Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR

Oslo, Norway

Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR

Oslo, Norway
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Meylakhs P.,National Research University Higher School of Economics | Aasland A.,Oslo University College | Aasland A.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Gronningsaeter A.,Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research in Oslo
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2017

Background: The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia. Methods: Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions. Results: The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: "personal fatalism" - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; "prevention-related fatalism" - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; "state-related fatalism" - the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are "really working" with risk groups. Conclusions: As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in addition to harm reduction materials provision. Training programs, peer outreach, and culture-change interventions which try to alter widespread fatalistic norms or attitudes towards their health are especially needed, since this study indicates that fatalism is a major barrier for behavior change. © 2017 The Author(s).

McArthur D.P.,University of Oslo | Tjerbo T.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Hagen T.P.,University of Oslo
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Aims: In Norway, it is the responsibility of the country's 429 municipalities to provide long term care (LTC) services to their residents. Recent years have seen a sharp rise in the number of LTC users under the age of 65. This article aims to explore the effect of this rise on LTC expenditure. Methods: Panel data models are used on data from municipalities from 1986 to 2011. An instrumental variable approach is also utilized to account for possible endogeneity related to the number of young users. Results: The number of young users appears to have a strong effect on LTC expenditure. There is also evidence of municipalities exercising discretion in defining eligibility criteria for young users in order to limit expenditure. Conclusions: The rise in the number of young LTC users presents a long-term challenge to the sustainability of LTC financing. The current budgeting system appears to compensate municipalities for expenditure on young LTC users. © 2013 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Turunen-Rindel I.,Standards Norway | Knudtzon L.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Laukli E.,University of Tromsø
Proceedings of Forum Acusticum | Year: 2011

Universal design or accessibility to all is in great focus in Norway and other European countries. The population structure is changing. People live longer and the number of elderly people is gradually increasing in the population. These changes cause a great political interest for people managing their lives on their own as long time as possible. The Norwegian technical regulations for buildings require accessibility to all. The main focus in technical regulations and laws in Norway is on public and work buildings. In order to follow up the needs for aging people and all kinds of hearing and visually impaired people, a revision of the sound classification of buildings in NS 8175 is therefore necessary. The suitability of the present limit values and types of criteria suitable for hearing and visually impaired people are considered for open plan teaching environments and open plan offices, cultural buildings, museums, lobbies, assembly halls, shopping malls, restaurants, etc. A socio-acoustic survey has been conducted among hearing and visually impaired people concerning their experiences of acoustic conditions at these different types of buildings, spaces and rooms. The results of the survey and types of problems in various spaces are presented. The findings are used for evaluation of acoustic criteria that are relevant for implementation in the building regulations and in sound quality classification.

Janssen H.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | Kidd S.,University of Liverpool | Kvinge T.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

Marine spatial planning (MSP) has a need for spatial delimitation and for the identification of spatial classes. This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study that was undertaken to test the development of a data informed spatial typology for the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a comparatively shallow sea with nine adjoining countries and intense anthropogenic activities. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability and value of such a spatial typology for MSP. A spatial typology with seven different spatial classes was identified. The approach used here to identify a spatial typology could be used for seas worldwide. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Falleth E.I.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Hansen G.S.,Norwegian Institute for urban and regional research NIBR
European Journal of Spatial Development | Year: 2011

In Norway, the dominance of neo-liberal ideas has resulted in a private planning practice whereby the developer is the principal actor in opaque negotiations between planning authorities and developers. We examine patterns of contact between stakeholders in urban development planning. Based on information obtained from a survey of the 145 most populous municipalities in Norway, as well as from case studies in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, we find considerable interaction between the stakeholders involved in the planning process. The interaction patterns are different for civil society actors and private developers. We find that while developers have contacts with the planning authorities, the civil actors have contacts with the politicians. In the initial phase, i.e. before formal planning begins, this pattern is highly significant. Politicians frequently feel bound by negotiations and agreements that are made by the planners and the developers during the initial planning process.

Hofstad H.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
European Journal of Spatial Development | Year: 2012

Compact city development has, over the last 20 years or so, emerged as the preferred response to the goal of sustainable development. As such, it is pertinent to examine planning practices to see whether the traditional economic bias in planning is now balanced by aims and practices in support of environmental and social sustainability. In this light the social, environmental, and economic goals linked to densification and mixed use development will be the main focus of this article. In addition, the article assesses whether distinct institutional practices support the balancing of these goals. The empirical basis is formed by urban plans in four Scandinavian cities in combination with qualitative interview data. The article concludes that on a discursive level, social, environmental and economic goals are represented in compact city strategies. Institutionalised practices, however, show that economic goals remain at the core of planning. Environmental and social aims still play second fiddle, but new measures are in development that may gradually strengthen their influence over urban development practices.

