Norwegian Institute of Food


Norwegian Institute of Food

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Sogn-Grundvag G.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Larsen T.A.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Young J.A.,University of Stirling
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

Within international markets for fish, the past decade has witnessed a significant growth and proliferation of products labelled to be sustainable or responsibly sourced. These terms encapsulate a range of criteria concerning the state of the stocks and, inter alia, how the fish have been captured. Of the different modes of capture 'line-caught' is one of the longer standing and with associations to lesser impacts upon the environment. Yet despite this position, there appears to have been little assessment of any price premiums realised for fish marketed with environmental, responsibly-sourced, line-caught or other such credentials. This paper is the first published study to examine whether such attributes of chilled fish products command any price premium at the supermarket level of the value chain. The study is based on 68 weekly observations of chilled pre-packed cod and haddock in seven different supermarkets in the UK. The study also examines possible price premiums for other observable attributes such as product form, processing and country of origin, in addition to any differences in pricing between the supermarkets. The results show that the 'line-caught' attribute gives cod and haddock a price premium of 18% and 10%, respectively. The MSC ecolabel gives a 10% price premium on haddock products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Samuelsen A.B.C.,University of Oslo | Schrezenmeir J.,Clinical Research Center Kiel | Knutsen S.H.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Yeast-derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. Specific preparations have received Generally Recognized as Safe status and acceptance as novel food ingredients by European Food Safety Authority. In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rieder A.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Samuelsen A.B.,University of Oslo
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2012

β-glucans are known for their immune-modulating properties. However, the heterogeneity of these glucose polymers makes a distinction between the different sources and structures necessary-a fact that has been little allowed for in the literature. We have focused on β-glucans from cereals as they are already used as functional food ingredients due to their established cholesterol lowering effect. Cereal β-glucans have shown in vitro activity on cytokine secretion, phagocytic activity and cytotoxicity of isolated immune cells, and activation of the complement system. Animal studies suggest a possible protective effect against an intestinal parasite, against bacterial infection, and a synergistic effect in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Animal studies have shown activity of orally applied cereal β-glucans indicating uptake or interaction with cells of the gastrointestinal tract. However, uptake is still debated, interaction with intestinal epithelial cells has been suggested but not clarified, and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. So far, cereal β-glucans have not shown immune modulation in the few conducted human studies and further studies are needed to clarify their effect. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Moretro T.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Langsrud S.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2017

Surface hygiene is commonly measured as a part of the quality system of food processing plants, but as the bacteria present are commonly not identified, their roles for food quality and safety are not known. Here, we review the identity of residential bacteria and characteristics relevant for survival and growth in the food industry along with potential implications for food safety and quality. Sampling after cleaning and disinfection increases the likelihood of targeting residential bacteria. The increasing use of sequencing technologies to identify bacteria has improved knowledge about the bacteria present in food premises. Overall, nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp., followed by Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. dominate on food processing surfaces. Pseudomonas spp. persistence is likely due to growth at low temperatures, biofilm formation, tolerance to biocides, and low growth requirements. Gram-positive bacteria are most frequently found in dairies and in dry production environments. The residential bacteria may end up in the final products through cross-contamination and may affect food quality. Such effects can be negative and lead to spoilage, but the bacteria may also contribute positively, as through spontaneous fermentation. Pathogenic bacteria present in food processing environments may interact with residential bacteria, resulting in both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on pathogens in multispecies biofilms. The residential bacterial population, or bacteriota, does not seem to be an important source for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to humans, but more knowledge is needed to verify this. If residential bacteria occur in high numbers, they may influence processes such as membrane filtration and corrosion. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Thakur M.,Iowa State University | Donnelly K.A.-M.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

Identification of the information to be recorded is the most important requirement for developing an effective traceability system. In this paper, we present a soybean value chain and model the information capture by three links in the chain including the farming, bulk handling and processing sectors. Internal information capture points were identified for each sector and the corresponding traceability information to be recorded was determined. In-depth analyses were conducted for a soybean elevator and an oil and meal processor to determine the importance of traceability information from their perspective. A lot of information is available at different links in the soybean value chain. The method presented here can be used to create a standardized list of data elements that need to be recorded internally or exchanged with other links in the chain. A UML class diagram is developed to represent a method for modeling the product, process, quality and transformation information at any link in the chain. Finally, some suitable technologies for electronic information exchange within the food supply chains are presented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oterhals A.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Food and feed legislations are implemented to control the level of unwanted persistent organic pollutants (POPs) below health risk concerns. Short-path distillation is established as the most effective industrial process to remove POPs in fish oil. However, the technology involves heating of the oil to high temperature levels (>200 °C) that possibly give unwanted heat-induced side reactions and coevaporation of minor compounds of importance for the nutritional quality of the oil. The effects on retention of vitamins, cholesterol, and unsaponifiable compounds, geometrical isomerization, loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oxidation level, and oxidative stability have been studied on the basis of experiments designed to optimize and model the effect of process conditions (i.e., evaporator temperature, feed rate, and addition of working fluid) on the reduction of POPs. Loss of volatile nutrients was observed, but the extent will depend on the process conditions needed to obtain target decontamination level, as well as the concentration ratio and difference in vapor pressure between free and esterified forms of the studied compounds. Some reduction in oxidation level was documented with preservation of PUFA level and quality. Oxidative stability was influenced both positively and negatively depending on the applied process conditions. Generally, no adverse negative effects on the nutritional quality of the fish oil could be documented. Optimal process conditions were modeled that ensure removal of POPs to within legislation levels while retaining most of the vitamin levels in fish oil. A 76% reduction of the WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ level in the used feedstock was needed to be in accordance with the voluntary industrial monograph of GOED. This could be achieved on the basis of operation conditions giving <20% loss of vitamins. A 90% decontamination rate gave vitamin retentions in the 60-90% range. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Bemark M.,Gothenburg University | Boysen P.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Lycke N.Y.,Gothenburg University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

