Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research

Bodø, Norway

Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research

Bodø, Norway
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Hoffmann S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Jaeger D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schoenherr S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Talbot B.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Forests | Year: 2015

This case study examines the performance of the Igland Hauler employed in small diameter Eucalyptus clear-cut operations in Guangxi, China. A yarding crew of eight persons was monitored by a snap back elemental time study for 19.23 SMH (scheduled machine hours), with 159 yarding cycles and a yarded log volume at landing of 49.4 m3 solid over bark. A gross-productivity of 2.50 m3/SMH and net-productivity of 5.06 m3/PMH0 (productive machine hours excluding delay times) was achieved, leading to a machine utilization rate of 49.5%. The costs of the yarder and associated overhead as well as the personnel costs of a large crew with eight people sum up to extraction costs of 50.24 USD/m3. The high costs make it difficult to compete economically with the locally common manual extraction system as long as abundant labor at a low hourly rate is available in the region. Further performance improvement through skill development, but also technical and organizational system modification in conjunction with rising wages and decreasing labor force in rural primary production will determine the justification of employing such yarding systems. However, new silvicultural regimes with extended rotations and supply requirements of the forest products industry in China demand new operational systems. © 2015 by the authors.


Roleda M.Y.,University of Kiel | Roleda M.Y.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Roleda M.Y.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Polar Biology | Year: 2015

The reproductive phenology and the responses of the early life history stages of the Arctic endemic kelp Laminaria solidungula to global climate change stressors were investigated. This species inhabits low-light areas at depths up to 18 m and under the canopy of other large kelps in shallower depths. Around Svalbard, fertile sporophytes had been collected in late spring to early autumn. This observation suggests that sporogenesis starts in late autumn, continuing throughout the winter and ending in early spring, or that reproduction may occur throughout the year, especially among deepwater population where diel fluctuating low light may be perceived as short days to induce sporogenesis. Fertile sporophytes were induced to release spores that were subsequently exposed to different temperatures (2, 7, 12, 17 °C) in isolation and in interaction with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Results showed a high temperature affinity up to 12 °C for meiospore germination and growth, but its photosynthesis was low-light-adapted and susceptible to UVR. After 16 days of cultivation, germlings died under 17 °C and gametophyte size was largest at 12 °C. After 48-day cultivation under continuous daylight, gametogenesis was not observed. The projected ocean warming will unlikely negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of micro- and macrostages of L. solidungula. Conversely, the susceptibility of meiospores and gametophytes to high PAR and UVR can disrupt the completion of the life cycle. However, sporogenesis and gametogenesis, which are the key processes for the survival of this Arctic endemic species that requires low temperature and short days, can still occur in deepwater habitats. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Mittenzwei K.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Mann S.,Agroscope | Refsgaard K.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Kvakkestad V.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2016

The paper tests the hypothesis that cultural and social background is far more influential to form preferences about policy than the level of fact-based knowledge a person possesses. The data for the case study stem from a web-based survey among a representative sample of the adult population in Norway. The degree of knowledge of agriculture in this paper is operationalized through questions on five key characteristics of Norwegian agriculture that frequently arise in the public discussion. The results show that the amount of fact-based knowledge of agriculture to a very little extent explains differences within the sample. The cultural background of respondents is much more suited to explain agricultural policy preferences. Knowledge, however, shifts the attention from food price issues towards the delivery of public goods. The results allow us to hint at hot cognition as a possible explanation for such findings. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Woznicki T.L.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Heide O.M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sonsteby A.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Wold A.-B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Remberg S.F.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The effects of post-flowering temperature and daylength on chemical composition of four black currant cultivars originating from distinct geographical locations have been studied under controlled environment conditions. Special emphasis was placed on establishing photoperiodic conditions that are not biased by simultaneous changes in daily light integral. Unexpectedly, berry ripening in terms of colour change was delayed by high temperature, apparently due to high temperature suppression of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The concentration of l-Ascorbic acid decreased with increasing temperature (12-24. °C), while the concentrations of total anthocyanins and total phenolics were at an optimum at 18. °C. Under identical daily light energy conditions (night interruption), photoperiod had no specific effect on the analysed fruit quality components, while natural long day conditions (with 9% additional daily light energy) lowered the pH and increased the concentration of total monomeric anthocyanins, and to a lesser extent, the concentration of soluble solids. The cultivars varied significantly in fruit chemical composition. The high-boreal cultivar 'Imandra' was the one least affected by environmental conditions. This study provides evidence that accumulation of ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins in black currant fruits is favoured by low post-flowering temperatures, while high daily light integrals also seem favourable for anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..


