Marine Research is to provide advice to national authorities, society and industry regarding questions related to the ecosystems of the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Norwegian coastal zone and in the field of aquaculture. The Institute is heavily engaged in development aid activities through its Centre for Development Cooperation in Fisheries.Norwegian Fisheries Investigations was initiated in Oslo in 1864. In 1900 the investigations was located to Bergen, and in 1947, the institute was separated as a research institute under directorate of fisheries. To further ensure its independence, the institute became an independent institution in 1989.Among important scientific contributions was Johan Hjort's pivotal work on «Fluctuations in the Great Fisheries of Northern Europe» . Einar Lea's use of ASDIC to find herring schools and the use of Echo Integration for estimating fish abundance are also notable. Wikipedia.

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Lazado C.C.,University of Nordland | Caipang C.M.A.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

The objectives of the study were to see if escaped rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) spread rapidly or not from fish farms, and to test whether the hydrological conditions in a fjord influence their vertical distribution and importance as vector for the salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Fifty farmed rainbow trout were tagged with acoustic transmitters including depth sensors and released from two of 11 fish farms in the fjord system. In addition, unintentionally escaped rainbow trout were recaptured for analysis of salmon lice and stomach content. Dispersal out of the fjord system was limited. Most fish stayed in the vicinity of and moved between the fish farms but fed primarily on a variety of indigestible items. They moved in the warm relatively fresh surface layer from late spring until early autumn where the risk of being infested with salmon lice was low. They swam gradually deeper and became much more infested with salmon lice as the surface layers cooled and salinity and temperature gradients became less distinct over the course of the winter. The observed post-escapement behavior may challenge the control of the spread of diseases and parasites between neighboring farms and to wild fish, but also increases opportunities for recapture. © 2012 The Author(s).

The Norwegian Component of the Ecosystem Studies of Sub-Arctic Seas (NESSAS) was funded by the Research Council of Norway from 2005 to 2008. Its aim was to quantify the impact of climate variability on the structure and function of the marine ecosystem of the Barents Sea and adjacent waters in order to predict the ecosystem responses to possible future climate change and their possible economic impact. This paper reviews research highlights dealing with climate forcing and its influence. New insights were provided on the role of large-scale atmospheric forcing on the physical oceanography including the effect of Arctic and Atlantic cyclones on the variability of the ice extent in the Barents Sea and the non-linear response of the sub-polar gyre to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forcing. In addition, the NAO was also shown to influence the biology, for example shrimp recruitment in the Barents Sea and primary production in the Nordic Seas, with the strength and sign of the correlations being spatially dependent. The importance of longer term climate variability in the form of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (60-80. years period) was stressed, as it leads to significant changes in fish production, shifts in distribution and changes in spawning sites in the Barents Sea as well as other northern Atlantic ecosystems. Results from comparative studies between several US ecosystems and those of the Norwegian and Barents Seas are presented, including evidence of increased primary productivity in the Barents Sea in recent years and the poleward movement of zooplankton and fish. In addition recruitment patterns of major demersal and pelagic species in the Barents Sea generally show synchrony with those in the Gulf of Maine indicating a common external forcing. Possible ecosystem scenarios for the Barents Sea under anthropogenic-induced future climate change were developed including expectations of structural and functional changes due to distributional changes of many species. Of particular note is the likelihood of increases in the productivity of several fish species, including cod and herring, which potentially could result in higher fisheries yields. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lokkeborg S.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011

Growing concerns have been raised about incidental capture of seabirds in various fisheries. Here, studies testing measures to prevent seabird bycatch in longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries are reviewed in order to identify the most efficient mitigation methods. There is potential for considerable reduction in mortality rates in most longline fisheries because effective measures have been developed. However, there is no single solution as the efficiency of a measure is specific to each fishery. In demersal longline fisheries where northern fulmar is the dominant seabird captured, streamer lines have been proven to virtually eliminate mortality. In the fishery for Patagonian toothfish where interactions with albatrosses occur, night setting has resulted in considerable bycatch reductions. Night setting has also been proven to be efficient in pelagic fisheries, but this measure should be used in combination with streamer lines and weighted longlines in areas inhabited by nocturnal and diving birds. The main cause of mortality in trawl fisheries is collision with warp and netsonde cables, but studies are fragmentary. Interactions between cables and seabirds have been shown to be rare at times of no offal discharge, suggesting that a no-discharge policy would virtually eliminate mortality. Streamer lines have been proven to effectively reduce cable strikes under offal discharge. Measures to prevent birds from diving into the trawl net meshes have not been tested. Efficient mitigation methods that maintain target fish catch still have to be identified for gillnet fisheries. Future research in longline fisheries should fine-tune the most promising measures for each specific fishery. Effective measures identified for trawl fisheries need to be expanded to and tested in other areas where seabird interactions occur. © Inter-Research 2011.

