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Dzhiganshina T.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2016

Natural gas is a potential ‘bridge fuel’ to a future low-carbon energy system, raising the question of the environmental footprint of different ways of transporting the gas. This article examines the effects of changes in CO2 prices on the relative cost-efficiency of pipelines and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The analysis shows that pipelines are more cost-efficient for distances below 4726 km at the price of US$ 8.00 per tonne of CO2; above that threshold distance LNG is more cost-efficient. There is an insignificant shift in the break-even distance with a unit change in the price of CO2. That does not imply that pipeline and LNG projects cause similar amounts of carbon emissions, as their total cost functions depend not only on the price of CO2 but also distance, and these two factors can cancel each other out. Thus, it is difficult to generalise across projects about the impact of the cost of CO2 emissions on policy choices between pipeline and LNG infrastructure, because the impact of CO2 prices interacts with the distance of the projects. But for individual projects, scenarios for CO2 price developments should be taken into account. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Kelman I.,University College London | Kelman I.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science | Year: 2015

This article reviews climate change within the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR), analyzing how climate change is mentioned in the framework’s text and the potential implications for dealing with climate change within the context of disaster risk reduction. Three main categories are examined. First, climate change affecting disaster risk and disasters, demonstrating too much emphasis on the single hazard driver and diminisher of climate change. Second, cross-sectoral approaches, for which the SFDRR treads carefully, thereby unfortunately entrenching artificial differences and divisions, although appropriately offering plenty of support to other sectors from disaster risk reduction. Third, implementation, for which climate change plays a suitable role without being overbearing, but for which other hazard influencers should have been treated similarly. Overall, the mentions of climate change within the SFDRR put too much emphasis on the hazard part of disaster risk. Instead, within the context of the three global sustainable development processes that seek agreements in 2015, climate change could have been used to further support an all-vulnerabilities and all-resiliences approach. That could be achieved by placing climate change adaptation as one subset within disaster risk reduction and climate change mitigation as one subset within sustainable development. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Eckroth K.R.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2010

The changing nature of armed conflict has resulted in increased need to safeguard civilians, including humanitarian personnel, which is reflected in the emerging protection of civilians agenda. This article considers the security of aid workers in Darfur. Specifically, it examines to what extent the traditional principles of humanitarian action provide security for humanitarian personnel. By performing a within-case analysis, this study portrays the humanitarian workers' own perspective of the micro-dynamics of security in Darfur. It argues that neutrality, impartiality and independence provide protection and are pivotal for humanitarian security in Darfur. However, these principles do not protect against all threats and needs to be supplemented by other strategies such as protective walls, unarmed guards and barbed wire. On the other hand, relying too heavily on such measures may diminish security as aid workers are alienated from the local population.This is because proximity to the population is perceived as the most important measure for security. In addition, this article suggests that mandatory security training for all humanitarian personnel working in the field would greatly increase the security situation and their ability to protect themselves. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source

De Coning C.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2010

The scale of contemporary United Nations (UN) and African Union (AU) peace operations in Africa represent a significant shift in the political will of the international community to invest in UN and African peace operations. A macro-pattern has developed where most European and American peace and stability operations are deployed in NATO or European Union (EU) operations in Europe and the Middle-East, whilst most UN peace operations troops are contributed by the developing world and deployed in Africa. However, there is a new willingness in Europe to consider deploying some of its peacekeepers to Africa in EU or UN peace operations. From a UN and African perspective, the USA and Europe have a major political and financial influence on, and stake in, the future of peace operations in Africa. The AU and regional entities like ECOWAS, IGAD and SADC have significantly increased their capacity to undertake and manage peace operations over the last decade. The AU has deployed its first three peace operations, AMIB in Burundi, AMIS in Darfur and AMISOM in Somalia. However, the single most important factor when considering the future of peace operations in Africa is how they are financed, as that determines the size, scope and duration of the missions, and therefore has a direct bearing on their impact.The lack of clear and predictable financial arrangements is now the most important factor hindering the further expansion of African peacekeeping. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source

Rich K.M.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Perry B.D.,University of Edinburgh | Perry B.D.,University of Oxford | Perry B.D.,University of Pretoria
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of " bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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