Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research

Oslo, Norway

Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research

Oslo, Norway
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Tombre I.M.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Eythorsson E.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research | Madsen J.,University of Aarhus
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. © 2013 Tombre et al.

Tombre I.M.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Eythorsson E.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research | Madsen J.,University of Aarhus
Ornis Norvegica | Year: 2013

Two Svalbard-breeding goose populations, the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus and the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, have, over the last decades, increased in numbers and expanded in distribution. At springstaging sites in Norway, conflicts with agriculture are significant as the geese feed on cultivated fields, with negative consequences for the farmers. In the present paper we give an overview of relevant stakeholders in these gooseagriculture conflicts and share some of our experiences when involving stakeholders and users in a dynamic and adaptive process. The paper demonstrates how researchers can engage in the management process at different levels, in order to facilitate a process towards an adaptive co-management in an environment of conflicting interests. The framework described may be used for threatened bird species and situations where there are conflicts between wildlife stakeholders such as management agencies, conservation interests, hunting and agriculture.

Hagen D.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Vistad O.I.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Eide N.E.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Flyen A.C.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research | Fangel K.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Polar Research | Year: 2012

Increased tourism in the Arctic calls for more knowledge to meet management challenges. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the effects of human use on vegetation, fauna and cultural heritage in Svalbard, and it addresses the need for site-specific knowledge for improved management. This paper draws upon scientific studies, knowledge held by management authorities and local people, the Governor's database on visitors and visited sites and our own data from landing sites we visited. There is a certain level of basic knowledge available, allowing us to roughly grade the vulnerability of sites. However, there is a thorough lack of site-specific data related to the management of single locations or groups of similar locations. Future research needs to address specific on-site challenges in the management of visitor sites. Relevant management models and measures are discussed.We contend that a shift away from a blanket application of the precautionary principle and towards a more integrated, site-specific and evidence-based management plan will contribute to more trusted and reliable, and thereby acceptable among stakeholders, decisions in the management of growing tourism activity in Svalbard. © 2012 D. Hagen et al.

Broderstad E.G.,University of Tromsø | Eythorsson E.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014

Fisheries-dependent Sami communities in the Norwegian Arctic face major challenges adapting and responding to social-ecological changes. On a local scale, communities and households continually adapt and respond to interacting changes in natural conditions and governance frameworks. Degradation of the marine environment and decline in coastal settlements can move social-ecological systems beyond critical thresholds or tipping points, where the system irreversibly enters a different state. We examined the recent social-ecological history of 2 fjords in Finnmark, North Norway, which have coped, over the past 30 years, with the collapse of local fish stocks, harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) invasions, and increasingly restrictive resource management regimes. Further, we explored similarities and differences in their social-ecological histories and discuss how the concepts of resilience and tipping points can be applied as analytical tools in empirical studies of community response to social-ecological change. We show that although the ecological changes in the 2 communities have consisted of similar developments, they have been temporally different in ways that may have affected coping strategies and influenced the available options at different times. The apparent resilience of Sami fishing communities can be understood as the result of response strategies employed by communities and households, and the economic opportunities that have opened up as a result of a combination of ecological change and institutional and political reforms. © 2014 by the author(s).

Swensen G.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research | Daugstad K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
BELGEO | Year: 2013

The market for selling experiences and products influenced by various connotations of the past is continuously increasing. Guidebooks play a role in introducing cultural history to a growing tourist market. A study of four European cultural historic guidebooks draws attention to some of the differences that appear in the way national heritage assets are presented. The analysis reveals that guidebooks are more restricted in representation form and writing genre than initially presumed. By choosing a representation form dominated by a cartographic style of writing, where factual information play a dominant role, the text in the guidebooks leaves the reader in the role of a distanced observer. It is primarily via the illustrations that the heritage assets act as a scene for contemplation, involvement or for adventure. The material is interpreted within a framework that draws attention to the interaction that takes place between the representations of the past and contemporary society. © SRGB.

Brattland C.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2013

The article explores whether marine biodiversity mappings can contribute to the mapping of the material basis of Sami culture. Four different mapping practices are analysed in the article, all related to the seascape in the Lyngen fjord (Lyngenfjorden) in northern Norway. Initiatives undertaken by the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries and the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) to map cod spawning grounds, and by the Sami Rights Commission (SRC) to map customary use of a fjord are compared with local fishing practices. Although the seascape was initially mapped to find spawning grounds (the IMR and the Directorate) and to record social practices (the Directorate and the SRC), the outcomes also express social relations between the mappers and the mapped materials. Whereas the mappings that included fishermen's relations with fishing grounds are compatible with each other, the marine scientists' mapping documented biodiversity independent of local relations with it. The author argues that the marine environment should be seen as expressing social relations between groups of people and certain materialities instead of as separated in natural and social layers. Thus, even though marine biodiversity mapping practices reveal biodiversity in Sami settlement areas, they inform little about the material basis of Sami culture. © 2013 Copyright Norwegian Geographical Society.

