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Havstad L.T.,The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2016

The market for herbage seed straw has diminished in many seed-production areas due to less livestock. Seed growers are therefore looking for alternatives to straw removal, which up to now has been the most common practice. During 2000–2006, different alternative straw chopping methods, both at the back of the combiner and with a tractor-mounted flail-chopper, and field burning strategies were evaluated in seed crops of timothy (Phleum pratense) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) in southeast Norway. The requirement for an extra N input in autumn (30–40 kg ha-1) when practising straw chopping was also examined. Compared to straw removal, straw chopping at the back of the combiner during seed harvest did not reduce seed yield in the following year as long as stubble height was low (<10 cm in timothy) and the straw spread uniformly in the field. On average, seed yield was 1–4% and 1–9% higher compared to straw removal in timothy and meadow fescue, respectively. If the chopped straw was spread unevenly, or long stubble was left at combining, it is recommended to use a tractor-mounted flail-chopper after harvest. The experiments did not provide any support for an extra input of nitrogen in autumn, either in timothy or meadow fescue, when the straw was chopped rather than removed. Burning of stubble and straw soon after seed harvest was another efficient clean-up method after harvest, which increased seed yield 9–15% and 17–20% compared to straw removal in the two species, respectively. However, as the burning method is risky and causes smoke emissions, it is normally not recommended. It is concluded that for most seed growers, the most effective, least laborious and most environment-friendly alternative to straw removal will be to chop the straw at the back of the combiner during seed harvest. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Sikora A.T.,Forest Research Institute | Nybakk E.,Norwegian School of Management | Nybakk E.,The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Panwar R.,University of British Columbia
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

This study examines the role of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and learning orientation (LO) in the financial success of forest contracting firms. Both EO and LO have previously been understood to positively affect a firm's financial performance, but extant literature has not considered those links in a transition economy. Partially addressing this gap, we execute this study in a Polish context. Using data obtained through a mail survey of 101 owners of forest contracting firms (34% response rate), we found that both EO and LO have a positive and significant effect on financial performance. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

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