Suthaparan A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Solhaug K.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Stensvand A.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Gislerod H.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

Oidium neolycopersici, the cause of powdery mildew in tomato, was exposed to UV radiation from 250 to 400 nm for 1, 12, or 24 min. Radiation ≤ 280 nm strongly reduced conidial germination, hyphal expansion, penetration attempt and infection of O. neolycopersici. From 290 to 310 nm the effect depended on duration of exposure, while there was no effect ≥ 310 nm. There were no significant differences within the effective UV range (250-280 nm). Conidial germination on a water agar surface was < 20% or around 40%, respectively, if samples were exposed for 1 min within the effective UV range followed by 24 h or 48 h incubation. Twelve or 24 min exposure reduced germination to close to nil. A similar trend occurred for germination of conidia on leaf disks on water agar in Petri dishes. The effective UV range significantly reduced all subsequent developmental stages of O. neolycopersici. There was no cytoplasmic mitochondrial streaming in conidia exposed to the effective UV range, indicating that there may be a direct effect via cell cycle arrest. There was no indication of reactive oxygen species involvement in UV mediated inhibition of O. neolycopersici. Optical properties of O. neolycopersici indicated that the relative absorption of UV was high within the range of 250 to 320 nm, and very low within the range of 340 to 400 nm. Identification of UV wavelengths effective against O. neolycopersici provides a future basis for precise disease control. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Davik J.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Sargent D.J.,Center for Research and Innovation | Brurberg M.B.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Lien S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. xananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. xananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. Copyright: © 2015 Davik et al.


PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology | Year: 2016

Oidium neolycopersici, the cause of powdery mildew in tomato, was exposed to UV radiation from 250 to 400 nm for 1, 12, or 24 min. Radiation 280 nm strongly reduced conidial germination, hyphal expansion, penetration attempt and infection of O. neolycopersici. From 290 to 310 nm the effect depended on duration of exposure, while there was no effect 310 nm. There were no significant differences within the effective UV range (250-280 nm). Conidial germination on a water agar surface was <20% or around 40%, respectively, if samples were exposed for 1 min within the effective UV range followed by 24h or 48 h incubation. Twelve or 24 min exposure reduced germination to close to nil. A similar trend occurred for germination of conidia on leaf disks on water agar in Petri dishes. The effective UV range significantly reduced all subsequent developmental stages of O. neolycopersici. There was no cytoplasmic mitochondrial streaming in conidia exposed to the effective UV range, indicating that there may be a direct effect via cell cycle arrest. There was no indication of reactive oxygen species involvement in UV mediated inhibition of O. neolycopersici. Optical properties of O. neolycopersici indicated that the relative absorption of UV was high within the range of 250 to 320 nm, and very low within the range of 340 to 400 nm. Identification of UV wavelengths effective against O. neolycopersici provides a future basis for precise disease control.


PubMed | Center for Research and Innovation, Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research and Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP arrays construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata () and Babette (). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.


PubMed | Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research, Yale University, University of Massachusetts Amherst and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2016

The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid generations beyond F1. To study winter moth population genetics and hybridization with Bruce spanworm, we developed two sets of genetic markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites, using genomic approaches. Both types of markers were validated using samples from the two species and their hybrids. We identified 1216 SNPs and 24 variable microsatellite loci. From them we developed a subset of 95 species-diagnostic SNPs and ten microsatellite loci that could be used for hybrid identification. We further validated the ten microsatellite loci by screening field collected samples of both species and putative hybrids. In addition to confirming the presence of F1 hybrids reported in previous studies, we found evidence for multi-generation asymmetric hybridization, as suggested by the occurrence of hybrid backcrosses with the winter month, but not with the Bruce spanworm. Laboratory crosses between winter moth females and Bruce spanworm males resulted in a higher proportion of viable eggs than the reciprocal cross, supporting this pattern. We discuss the possible roles of population demographics, sex chromosome genetic incompatibility, and bacterial symbionts as causes of this asymmetrical hybridization and the utility of the developed markers for future studies.


PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norwegian Institute of Food and Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12-24 C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass. Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols increased under natural long day conditions, which provided an increased daily light integral, while under identical light energy conditions, photoperiod had little or no effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, with the exception of members of the hydroxycinnamic acid subclass, the concentration of most phenolic compounds was higher in berries ripened outdoors than in the phytotron, apparently due to screening of UV-B radiation by the glass cover.

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