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Eggen T.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Lillo C.,University of Stavanger
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Residues of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater and sewage sludge are of concern due to their transfer to aquatic and terrestrial food chains and possible adverse effects on nontargeted organisms. In the present work, uptake and translocation of metformin, an antidiabetic II medicine, by edible plant species cultivated in agricultural soil have been investigated in greenhouse experiment. Metformin demonstrated a high uptake and translocation to oily seeds of rape (Brassica napus cv. Sheik and Brassica rapa cv. Valo); expressed as an average bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant concentration over initial concentration in soil, both in dry weight), BCF values as high as 21.72 were measured. In comparison, BCFs for grains of the cereals wheat, barley, and oat were in the range of 0.29-1.35. Uptake and translocation to fruits and vegetables of tomato (BCFs 0.02-0.06), squash (BCFs 0.12-0.18), and bean (BCF 0.88) were also low compared to rape. BCFs for carrot, potato, and leaf forage B. napus cv. Sola were similar (BCF 1-4). Guanylurea, a known degradation product of metformin by microorganisms in activated sludge, was found in barley grains, bean pods, potato peel, and small potatoes. The mechanisms for transport of metformin and guanidine in plants are still unknown, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) in mammals are known to actively transport such compounds and may guide the way for further understanding of mechanisms also in plants. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Bechmann M.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

The use of nitrogen (N) is of high interest due to its importance for food production, climate change and water quality. A comparison of N loss from agricultural areas to water in the Nordic-Baltic countries showed that the highest losses occurred in Norway. The objective of this paper was to identify temporal and spatial patterns in N concentrations in agricultural streams and to quantify the effect of production systems and agricultural management on N loss. The study includes monitoring data obtained from ten agricultural catchments (65-2830 ha), two agricultural fields (4-6 ha) and one forested catchment (19 ha). All arable areas were artificially tile drained with 8-10 m spacing and at a depth of 80-100 cm. The results showed that for all production systems average N concentrations in subsurface drainage were 2-4 times higher than in surface runoff. The average N balances for the monitored catchments varied from -12 to 132 kg ha-1 yr-1, but six of the catchments showed average N balances below 65 kg ha-1 yr-1 at which level N leaching may not be affected by increased N balance. However, N balances from single fields within the catchments varied largely, especially for areas with manure application. Seasonal variation in TN concentrations was higher in the streams in areas dominated by cereal production compared to grassland areas with the highest concentrations in May-June and September-December. Based on this study it is suggested that a strategy to even out manure application within the catchments with high livestock density should be developed. For areas with cereals, mitigation method should focus on reducing soil mineral N in spring and autumn. © 2014. Source


Jaakola L.,University of Tromso | Jaakola L.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Anthocyanins are important health-promoting pigments that make a major contribution to the quality of fruits. The biosynthetic pathway leading to anthocyanins is well known and the key regulatory genes controlling the pathway have been isolated in many species. Recently, a considerable amount of new information has been gathered on the developmental and environmental regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruits, specifically the impact of regulation through light. New discoveries have begun to reveal links between the developmental regulatory network and the specific regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit ripening. In this opinion article, a simplified model for the different regulatory networks involved with anthocyanin production in fruit is proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Clarke J.L.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Daniell H.,University of Central Florida
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

The world population is expected to reach an estimated 9.2 billion by 2050. Therefore, food production globally has to increase by 70% in order to feed the world, while total arable land, which has reached its maximal utilization, may even decrease. Moreover, climate change adds yet another challenge to global food security. In order to feed the world in 2050, biotechnological advances in modern agriculture are essential. Plant genetic engineering, which has created a new wave of global crop production after the first green revolution, will continue to play an important role in modern agriculture to meet these challenges. Plastid genetic engineering, with several unique advantages including transgene containment, has made significant progress in the last two decades in various biotechnology applications including development of crops with high levels of resistance to insects, bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, different types of herbicides, drought, salt and cold tolerance, cytoplasmic male sterility, metabolic engineering, phytoremediation of toxic metals and production of many vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, useful traits should be engineered via chloroplast genomes of several major crops. This review provides insight into the current state of the art of plastid engineering in relation to agricultural production, especially for engineering agronomic traits. Understanding the bottleneck of this technology and challenges for improvement of major crops in a changing climate are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Steinshamn H.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk
Animal Science Papers and Reports | Year: 2010

Literature data from experiments with lactating dairy cows offered silage-based diets was reviewed to evaluate the effects of the grassland legume species Trifolium repens (WC, white clover), Trifolium pratense (RC, red clover) and Medicago sativa (M, lucerne) on feed intake, milk production and milk quality. Seven data sets were created to compare grass silage (G) with grassland legumes in general (L), G with RC, G with WC, G with M, RC with WC, RC with M and different silage proportions of RC. Daily dry matter intake and milk yield were on average 1.6 and 1.6 kg, respectively, higher and milk fat content 1.2 g/kg milk lower on L than on G based diets. Similar differences were found when G was compared with RC or WC diets. Cows offered WC yielded 1.1 kg/d more milk than RC, and milk produced on WC and M contained 0.7 g more protein per kg than milk from RC diets. Increasing the silage diet RC proportion from 0.5 to 1.0 also decreased the milk protein content by 0.8 g/kg milk. RC increased the level of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly C18:3n-3, and isoflavones, particularly equol, in milk. Effects are discussed in relation to plant cell wall characteristics, plant chemical constituents and changes in rumen digestion to explain the origin of the differences in intake, milk yield and milk composition. Source

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