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Stevant P.,Moreforsking Alesund AS | Stevant P.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Rebours C.,Moreforsking Alesund AS | Rebours C.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Chapman A.,Moreforsking Alesund AS
Aquaculture International | Year: 2017

The use of cultivated seaweeds as a feedstock for multiple industrial applications has gained increasing interest in the Western World over the past decades. Norway has an extensive coastline and a well-established aquaculture sector offering suitable preconditions for developing large-scale cultivation of seaweed biomass both in monoculture and in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems. Recent efforts from research, industry and public authorities have been committed to develop a Norwegian bio-economy based on cultivated seaweed, focusing on cultivation and processing of the biomass. This review reports on the status of seaweed aquaculture in Norway, supported by production data collected since the delivery of the first commercial cultivation permits at sea in 2014. Although novel product developments are currently limited, future industrial perspectives based on cultivated biomass are being discussed. Upscaling from experimental cultivation schemes to commercial production requires a thorough assessment of the risks and benefits associated with seaweed aquaculture, as well as the development of a regulative framework adapted to this industry. Issues associated with upscaling the macroalgal production that needs to be addressed includes (i) genetic interactions between cultivated and wild crops, (ii) impacts of seaweed cultivation on surrounding ecosystems, (iii) epiphytes and diseases, (iv) area utilization and (v) threats from climate change. Addressing these issues and adapting production practices will ensure the environmental and economic sustainability of an emerging industry based on cultivated seaweed biomass in Norway. © 2017 The Author(s)


Schmidt A.K.R.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Aamlid T.S.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO As
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2017

Seed crops of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are usually established with a cover crop. Provided sufficient light, white clover may compensate for low plant density by stoloniferous growth. Our objectives were (1) to compare spring barley or spring wheat used as cover crops for white clover and (2) to find the optimal seeding rate/row distance for white clover. Seven field trials were conducted in Southeast Norway from 2000 to 2003. Barley was seeded at 360 and 240 seeds m−2 and wheat at 525 and 350 seeds m−2. White clover was seeded perpendicularly to the cover crop at 400 seeds m−2/13 cm row distance or 200 seeds m−2/26 cm. Results showed that light penetration in spring and early summer was better in wheat than in barley. On average for seven trials, this resulted in 11% higher seed yield after establishment in wheat than in barley. The 33% reduction in cover crop seeding rate had no effect on white clover seed yield for any of the cover crops. Reducing the seeding rate/doubling the row distance of white clover had no effect on seed yield but resulted in slightly earlier maturation of the seed crop. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Aamlid T.S.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Espevig T.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Tronsmo A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Crop Science | Year: 2017

Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/ or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. G. catenulatum (Turf G+/WPG, Verdera OY, Finland) was applied from October to December and in March– April, while Streptomyces species (Turf S+/ WPS, same manufacturer) was applied from May to October, both at four week intervals. In vitro, Streptomyces species suppressed the growth of M. nivale at 6 and 16°C, while G. catenulatum suppressed growth of M. nivale at 16°C only. In contrast, neither product, nor their combination, had any consistent effect in the field trials. A statistically significant reduction in Microdochium patch (from 3 to 2% of plot area) was seen in a trial on a green dominated by Festuca rubra L., but this reduction was deemed to be of little practical interest to the greenkeeper. Despite multiple applications over 3 yr to build up an antagonistic microflora, only fungicides reduced M. nivale significantly on greens dominated by Poa annua L. or Agrostis capillaris L., which generally had more disease. In conclusion, this research showed no potential of G. catenulatum or Streptomyces species to replace fungicides for control of M. nivale on northern-latitude golf greens. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.


