Bjornsen H.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research |
Biorn E.,University of Oslo
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2010
Farm couples' labor market responses are partly the discrete choice of entering the off-farm labor market and partly the continuous choice of off-farm working hours, given entry. Such a setting is interesting when examining the increasing occurrence of multiple job-holdings among farmers in Western economies. Most existing analyses of off-farm labor supply only model the decisions of the farmer, not the joint decisions of the farm couple. This article presents a framework for handling such interrelated discrete/continuous choices, involving also farm production and household consumption. The derived two-equation sub-model for husband/wife's censored labor responses is estimated from a 10-year Norwegian panel data for 342 farms. The results agree to some extent with earlier studies, but are more informative because of the longer panels-which allows a more extensive examination of latent heterogeneity and behavioral persistence-because it provides cross-effects in the spouses' labor supplies. The results show some interesting differences between how the independent variables influence the labor supply of operator and spouse. This is most evident for the cross-effects of education, children, and wage rate. Overall, the results strongly support applying a panel-censoring model that accounts for latent heterogeneity in this context. © 2010 International Association of Agricultural Economists.
Atkinson R.,University of the West of England |
Klausen J.E.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning | Year: 2011
The EU, through the Cardiff and the Gothenburg strategies, sought to counter what was seen as fragmented and uncoordinated environmental policy development by promoting a broad and integrated approach to sustainability. This article seeks to assess two recently implemented EU directives on environmental issues in light of this aim, namely the directives on Air Quality Management and Strategic Environmental Assessment. Drawing on theoretical foundations and empirical evidence from the EU FP6 project 'Governance for Sustainability', this article seeks to understand how policy integration is a matter of knowledge use, which is again related to the governance arrangements in which implementation takes place. Drawing on a total of 15 case studies in nine countries, the article finds that actual decision-making practice varies a lot albeit based on the same directives. In many cases, the directives were viewed as a sectoral 'environmental tools', and these cases were often dominated by expert knowledge being funnelled through relatively closed, hierarchical governance arrangements. In other cases, however, the directives were viewed as opportunities for politicians to cultivate a network mode of governance that 'aspired' to arguing and sometimes opened up for competing knowledge claims. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Orderud G.I.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
Antipode | Year: 2011
The aim of this article is to improve our understanding of finance in home building by introducing an actor perspective in structure-oriented theories of capital circulation. David Harvey's three-circuit theory, with fixity-motion processes and (de-/re)-territorialisation, is taken as the starting point. The analysis is based on a case study of Norwegian home-building finance, outlining the emerging structure of housing and finance under the Norwegian version of neoliberalism; comprising deregulation and re-regulation phases. The article delineates today's home-building finance, and identifies large banks, small banks, large investment funds and small investment funds as structural actors operating within actual fixity and motion processes, causing a distinct territorialisation of urban landscapes, as exemplified by gentrification. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Editorial Board of Antipode.
Naustdalslid J.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2015
Management of fresh water resources meets a range of often conflicting interests. Waterways usually run across political and administrative borders and hence make management difficult and collective action politically challenging. In order to meet these challenges, multi-level bioregional approaches to water management have been called for. Such an approach is institutionalised in the EU's Water Framework Directive (WFD). This paper presents the experiences of the Morsa water sub-district in southern Norway, a pilot for implementing the WFD. The paper discusses Morsa in the light of four principles for multi-level water governance: management on a bioregional scale; polycentric governance; public participation; and an experimental approach to water governance. Contrary to widely held assumptions that collective action in polycentric networks will be difficult because actors will follow their own narrow interests, the findings demonstrate how this is not an absolute truth, and how social action cannot be fully explained by rational action theories. The analysis concludes that the relative success of Morsa relates to a complex of factors, including openness of practices and active involvement of key actors, strong but including leadership, and a knowledge based ‘hybrid’ type of multi-level network combining horizontal and vertical network governance. © 2014, © 2014 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Naustdalslid J.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2014
This paper discusses Chinas policy of developing an ecologically based circular economy (CE). In this paper, CE is understood as the environmental dimension of the wider vision of China as a harmonious society, formulated by the 16th Party Congress in 2002 in response to the social and environmental problems following in the wake of the unfettered economic growth policy of China after Mao Zedongs death in 1976. The 18th Party Congress of CCP in 2012 further strengthened the official resolve to develop China as an ecological civilization characterized by harmony between man and nature under the epitome Beautiful China. The paper discusses CE in this wider context. It is based on a review of literature on CE available in English. The aim is to present a more comprehensive understanding and critique of the Chinese version of CE as part of a wider policy for socioeconomic transformation and development of an ecologically based society, than has so far been done. The paper concludes by discussing bottlenecks and challenges confronting the implementation of CE in this wider socioeconomic context. The main problems are claimed to be the challenge of implementing CE as a top-down social engineering process and the lack of civil society involvement. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Naustdalslid J.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2011