Malde K.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Summary: The SFF file format produced by Roche's 454 sequencing technology is a compact, binary format that contains the flow values that are used for base and quality calling of the reads. Applications, e.g. in metagenomics, often depend on accurate sequence information, and access to flow values is important to estimate the probability of errors. Unfortunately, the programs supplied by Roche for accessing this information are not publicly available. Flower is a program that can extract the information contained in SFF files, and convert it to various textual output formats. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

Dalpadado P.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Mowbray F.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2013

Four years of capelin (Mallotus villosus) diet data were examined from each of two ecosystems where capelin are an important forage species, the NW Atlantic off Newfoundland and the Barents Sea. Trophic studies from the two areas showed that, the Total Fullness Index (TFI), which reflects the diet weight, was significantly lower in capelin off Newfoundland compared to the Barents Sea, suggestive of poorer feeding conditions for Newfoundland capelin during the study period. In both regions, the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus dominated the diet of smaller capelin (<12. cm) comprising over half of their stomach content. However, there was a major difference in the diet of larger capelin. In the Barents Sea, a pronounced shift in the diet from copepods to krill, mostly Thysanoessa inermis, was observed in larger capelin (>12. cm), with krill being the largest contributor to the diet weight. In contrast, off Newfoundland, copepods remained the most important prey in larger capelin. In both ecosystems arctic amphipods, mostly dominated by Themisto libellula, contributed a small amount to the diet of larger capelin but were nearly absent in the diet of smaller fish. Findings for Newfoundland waters contradict past studies where krill (T. raschii) seems to have been a major component in the diet, especially for mature capelin. In both systems diurnal patterns in TFI indicated that daytime feeding was more successful. In general, a short efficient food chain (phytoplankton via Calanus or herbivorous krill to capelin) was observed in both regions. The extent of consumption of carnivorous zooplankton such as hyperiid amphipods may lengthen the trophic levels and thus reduce efficiency of energy transfer. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Moland E.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before-after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod.

BACKGROUND: The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an ectoparasite of salmonids that causes huge economic losses in salmon farming, and has also been causatively linked with declines of wild salmonid populations. Lice control on farms is reliant upon a few groups of pesticides that have all shown time-limited efficiency due to resistance development. However, to date, this example of human-induced evolution is poorly documented at the population level due to the lack of molecular tools. As such, important evolutionary and management questions, linked to the development and dispersal of pesticide resistance in this parasite, remain unanswered. Here, we introduce the first Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array for the salmon louse, which includes 6000 markers, and present a population genomic scan using this array on 576 lice from twelve farms distributed across the North Atlantic.RESULTS: Our results support the hypothesis of a single panmictic population of lice in the Atlantic, and importantly, revealed very strong selective sweeps on linkage groups 1 and 5. These sweeps included candidate genes potentially connected to pesticide resistance. After genotyping a further 576 lice from 12 full sibling families, a genome-wide association analysis established a highly significant association between the major sweep on linkage group 5 and resistance to emamectin benzoate, the most widely used pesticide in salmonid aquaculture for more than a decade.CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of conserved haplotypes across samples from the Atlantic strongly suggests that emamectin benzoate resistance developed at a single source, and rapidly spread across the Atlantic within the period 1999 when the chemical was first introduced, to 2010 when samples for the present study were obtained. These results provide unique insights into the development and spread of pesticide resistance in the marine environment, and identify a small genomic region strongly linked to emamectin benzoate resistance. Finally, these results have highly significant implications for the way pesticide resistance is considered and managed within the aquaculture industry.

Harbitz A.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2016

Elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFDs) have been used extensively in shape analysis of closed contours and have a range of marine applications, such as automatic identification of fish species and discrimination between fish stocks based on EFDs of otolith contours. A recent method (the 'MIRR' method) transforms the two-dimensional contour to a one-dimensional function by mirroring (reflecting) the lower half of the contour around a vertical axis at the right end of the contour. MIRR then applies the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the vertical contour points corresponding to equidistant coordinate values along the horizontal axis. MIRR has the advantage of reducing the number of Fourier coefficients to two coefficients per frequency component compared with four EFDs. However, both Fourier methods require several frequency components to reproduce a pure ellipse properly. This paper shows how the methods can be easily modified so that a virtually perfect reproduction of a pure ellipse is obtained with only one frequency component. In addition, real otolith examples for cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) are used to demonstrate that the modified methods give better approximations to the large-scale shape of the original contour with fewer coefficients than the traditional Fourier methods, with negligible additional computing time. © 2016 CSIRO.

Albert O.T.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2016

There is currently no generally agreed and validated method for age estimation of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from otoliths, and ageing of intermediate sized individuals of this deep-water flatfish is considered particularly uncertain. To estimate otolith growth and annual zone formation in this size range, a large oxytetracycline tagging experiment was undertaken in 2005-08 in the nursery grounds north of the Svalbard Archipelago. By January 2015, 89 of the recaptured fish had both been at large for between 1 and 6 years and had reliable length measurements at release and recapture; 29 of the recaptures were returned with whole otoliths and with a chemical time stamp that allowed identification of otolith growth patterns during time at large. Four age readers interpreted the otoliths without knowing the position of the time stamps. The expected number of zones during time at large was between three and six for 79% of recaptures, and the mean reader bias was only 0.04-0.56 years. Juvenile growth was quantified and the data were analysed in relation to sex and recapture area. This study contributes to a fully validated ageing method for use in stock assessments of this commercially important species. © 2016 CSIRO.

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