Aarnes S.G.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Floystad I.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Schregel J.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Vindstad O.P.L.,University of Tromsø | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Riley H.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2016

Mineral NPK fertilizer and manure have been compared since 1922 in a ley–arable rotation. During 1982–2003, cattle manure at 20–60 Mg ha−1 year−1 yielded 10–20 % less than mineral fertilizer at 100 kg N:25 kg P:120 kg K ha−1 year−1. The higher manure rates gave large nutrient surpluses. Both manure and mineral fertilizer had increased soil organic carbon (SOC), by 11.3 and 3.4 Mg ha−1 in 1996. In order to study possible residual effects, no manure was applied in 2004–2007 and mineral fertilizer was withheld from some NPK plots. Effects on yield and nutrient uptake were evaluated in relation to plots with no nutrient supply since 1922 and plots still receiving 100 kg N, 25 kg P and 120 kg K ha−1 annually. No residual response of mineral fertilizer was found, but previous manure use gave large effects. The latter yields remained around 85 % of those obtained with mineral fertilizer. Previous use of both mineral fertilizer and manure still increased available soil nutrients and pH in 2007. Differences between treatments in SOC had by then declined slightly, to 9.7 and 2.8 Mg ha−1 for manure and mineral fertilizer respectively, relative to the unfertilized control. Manure and fertilizer applications were resumed in 2008, except at the highest previous manure rate, where mean residual responses up to 2014, relative to the unfertilized control, amounted to 55 % higher yield and increases in nutrient uptake of 47 kg N, 8 kg P and 53 kg K ha−1. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Carbone S.,University of Bologna | Hertel-Aas T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Joner E.J.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Oughton D.H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

The growing number of nanotechnology products on the market will inevitably lead to the release of engineered nanomaterials with potential risk to humans and environment. This study set out to investigate the exposure of soil biota to engineered nanoparticles (NPs). Cerium dioxide (CeO2 NPs) and tin dioxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) were radiolabelled using neutron activation, and employed to assess the uptake and excretion kinetics in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Through sequential extraction, NPs bioavailability in two contrasting soils and in earthworm feed was also investigated. Neither CeO2 NPs nor SnO2 NPs bioaccumulated in earthworms, and both were rapidly excreted when worms were transferred to clean soil. Low bioavailability was also indicated by low amounts of NPs recovered during extraction with non-stringent extractants. CeO2 NPs showed increasing mobility in organic soil over time (28 days), indicating that organic matter has a strong influence on the fate of CeO2 NPs in soil. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Wehn S.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO | Johansen L.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO
Biodiversity | Year: 2015

Primula scandinavica is endemic to Norway and Sweden and populations are in decline due to changes in land use. Future climate change might have an additive effect on its distribution. To predict the future distribution of P. scandinavica, its potential suitable habitats with regard to land use and climate need to be investigated. We have generated species distribution models (SDMs) both for local (Eastern Jotunheimen) and national (Norway) scales and projected future distribution based on predicted climate and land use change. The best SDM at a national scale includes climate (temperature, precipitation, number of snow days) and elevation. The future potential distribution is projected to expand in the mountainous areas in the south and move north. At a local scale, the best SDM includes historic and present land use and livestock grazing pressure. Future distribution in the studied mountainous area is projected to decrease with continued abandonment of grazing. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | University of Tromsø, Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO and Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2015

The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.


PubMed | Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research NIBIO and Technical University of Liberec
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been conceived for cost-efficient degradation of chlorinated pollutants in soil as an alternative to e.g permeable reactive barriers or excavation. Little is however known about its efficiency in degradation of the ubiquitous environmental pollutant DDT and its secondary effects on organisms. Here, two types of nZVI (type B made using precipitation with borohydride, and type T produced by gas phase reduction of iron oxides under H2) were compared for efficiency in degradation of DDT in water and in a historically (>45 years) contaminated soil (24 mg kg(-1) DDT). Further, the ecotoxicity of soil and water was tested on plants (barley and flax), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens), and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Both types of nZVI effectively degraded DDT in water, but showed lower degradation of aged DDT in soil. Both types of nZVI had negative impact on the tested organisms, with nZVI-T giving least adverse effects. Negative effects were mostly due to oxidation of nZVI, resulting in O2 consumption and excess Fe(II) in water and soil.

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