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Woznicki T.L.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Heide O.M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sonsteby A.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Wold A.-B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Remberg S.F.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The effects of post-flowering temperature and daylength on chemical composition of four black currant cultivars originating from distinct geographical locations have been studied under controlled environment conditions. Special emphasis was placed on establishing photoperiodic conditions that are not biased by simultaneous changes in daily light integral. Unexpectedly, berry ripening in terms of colour change was delayed by high temperature, apparently due to high temperature suppression of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The concentration of l-Ascorbic acid decreased with increasing temperature (12-24. °C), while the concentrations of total anthocyanins and total phenolics were at an optimum at 18. °C. Under identical daily light energy conditions (night interruption), photoperiod had no specific effect on the analysed fruit quality components, while natural long day conditions (with 9% additional daily light energy) lowered the pH and increased the concentration of total monomeric anthocyanins, and to a lesser extent, the concentration of soluble solids. The cultivars varied significantly in fruit chemical composition. The high-boreal cultivar 'Imandra' was the one least affected by environmental conditions. This study provides evidence that accumulation of ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins in black currant fruits is favoured by low post-flowering temperatures, while high daily light integrals also seem favourable for anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Lewis K.E.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Grebitus C.,Arizona State University | Nayga R.M.,University of Arkansas | Nayga R.M.,Korea University | Nayga R.M.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

A majority of purchases that consumers make are classified as repeat purchases. One of the main reasons why consumers make repeat food purchases is the food's taste. Therefore, we examined the importance of including taste testing in nonhypothetical experimental auctions. Specifically, we used two experiments to determine consumers' willingness to pay for soft drinks labeled with different calorie and sweetener information. In Experiment 1, participants tasted the soft drinks prior to the bidding rounds. In Experiment 2, participants did not taste the soft drinks prior to the bidding rounds. Bidding behavior for the soft drinks was significantly different between Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Results suggest that including taste testing in the design of experimental auctions is important to accurately capture consumers' willingness to pay for foods that are purchased repeatedly. Results also imply that policies aimed at combating obesity by making the calorie content of foods more visible may not produce desired outcomes. © 2016 International Association of Agricultural Economists. Source

Hoffmann S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Jaeger D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schoenherr S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Talbot B.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research
Forests | Year: 2015

This case study examines the performance of the Igland Hauler employed in small diameter Eucalyptus clear-cut operations in Guangxi, China. A yarding crew of eight persons was monitored by a snap back elemental time study for 19.23 SMH (scheduled machine hours), with 159 yarding cycles and a yarded log volume at landing of 49.4 m3 solid over bark. A gross-productivity of 2.50 m3/SMH and net-productivity of 5.06 m3/PMH0 (productive machine hours excluding delay times) was achieved, leading to a machine utilization rate of 49.5%. The costs of the yarder and associated overhead as well as the personnel costs of a large crew with eight people sum up to extraction costs of 50.24 USD/m3. The high costs make it difficult to compete economically with the locally common manual extraction system as long as abundant labor at a low hourly rate is available in the region. Further performance improvement through skill development, but also technical and organizational system modification in conjunction with rising wages and decreasing labor force in rural primary production will determine the justification of employing such yarding systems. However, new silvicultural regimes with extended rotations and supply requirements of the forest products industry in China demand new operational systems. © 2015 by the authors. Source

Suthaparan A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Solhaug K.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Stensvand A.,Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research | Gislerod H.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

Oidium neolycopersici, the cause of powdery mildew in tomato, was exposed to UV radiation from 250 to 400 nm for 1, 12, or 24 min. Radiation ≤ 280 nm strongly reduced conidial germination, hyphal expansion, penetration attempt and infection of O. neolycopersici. From 290 to 310 nm the effect depended on duration of exposure, while there was no effect ≥ 310 nm. There were no significant differences within the effective UV range (250-280 nm). Conidial germination on a water agar surface was < 20% or around 40%, respectively, if samples were exposed for 1 min within the effective UV range followed by 24 h or 48 h incubation. Twelve or 24 min exposure reduced germination to close to nil. A similar trend occurred for germination of conidia on leaf disks on water agar in Petri dishes. The effective UV range significantly reduced all subsequent developmental stages of O. neolycopersici. There was no cytoplasmic mitochondrial streaming in conidia exposed to the effective UV range, indicating that there may be a direct effect via cell cycle arrest. There was no indication of reactive oxygen species involvement in UV mediated inhibition of O. neolycopersici. Optical properties of O. neolycopersici indicated that the relative absorption of UV was high within the range of 250 to 320 nm, and very low within the range of 340 to 400 nm. Identification of UV wavelengths effective against O. neolycopersici provides a future basis for precise disease control. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Van Loo E.J.,Ghent University | Caputo V.,Korea University | Nayga R.M.,Korea University | Nayga R.M.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Economics | Year: 2015

Sustainability labels are important tools that help consumers assess the sustainability aspects of food. While past studies have focused on visual attention to nutrition information, no study has investigated the visual attention paid by consumers to the sustainability information on food. Our study contributes to the need to better understand consumers' attention to sustainability information when making food choices. The objective was to explore the importance that consumers attach to sustainability attributes and investigate how this relates to the visual attention paid to these attributes during the choice decision and to willingness-to-pay (WTP). Visual attention during the decision making process was measured in terms of fixation time and fixation count, which were then analyzed in relation to the stated attribute importance. Our results suggest that consumer segments with differences in stated attribute importance, visually attend differently to these attributes. Higher valued attributes also exhibited higher visual attention. Our results suggest that consumers who spend more time attending to and fixate more on sustainability attributes value them more. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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