Andersen B.,Oslo University College | Skrede J.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Local Environment | Year: 2016

Many cities today face challenges related to urban growth. This is also the case in Oslo, currently one of the fastest growing capitals in Europe. In order to prepare for the population growth, a new municipal master plan has been prepared. In this, sustainable development is a prominent concept, and the urban district is going to be densified as part of the strategy. This paper examines some obstacles of turning planning theory into practice. There is a lack of coherence between municipal goals and the actual outcome. The analysis indicates that the official strategy is not able to cater for social sustainability partly due to institutional constraints. Moreover, there is no concise understanding of what sustainability means, which in turn hampers the ability to operationalise the concept in urban planning. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Swensen G.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2012

Creation of urban images is part of the global economy, and modern townscapes are results of interplay between politics, culture and markets. Global ideals within architecture and planning have left imprints on local town development in Norway. Cultural heritage is affected by these processes, and the role cultural heritage plays in creating urban images is analysed in a qualitative case-study of four medium sized Norwegian towns. Through interviews with central actors in the planning process and analyses of planning documents on municipal and county level, the main questions raised are how municipal planners relate to questions concerning integration of historic fabric in new urban development. Has increased focus on culture in urban planning led to new planning strategies and more cooperation between municipal planners and cultural heritage managers? Despite the fact that the towns in focus have an urban core stamped as valuable historic centre, the results show that this is not sufficient to give the cultural heritage managers empowerment outside their limited domain. Actual planning practice reveals that the cultural heritage is handled more as a useful means in the rhetoric of local politics than as an important resource for a sustainable future. Fragmented planning renders consideration to the reciprocity which exists between the historic fabric, the townscape and the natural environment difficult. The results are discussed in view of the central role aesthetics and visuality has been ascribed in contemporary cities, and how the introduction of New Liberalism planning principles has affected cultural heritage management at municipal level. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Swensen G.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research | Nordh H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Brendalsmo J.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: The amount of green space in urban areas is shrinking. Densification and the introduction of new user groups in most cities today is leading to more intensive use of public spaces and the need for more space. Urban cemeteries constitute a unique type of public space: while some may consider them primarily religious and contemplative spaces, others see them as primarily recreational or as heritage sites steeped in history. The authors examine the extent to which the pressure on cities’ open green areas combined with influences from intercultural encounters is mirrored in the use and character of cemeteries today – exemplified by Gamlebyen Cemetery (Gamlebyen Gravlund) in Oslo, Norway. They used observations in combination with short semi-structured interviews with those using the cemetery. The findings of pilot study conducted in 2013 suggest that religious aspects played a minor role and that the recreational aspects were more important to most of the interviewees. Many of them considered that the cemetery provided a pleasant green walkway on their way to work, busses or city services. The cemetery offered a combination of calmness, an aesthetically pleasant environment, and ‘cultivated nature’ in an urban context, and was thus an arena that invited respect and esteem. © 2016 Norwegian Geographical Society.

Swensen G.,Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2011

There are histories and personal narratives that will never reach the public - either because they represent difficult memories or because they are of a character that society finds necessary to conceal. This paper will discuss aspects of the heritagisation process of old prison buildings taking place in Norway today. As part of major reforms in the legal system, decisions were made by the young national state in 1857 to build a network of district prisons throughout the country. They were designed in a functional, but partially symbolic form, signalising hierarchy and political power, and many of the buildings that were erected in the following years were based on drawings from some of Norway's most recognised architects. Gradually, the old prisons are now being replaced by new buildings. In the process of filling empty monumental buildings with new functions, new stories are created. The paper investigates closer the effects these changes of functions have had and asks: Are the old prisons remembered primarily as architectural monuments of power and justice, as monuments of social history that include painful personal stories, or do the arguments used by heritage management try to combine various perspectives? The study combines several qualitative methods; in field observations, informal interviews with central actors, and supplementary literature and archive studies. The discussion will be made in view of the processes of re-conceptualisation taking place as part of the position the cultural industries have gained as a new target area in urban municipal policies, as well as discussing the processes of selection in the heritagisation process. © 2012 WIT Press.

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