Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI

Oslo, Norway

Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI

Oslo, Norway
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Kaitibie S.,Qatar University | Omore A.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Rich K.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Kristjanson P.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
World Development | Year: 2010

Marketing, transporting, processing, and consuming dairy products contribute significantly to the livelihoods of many poor Kenyan households. This study analyzes the impact of recent research supporting policy changes to liberalize informal milk markets. The study found that behavioral changes in dairy sector participants arising from the research evidence-supported policy and regulatory changes led to an average 9% reduction in milk-marketing margins, and a significant increase in the number of licensed small-scale milk vendors. High welfare benefits arising from the policy change, with a net present value of US$230 million, are captured by consumers, producers, and milk vendors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dzhiganshina T.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2016

Natural gas is a potential ‘bridge fuel’ to a future low-carbon energy system, raising the question of the environmental footprint of different ways of transporting the gas. This article examines the effects of changes in CO2 prices on the relative cost-efficiency of pipelines and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The analysis shows that pipelines are more cost-efficient for distances below 4726 km at the price of US$ 8.00 per tonne of CO2; above that threshold distance LNG is more cost-efficient. There is an insignificant shift in the break-even distance with a unit change in the price of CO2. That does not imply that pipeline and LNG projects cause similar amounts of carbon emissions, as their total cost functions depend not only on the price of CO2 but also distance, and these two factors can cancel each other out. Thus, it is difficult to generalise across projects about the impact of the cost of CO2 emissions on policy choices between pipeline and LNG infrastructure, because the impact of CO2 prices interacts with the distance of the projects. But for individual projects, scenarios for CO2 price developments should be taken into account. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Kelman I.,University College London | Kelman I.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science | Year: 2015

This article reviews climate change within the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR), analyzing how climate change is mentioned in the framework’s text and the potential implications for dealing with climate change within the context of disaster risk reduction. Three main categories are examined. First, climate change affecting disaster risk and disasters, demonstrating too much emphasis on the single hazard driver and diminisher of climate change. Second, cross-sectoral approaches, for which the SFDRR treads carefully, thereby unfortunately entrenching artificial differences and divisions, although appropriately offering plenty of support to other sectors from disaster risk reduction. Third, implementation, for which climate change plays a suitable role without being overbearing, but for which other hazard influencers should have been treated similarly. Overall, the mentions of climate change within the SFDRR put too much emphasis on the hazard part of disaster risk. Instead, within the context of the three global sustainable development processes that seek agreements in 2015, climate change could have been used to further support an all-vulnerabilities and all-resiliences approach. That could be achieved by placing climate change adaptation as one subset within disaster risk reduction and climate change mitigation as one subset within sustainable development. © 2015, The Author(s).

De Coning C.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2010

The scale of contemporary United Nations (UN) and African Union (AU) peace operations in Africa represent a significant shift in the political will of the international community to invest in UN and African peace operations. A macro-pattern has developed where most European and American peace and stability operations are deployed in NATO or European Union (EU) operations in Europe and the Middle-East, whilst most UN peace operations troops are contributed by the developing world and deployed in Africa. However, there is a new willingness in Europe to consider deploying some of its peacekeepers to Africa in EU or UN peace operations. From a UN and African perspective, the USA and Europe have a major political and financial influence on, and stake in, the future of peace operations in Africa. The AU and regional entities like ECOWAS, IGAD and SADC have significantly increased their capacity to undertake and manage peace operations over the last decade. The AU has deployed its first three peace operations, AMIB in Burundi, AMIS in Darfur and AMISOM in Somalia. However, the single most important factor when considering the future of peace operations in Africa is how they are financed, as that determines the size, scope and duration of the missions, and therefore has a direct bearing on their impact.The lack of clear and predictable financial arrangements is now the most important factor hindering the further expansion of African peacekeeping. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Lie J.H.S.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | De Carvalhob B.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2010