In spite of solid scientific evidence that anthropogenic climate change will affect the conditions for life on earth, little climate action is taking place. This paper discusses this apparent paradox. The main message is that lack of climate action has to do with the ways in which climate change interlinks with society. Climate change is representative of what in the paper is defined as 'modern environmental problems'. Unlike 'traditional' environmental problems, 'modern' environmental problems are 'internal' to society and are 'societal' problems as much as they are environmental problems. The paper discusses how climate change must be understood in an overlapping interface between nature and society, and based on this theoretical analysis the paper discusses a number of contradictions and paradoxes illuminating the problems of linking knowledge and climate action. The concluding section calls for new methodological approaches to linking knowledge and climate action. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Jordhus-Lier D.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2013
This article takes the increased interest in union renewal and community politics within the geography discipline as its starting point, and argues that the various cases described in the literature should be understood as socio-spatial responses to a new geography of work. Encouraged by the literature on contentious politics, I provide a conceptualisation of how workers reconfigure political spaces through community orientation. A concrete case of municipal unionism in Cape Town, South Africa is used to explore these geographies along four dimensions: the scalar strategies of trade unions, their targets for direct action, their sites of recruitment and the domain of mobilisation these campaigns and alliances stake out for themselves. It is argued that community-oriented unionism tends to entail a reorientation of each of these dimensions. Moreover, union strategies correspond to particular challenges faced in times when local labour markets undergo neoliberal restructuring, such as fragmentation of work and rescaling of labour relations. © 2012 The Author. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers © 2012 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
Orderud G.I.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research |
Winsvold M.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012
Coping with climate change includes the role of learning and knowledge. Taking a process perspective, this article analyses how municipal officers in the Oslo region of Norway are acquiring knowledge and building competence for adapting to climate change. The article illustrates the interaction between elements of experiential learning, transformative learning and social learning as bases for adapting to emerging climate changes; each being necessary and none alone being sufficient. Their importance differs according to how profound the changes in knowledge and competence are. Experiential learning and transformative learning are stronger under single-loop learning whereas social learning might emerge as more important under triple-loop learning. Because of the uncertainties of climate change, the central government might be wise not to issue detailed regulations for adaptation by municipalities. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Hanssen G.S.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy | Year: 2010
In this paper I discuss the role of local politicians in representing, mediating, and balancing growth interests and local community interests in Norway, a country that has introduced market- oriented reforms in urban planning, giving private developers a prominent role. On the basis of a broad survey and qualitative case studies I found that local community actors predominantly confront local politicians, not planners or developers, to have their voices heard. Local community actors have few institutionalized arenas for their voices in the early phases, as mandatory involvement (public hearings, complaints) is to be found only in later phases. Thus, the arenas are predominantly accommodating passive participation, the opportunity to react and protest only on already formulated proposals. Local politicians have an important role in channelling citizen input into decision making, even if the contact is mostly informal. Developers are given the proactive, constructive role, as almost all municipalities studied have institutionalized arenas for interaction between planners and developers. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.
Isaksen A.,University of Agder |
Onsager K.,Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research
European Urban and Regional Studies | Year: 2010
Many recent studies maintain that regional characteristics influence the innovative performances, innovation processes and innovation patterns of firms. Based on a representative sample of knowledge-intensive firms in Norway, this paper analyses the innovation output, innovation partners, knowledge sources, and localization of sources and partners for knowledge-intensive firms in three types of region: large urban regions, small urban regions and rural areas. The empirical results contradict some of the assumptions of the literature dealing with agglomeration economies, regional clusters, and so on. We find, for example, that the firms' innovation partners and knowledge sources are quite similar irrespective of location. This may indicate that the relevant innovation systems in knowledge-intensive industries in Norway are sectoral and national rather than regional. The paper also finds that the small urban regions and the rural regions have a higher share of innovating, knowledge-intensive firms than the large urban regions, which may partly be explained by a much higher rate of public funding of innovation activity in the first two regional types. However, the large urban regions have higher new firm formation rates and more radically innovating firms than the other two types of region. The paper discusses to what extent the concept of open innovation may contribute to explaining the empirical results, because firms in large urban regions can rely more on open innovation than firms in other regions. © The Author(s) 2010.