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Janssen H.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | Kidd S.,University of Liverpool | Kvinge T.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Marine Policy

Marine spatial planning (MSP) has a need for spatial delimitation and for the identification of spatial classes. This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study that was undertaken to test the development of a data informed spatial typology for the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a comparatively shallow sea with nine adjoining countries and intense anthropogenic activities. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability and value of such a spatial typology for MSP. A spatial typology with seven different spatial classes was identified. The approach used here to identify a spatial typology could be used for seas worldwide. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hofstad H.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
European Journal of Spatial Development

Compact city development has, over the last 20 years or so, emerged as the preferred response to the goal of sustainable development. As such, it is pertinent to examine planning practices to see whether the traditional economic bias in planning is now balanced by aims and practices in support of environmental and social sustainability. In this light the social, environmental, and economic goals linked to densification and mixed use development will be the main focus of this article. In addition, the article assesses whether distinct institutional practices support the balancing of these goals. The empirical basis is formed by urban plans in four Scandinavian cities in combination with qualitative interview data. The article concludes that on a discursive level, social, environmental and economic goals are represented in compact city strategies. Institutionalised practices, however, show that economic goals remain at the core of planning. Environmental and social aims still play second fiddle, but new measures are in development that may gradually strengthen their influence over urban development practices. Source

Falleth E.I.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Hansen G.S.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
European Journal of Spatial Development

In Norway, the dominance of neo-liberal ideas has resulted in a private planning practice whereby the developer is the principal actor in opaque negotiations between planning authorities and developers. We examine patterns of contact between stakeholders in urban development planning. Based on information obtained from a survey of the 145 most populous municipalities in Norway, as well as from case studies in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, we find considerable interaction between the stakeholders involved in the planning process. The interaction patterns are different for civil society actors and private developers. We find that while developers have contacts with the planning authorities, the civil actors have contacts with the politicians. In the initial phase, i.e. before formal planning begins, this pattern is highly significant. Politicians frequently feel bound by negotiations and agreements that are made by the planners and the developers during the initial planning process. Source

Turunen-Rindel I.,Standards Norway | Knudtzon L.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR | Laukli E.,University of Tromso
Proceedings of Forum Acusticum

Universal design or accessibility to all is in great focus in Norway and other European countries. The population structure is changing. People live longer and the number of elderly people is gradually increasing in the population. These changes cause a great political interest for people managing their lives on their own as long time as possible. The Norwegian technical regulations for buildings require accessibility to all. The main focus in technical regulations and laws in Norway is on public and work buildings. In order to follow up the needs for aging people and all kinds of hearing and visually impaired people, a revision of the sound classification of buildings in NS 8175 is therefore necessary. The suitability of the present limit values and types of criteria suitable for hearing and visually impaired people are considered for open plan teaching environments and open plan offices, cultural buildings, museums, lobbies, assembly halls, shopping malls, restaurants, etc. A socio-acoustic survey has been conducted among hearing and visually impaired people concerning their experiences of acoustic conditions at these different types of buildings, spaces and rooms. The results of the survey and types of problems in various spaces are presented. The findings are used for evaluation of acoustic criteria that are relevant for implementation in the building regulations and in sound quality classification. Source

Helgesen M.K.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research NIBR
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

Introduction: The two pillars of public health are health promotion and disease prevention. Based on a notion of governance in the state-local relation as changing from hierarchical via New Public Management (NPM) to New Public Governance (NPG), the governance of public health in Norway is contrasted to governance of public health in the other Nordic states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Aim: The article aims to present and discuss the governance of public health as it is played out in the state-local relationship. Methods: The method is to study central state documents in the four countries, as well as articles, research reports and papers on public health. Results: The article shows that the governance modes (hierarchy, NPM and NPG) exist in parallel, but that their mechanisms actually vary in use. Legal, economic and informational mechanisms are, to a varying degree, in use. Conclusions: In Finnish and Swedish public health policies, health promotion is at the forefront; while Danish and Norwegian public health policies spur the local governments to carry out interventions to prevent disease and hospital admissions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source

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