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Lovdal T.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Food Control | Year: 2015

Concurrent with the growth of aquaculture salmon farming, there is a corresponding increase in the commercial production of cold smoked salmon (CSS). The definition of CSS is vague, but it is normally made from salmon fillets with low levels of salt (<6% in the water phase) subjected to traditional wood smoking for prolonged periods, but not exceeding 25-30°C during the process, or subject to artificial smoke flavoring by the application of liquefied smoke preparations formulated from condensation of wood smoke and either water, oil, or emulsifiers as e.g. polysorbate. The present review summarizes recent literature with respect to microbiological quality and safety of modern, commercial CSS, including factors controlling these parameters, and emerging trends and risk analysis measures to improve them. Special weight is put on the use of salt and alternative organic salt formulations, their combination, and use in hurdle technology to improve the safety of CSS, which is in turn primarily dictated by the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, but also Clostridium botulinum, and their growth potential related to their salt and temperature tolerance. The microbiological quality and shelf life of CSS is, dependent on packaging method and storage temperature, determined mostly by the presence of lactic acid bacteria and the primary spoilage bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Pseudomonas spp., and marine Vibrio. Additionally, parasites and microbiologically derived biogenic amines relevant to CSS are briefly discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Thakur M.,Iowa State University | Donnelly K.A.-M.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

Identification of the information to be recorded is the most important requirement for developing an effective traceability system. In this paper, we present a soybean value chain and model the information capture by three links in the chain including the farming, bulk handling and processing sectors. Internal information capture points were identified for each sector and the corresponding traceability information to be recorded was determined. In-depth analyses were conducted for a soybean elevator and an oil and meal processor to determine the importance of traceability information from their perspective. A lot of information is available at different links in the soybean value chain. The method presented here can be used to create a standardized list of data elements that need to be recorded internally or exchanged with other links in the chain. A UML class diagram is developed to represent a method for modeling the product, process, quality and transformation information at any link in the chain. Finally, some suitable technologies for electronic information exchange within the food supply chains are presented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bemark M.,Gothenburg University | Boysen P.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Lycke N.Y.,Gothenburg University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

The gut immune system protects against mucosal pathogens, maintains a mutualistic relationship with the microbiota, and establishes tolerance against food antigens. This requires a balance between immune effector responses and induction of tolerance. Disturbances of this strictly regulated balance can lead to infections or the development inflammatory diseases and allergies. Production of secretory IgA is a unique effector function at mucosal surfaces, and basal mechanisms regulating IgA production have been the focus of much recent research. These investigations have aimed at understanding how long-term IgA-mediated mucosal immunity can best be achieved by oral or sublingual vaccination, or at analyzing the relationship between IgA production, the composition of the gut microbiota, and protection from allergies and autoimmunity. This research has lead to a better understanding of the IgA system; but at the same time seemingly conflicting data have been generated. Here, we discuss how gut IgA production is controlled, with special focus on how differences between T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgA production may explain some of these discrepancies. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Oterhals A.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Food and feed legislations are implemented to control the level of unwanted persistent organic pollutants (POPs) below health risk concerns. Short-path distillation is established as the most effective industrial process to remove POPs in fish oil. However, the technology involves heating of the oil to high temperature levels (>200 °C) that possibly give unwanted heat-induced side reactions and coevaporation of minor compounds of importance for the nutritional quality of the oil. The effects on retention of vitamins, cholesterol, and unsaponifiable compounds, geometrical isomerization, loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oxidation level, and oxidative stability have been studied on the basis of experiments designed to optimize and model the effect of process conditions (i.e., evaporator temperature, feed rate, and addition of working fluid) on the reduction of POPs. Loss of volatile nutrients was observed, but the extent will depend on the process conditions needed to obtain target decontamination level, as well as the concentration ratio and difference in vapor pressure between free and esterified forms of the studied compounds. Some reduction in oxidation level was documented with preservation of PUFA level and quality. Oxidative stability was influenced both positively and negatively depending on the applied process conditions. Generally, no adverse negative effects on the nutritional quality of the fish oil could be documented. Optimal process conditions were modeled that ensure removal of POPs to within legislation levels while retaining most of the vitamin levels in fish oil. A 76% reduction of the WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ level in the used feedstock was needed to be in accordance with the voluntary industrial monograph of GOED. This could be achieved on the basis of operation conditions giving <20% loss of vitamins. A 90% decontamination rate gave vitamin retentions in the 60-90% range. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Rieder A.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Samuelsen A.B.,University of Oslo
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2012

β-glucans are known for their immune-modulating properties. However, the heterogeneity of these glucose polymers makes a distinction between the different sources and structures necessary-a fact that has been little allowed for in the literature. We have focused on β-glucans from cereals as they are already used as functional food ingredients due to their established cholesterol lowering effect. Cereal β-glucans have shown in vitro activity on cytokine secretion, phagocytic activity and cytotoxicity of isolated immune cells, and activation of the complement system. Animal studies suggest a possible protective effect against an intestinal parasite, against bacterial infection, and a synergistic effect in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Animal studies have shown activity of orally applied cereal β-glucans indicating uptake or interaction with cells of the gastrointestinal tract. However, uptake is still debated, interaction with intestinal epithelial cells has been suggested but not clarified, and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. So far, cereal β-glucans have not shown immune modulation in the few conducted human studies and further studies are needed to clarify their effect. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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