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Ziegler F.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Groen E.A.,Wageningen University | Hornborg S.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Bokkers E.A.M.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2015

Purpose: Capture fisheries are the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management. Methods: We analyzed the variability in broad environmental impacts of a demersal freeze trawler targeting cod, haddock, saithe, and shrimp, mainly in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea. The analysis was based on daily data for fishing activities between 2011 and 2014 and the functional unit was a kilo of landing from one fishing trip. We used biological indicators in a novel hierarchic approach, depending on data availability, to quantify biotic impacts. Landings were categorized as target (having defined target reference points) or bycatch species (classified as threatened or as data-limited). Indicators for target and bycatch impacts were quantified for each fishing trip, as was the seafloor area swept. Results and discussion: No significant difference in fuel use was found between years, but variability was considerable within a year, i.e., between fishing trips. Trips targeting shrimp were more fuel intensive than those targeting fish, due to a lower catch rate. Steaming to and from port was less important for fuel efficiency than steaming between fishing locations. A tradeoff was identified between biotic and abiotic impacts. Landings classified as main target species generally followed the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) framework, and proportions of threatened species were low, while proportions of data-limited bycatch were larger. This improved considerably when reference points were defined for saithe in 2014. Conclusions: The variability between fishing trips shows that there is room for improvement through management. Fuel use per landing was strongly influenced by target species, fishing pattern, and fisheries management. Increased awareness about the importance of onboard decision-making can lead to improved performance. This approach could serve to document performance over time helping fishing companies to better understand the effect of their daily and more long-term decision-making on the environmental performance of their products. Recommendations: Fishing companies should document their resource use and production on a detailed level. Fuel use should be monitored as part of the management system. Managing authorities should ensure that sufficient data is available to evaluate the sustainability of exploitation levels of all harvested species. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Karlsen K.M.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima | Sorensen C.F.,Sintef | Foras F.,Sintef | Olsen P.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima
Food Control | Year: 2011

This paper presents an industrial implementation of traceability in a fresh fish supply chain. A number of critical success criteria were identified as result of this implementation. The ability to identify benefits to be gained from implementation of electronic chain traceability was identified as one of these. If a company cannot identify any benefits carrying out an implementation, the motivation will rapidly drop. This will affect the willingness to invest in any technology needed to achieve better documentation of produced products. A conclusion from this study is that the motivation is central, because it influences all other critical success criteria. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Karlsen K.M.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima | Olsen P.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima
Food Control | Year: 2011

The requirements for documenting food products are even increasing. Better documentation can be achieved by using traceability. Several studies mapping Critical Traceability Points (CTP) in food supply chains have been carried out. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the validity of qualitative methods for detecting CTPs in a seafood supply chain. Data from a single case study is interesting, because it provides real industry data, which can be used to develop knowledge of and theories on traceability to improve food process systems. The discussion of validity can in addition be used as input for studies aiming to identify the CTPs of other food supply chains. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Karlsen K.M.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima | Donnelly K.A.-M.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima | Olsen P.,Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Nofima
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2011

Identifying the optimal granularity level of traceable units is necessary when implementing traceability of food. This study examines granularity in a farmed salmon supply chain through the qualitative methods interview, observation, and document analysis. The results show that fish feed and farmed salmon can have fine or coarse granularity of the batches. Fine granularity will give large numbers and smaller batch sizes. Coarse granularity will give fewer numbers and bigger batch sizes. The granularity correlates to different levels depending on the application of information within a company and between companies in supply chains. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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