The concept of the Protection of Civilians (PoC) is a prevalent buzzword in the discourse on peacekeeping operations. All actors from the military, development and humanitarian segments relate to PoC. Although there is mainstreaming and general infusion of the concept within the international community, there is no coherent and comprehensive understanding of what the concept really means and what kind of practices it comprises and entails.The concept's seminal thinkers and proponents fail to provide a clear and unambiguous definition of the concept. Rather it seeks to infuse a culture of protection among international actors operating in contexts which see grave human right violations and direct and indirect targeting of civilians.This article addresses the protection discourse as perceived by various actors in the field in Sudan. Rather than making the case for a narrow definition of PoC, we argue for mainstreaming a culture of protection, which in turn can succeed in including a multiplicity of actors. However, this may not be sufficient to engender an inclusive culture of protection, as PoC will be interpreted at the backdrop of organisations' embedded mandates and institutional culture, which in turn can lead to a general conceptual dilution. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Eckroth K.R.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2010

The changing nature of armed conflict has resulted in increased need to safeguard civilians, including humanitarian personnel, which is reflected in the emerging protection of civilians agenda. This article considers the security of aid workers in Darfur. Specifically, it examines to what extent the traditional principles of humanitarian action provide security for humanitarian personnel. By performing a within-case analysis, this study portrays the humanitarian workers' own perspective of the micro-dynamics of security in Darfur. It argues that neutrality, impartiality and independence provide protection and are pivotal for humanitarian security in Darfur. However, these principles do not protect against all threats and needs to be supplemented by other strategies such as protective walls, unarmed guards and barbed wire. On the other hand, relying too heavily on such measures may diminish security as aid workers are alienated from the local population.This is because proximity to the population is perceived as the most important measure for security. In addition, this article suggests that mandatory security training for all humanitarian personnel working in the field would greatly increase the security situation and their ability to protect themselves. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Rich K.M.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Perry B.D.,University of Edinburgh | Perry B.D.,University of Oxford | Perry B.D.,University of Pretoria
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of " bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Karlsrud J.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Da Costa D.F.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2013

Recent literature has argued that a 'dominant peacebuilding culture' has precluded the contextualisation of peacebuilding to local dynamics. The article explores the 'peacekeepingpeacebuilding nxus' in practice, where civilian peacekeepers are increasingly considered to be early peacebuilders. Drawing on examples from United Nations (UN) civilian peacekeeping involvement in local peacebuilding in South Sudan, this article argues for a less reductionist and more nuanced view of local peacebuilding and the social interactions and dynamics which take place. It recognises the discrepancies between official UN Headquarters (HQ) policy and action in the "field", and thus explores the relationship between policy and practice and the location of agency and authority in civilian peacekeeping. The article argues that the critique levelled against peacekeeping and peacebuilding for being focused on actors in host country capitals does not sufficiently take into consideration the relationship between capitals and the "field". Rather, local peacebuilding outcomes depend as much or more on negotiations, bargains and compromises between different actors at the "field" level, than on institutional policy decision-making deriving from headquarters. © 2013 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Coning C.D.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Friis K.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI
Journal of International Peacekeeping | Year: 2011

This article explores why international actors assign such high importance to coherence. It argues that the assumptions on which the principle of coherence is based are fl awed, and that the empirical and theoretical evidence indicates that there is much less room for coherence than generally acknowledged in the policy debate. It recommends that the international community should lower its expectations and adopt more realistic polices. The current approach tends to put pressure on all partners to adopt a maximal approach to coherence, regardless of their relations to each other and the operational context. Coherence should not be understood as an effort aimed equally at all, nor should all partners be expected to achieve the same level of unity of effort. Coherence should rather be understood as a scale of relationships, and the most appropriate and realistic level of coherence that can be achieved will depend on the exact constellation of organizations in an interdependent relationship in that specific operational context. This article offers a typology of the range of likely relationships, as well as an explanation of the circumstances that may determine the level of coherence that can be realistically expected to develop, depending on the context and the nature of the relationships among the partners. © 2011 Copyright by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Castellacci F.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Natera J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Research Policy | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the idea that the dynamics of national innovation systems is driven by the coevolution of two main dimensions: innovative capability and absorptive capacity. The empirical analysis employs a broad set of indicators measuring national innovative capabilities and absorptive capacity for a panel of 87 countries in the period 1980-2007, and makes use of panel cointegration analysis to investigate long-run relationships and coevolution patterns among these variables. The results indicate that the dynamics of national systems of innovation is driven by the coevolution of three innovative capability variables (innovative input, scientific output and technological output), on the one hand, and three absorptive capacity factors (infrastructures, international trade and human capital), on the other. This general result does however differ and take specific patterns in national systems characterized by different levels of development. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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