Helgesen M.K.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Introduction: The two pillars of public health are health promotion and disease prevention. Based on a notion of governance in the state-local relation as changing from hierarchical via New Public Management (NPM) to New Public Governance (NPG), the governance of public health in Norway is contrasted to governance of public health in the other Nordic states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Aim: The article aims to present and discuss the governance of public health as it is played out in the state-local relationship. Methods: The method is to study central state documents in the four countries, as well as articles, research reports and papers on public health. Results: The article shows that the governance modes (hierarchy, NPM and NPG) exist in parallel, but that their mechanisms actually vary in use. Legal, economic and informational mechanisms are, to a varying degree, in use. Conclusions: In Finnish and Swedish public health policies, health promotion is at the forefront; while Danish and Norwegian public health policies spur the local governments to carry out interventions to prevent disease and hospital admissions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Orderud G.I.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to document and analyse the information network available to municipal mayors in Norwegian municipalities and environmental officers in the municipal administration, covering both public and private information sources. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a quantitative methodology. Survey data from a sample of all Norwegian municipalities are analysed, and explorative statistics, correlations and regression analysis are applied. Findings: The most important information sources for Norwegian mayors are science, the County governor's environmental department and the municipal environmental officer, with consultancy playing a minor role. In the case of science, it is noticeable that females, central municipalities, and the disciplines of humanities and environment contribute to the strong position of science. Furthermore, the left axis of politics increases the quantity of intra-municipal information sources. The most important contact points for the environmental officer are the County Governor and other primary municipalities. The county municipality, consultancy and research are of lesser importance. It is noticeable that full-time environmental officers have a broader climate change information network than part-time officers. Furthermore, a higher level of education is linked to increased interaction with other public sector actors. Practical implications: The study documents a multi-level governance of networking. The differences between full-time and part-time environmental officers should stimulate a debate and motivate further research to determine whether funding full-time positions by the central government could foster more effective local climate change policies. Originality/value: The study's value lies in its contribution to the climate governance literature, deepening our understanding of the role of different information sources and actors in facilitating sound climate change and environmental policies. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Vedeld T.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Coly A.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Ndour N.M.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Hellevik S.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Natural Hazards | Year: 2015

Abstract: This paper utilizes a multi-level governance framework to explain how and at what scale climate adaptation, exemplified by flood risk management, was governed in the medium-scale city of Saint Louis, Senegal. It explores how this policy sector worked toward a “resilient city” pointing to gaps between governance as prescribed and as practiced. The paper suggests that strong coordination of climate change adaptation and flood risk management should take place at city level, reflecting the “place-based” character of these policy sectors. However, adaptation cannot be addressed successfully at any single geographic scale or by any one category of actor. Effective collaboration across politico-administrative boundaries at multiple scales is required in order to address tensions between competing policy agendas and tackle socio-spatial inequality and vulnerability. We found that public officials at the city and regional state level encouraged some degree of citizen participation in planning and input into adaptation. However, despite emerging networks for city-level coordination and capacity to adapt to flood risks among local residents, there were limitations in how higher-level government and institutions supported the lower levels in vertical and horizontal coordination. In particular, services and investments within poor and vulnerable settlements were lacking. This undermined the capability of municipal staff for local engagement and for diverse groups of residents to become really effective partners with the government in coproducing services required to enhance resilience. More so, it limited opportunities to bring local actions to scale—beyond the city boundaries and toward transitional adaptation and transformation. © 2015 The Author(s)

Hofstad H.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy | Year: 2015

This paper brings new insight on practices that enable planning processes concerning urban green landscapes (everyday landscapes) to move beyond the somewhat deadlocked conflict between conservation and development. The empirical basis is four planning processes in Norway and Sweden illuminating the following research questions: How is the tension between densification and conservation in everyday landscapes handled in concrete planning processes? Is it possible to identify practices that create opportunity for viable compromises between development and conservation interests? The analysis identifies the core position of expert knowledge in creating a basis for compromise in political processes. Furthermore, green structure as a coherent and basic entity in planning is emerging as a decisive force in local discourse held by the civil society, public authorities, and developers alike. I argue that these elements contribute to create viable compromises on the future development of everyday landscapes, thus functioning as building bricks in creating more agonistic planning practices. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.

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