The gut immune system protects against mucosal pathogens, maintains a mutualistic relationship with the microbiota, and establishes tolerance against food antigens. This requires a balance between immune effector responses and induction of tolerance. Disturbances of this strictly regulated balance can lead to infections or the development inflammatory diseases and allergies. Production of secretory IgA is a unique effector function at mucosal surfaces, and basal mechanisms regulating IgA production have been the focus of much recent research. These investigations have aimed at understanding how long-term IgA-mediated mucosal immunity can best be achieved by oral or sublingual vaccination, or at analyzing the relationship between IgA production, the composition of the gut microbiota, and protection from allergies and autoimmunity. This research has lead to a better understanding of the IgA system; but at the same time seemingly conflicting data have been generated. Here, we discuss how gut IgA production is controlled, with special focus on how differences between T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgA production may explain some of these discrepancies. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Donnelly K.A.-M.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Olsen P.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Food Control | Year: 2012

White fish is an important part of the diet of European consumers. The sources of such white fish range from wild caught to aquaculture. In order to provide consumers with better product information about the fish they purchase, information must be recorded in a retrievable fashion along the supply chain. In this study, current traceability practice on board a freezer trawler was modelled, areas for improvement were identified and the attitudes of employees towards the traceability system on board the trawler were investigated. The trawler was shown to have traceability information registered at a haul level. All information was stored electronically, the majority of changes in state of the fish (transformations) were of the transfer type. Traceability implementation was a positive experience for the employees. The information registered by the trawler needs to be used further down the supply chain. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wold J.P.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2015

During industrial heat treatment of food products the core temperature is a critical control parameter with respect to food quality and in particular food safety. This paper presents a method based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy that enables on-line and non-contact monitoring of the complete product volume on a typical industrial belt cooking system. Two NIR systems (760-1040. nm) were evaluated on heat treated fish cakes, one point measurement system and one hyperspectral imaging system. Both systems measured several millimetres into the product. Core temperature in the fish cakes (at 10. mm depth) varied between 53 and 99. °C. The point system performed best with a root mean square error of prediction of 2.3. °C, while the imaging system was less accurate with an error of 4.5. °C. It was demonstrated that temperature changes down to 11-13. mm depth in the fish cakes could be registered by the NIR point system. Industrial relevance: During industrial heat treatment of food products the core temperature is a critical control parameter with respect to food quality and in particular food safety. Especially for ready-made products this is important since they can be consumed without further heat treatment. Today, most temperature measurements during processing are typically based on spot checks on a small number of products. The core temperature of heat treated products is usually the most critical and needs to be measured by insertion of thermo couplers. This procedure is insufficient since it leaves the producer with a large degree of uncertainty; only a few products are checked and a very tiny volume of the checked products is actually measured. Due to these limitations, current practise is to over-cook much of the food to ensure that everything has reached the critical core temperature. This might reduce quality of the end product and also requires overspending of energy. In the food industry there is a need for non-contact on-line temperature measurements for improved control of the cooking process. The ideal system should be able to log the temperature in the entire production volume.The method presented in this article can allow complete monitoring of the heat treated products. In this way the producer could have full control of the heating process and be sure that sufficient core temperature is reached in all product units. Such a system can also be used to control the temperature to a certain target that ensures safe products of high quality. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Honkanen P.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

The health situation of Russian consumers is alarming. Food consumption patterns are one of the main reasons for poor health among Russians. Although there have been studies about the relationship between poverty, food consumption and health, research on preferences among Russian consumers is lacking even though preferences have a strong influence on food choices and thereby (un)healthy consumption patterns. A survey of 1081 Russian consumers in four cities was conducted. The purpose of this paper was to identify segments among Russian consumers according to their food preferences. Five segments were identified, with different preference patterns for the following chosen food groups: fish lovers, fish haters, various food lovers, food indifferent and red meat lovers. The segments were profiled by means of food consumption, food choice motives, attitudinal variables and socio-demographic variables. The implications for health authorities are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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