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Godzimirski J.M.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2016

The article is based on a throughout analysis of Polish and Western debate on shale gas as well as on interviews with key Polish experts and policymakers, and aims at reconstructing the recent history of development of shale gas in Poland and at mapping how various factors and actors have interacted in this process. Although the country's membership in the EU makes the understanding of the EU regulatory framework important in this context, the main focus of the article is on how the issues have been addressed in Poland, the country that was believed to be best suited to become European shale gas success story. The article sheds light on how four factors - the national energy governance, social acceptance and geological conditions, combined with the Polish approach to energy security - have contributed to the process of shaping of the Polish policy on development of shale gas in a period between 2005 and 2015. By examining the question of development of unconventional energy resources in the Polish and European context this article seeks to address following questions to be covered in the special issue of the journal:. •perceptions of risk and socially constructed debate on unconventional gas;•developments in individual countries (Poland) and in the EU;•national concerns about externalities;•the adequacy of current EU regulation and its reception in member states. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Rich K.M.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs | Wanyoike F.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

Although Rift Valley fever (RVF) has significant impacts on human health and livestock production, it can also induce significant (and often overlooked) economic losses among various stakeholders in the marketing chain. This work assesses and quantifies the multi-dimensional socio-economic impacts of the 2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya based on a rapid assessment of livestock value chains in the northeast part of the country and a national macroeconomic analysis. Although study results show negative impacts among producers in terms of food insecurity and reductions in income, we also found significant losses among other downstream actors in the value chain, including livestock traders, slaughter houses, casual laborers, and butchers, as well as other, non-agricultural sectors. The study highlights the need for greater sensitivity and analyses that address the multitude of economic losses resulting from an animal disease to better inform policy and decision making during animal health emergencies. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Overland I.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2016

Energy resources are transported long distances and create powerful interlinkages between countries. Energy thus contributes to the globalization of the world, but has received little attention in the globalization literature. This article hypothesizes that energy globalization is growing and accelerating. The hypothesis is tested by developing an index to measure changes in the extent of energy globalization during the 20-year period from 1992 to 2011. The following sub-indicators are included in the index: number of energy trade relationships, average distance of energy trade relationships, and energy dependency of the countries in the world. The development of the index encounters a number of conceptual and methodological challenges related to globalization, which, it turns out, have not been addressed properly in the broader literature. Clarification of these issues can help improve the analysis of globalization. © 2016 The Authors.


Wilson Rowe E.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Polar Record | Year: 2014

This article focuses on one potential motivation for a state's behaviour in international affairs, namely status-seeking, in order to shed light on Norway's Arctic politics and to discuss the role of hierarchies in Arctic politics more generally. The idea that a state's political elite seek national security and economic gain is well established in international relations (IR) literature. However, another key motivation of human behaviour - seeking status and respect - is frequently overlooked as a potential factor shaping states' behaviour. The argument begins with a brief review of post-cold war Arctic politics followed by a discussion of the status-related literature in IR. Norway's position in the Arctic Council (AC) and in bilateral relations with Russia is then examined, with particular attention paid to the extent to which other Arctic states acknowledge and confirm Norway's status claims. Norway's status as an information provider, a convener and a bridge to Russia gives the country a degree of influence in Arctic multilateral settings. Given the Arctic region's relatively peaceful nature and the emphasis on circumpolar cooperation, space has been made for creative approaches to status. Size and military or economic greatness are not always decisive factors for taking a lead in today's Arctic politics. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Wilson Rowe E.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
Polar Geography | Year: 2013

"Race for the Arctic" and the "New Cold War" are common newspaper headlines when it comes to coverage of Arctic affairs. In popular media, the Arctic is often portrayed as a zone of potential conflict - with unresolved boundary issues, rapidly changing sea ice cover and tempting natural resources forming a potentially explosive political cocktail. On the other hand, the region possesses a strong track record of post-Cold War peace and cooperation and political leaders and civil servants representing Arctic states have, in recent years, become a coordinated chorus extolling the peacefulness of the region. This article illustrates how the Arctic is represented as a zone of potential conflict in the media through a sampling of international media and an in-depth case study of how the potential for Arctic conflict is discussed in a mainstream Russian newspaper. I argue that these different 'framings' or representations of Arctic politics have significance for the kind of politics that can be pursued in the region and discuss how a certain kind of geopolitical reasoning contributes to seeing the Arctic as a latent space of danger and conflict. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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