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The Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute is a research institute based in Norway.Organizationally subordinate to the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food, it is autonomous in its research. It was established on 1 July 2006 through a merger of the Norwegian Forest Research Institute and the Norwegian Institute of Land Inventory . Headquarters are in Ås, and regional offices are in Bergen, Steinkjer and Tromsø.The director is Arne Bardalen. Wikipedia.

Strand G.-H.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2011

A landscape region can be drawn on a map as a geographic feature with distinct boundaries. Reality is, however, that the change from one landscape to another usually is gradual and that landscapes therefore have uncertain or undetermined boundaries. A thematic map of landscape regions is therefore a too simple model of the landscape. An alternative approach is to consider landscape categories as purely theoretical concepts. With this perspective, a particular geographical location can be more or less affiliated with a number of different landscape categories. Such a conception of landscape does not lead to a traditional thematic map of uniform, non-overlapping regions, but to a landscape model composed of multiple overlapping probability surfaces. This article shows how such a landscape model can be established using binary logistic regression. The method is tested and the result is assessed against an existing landscape map of Norway much used in policy impact analysis in this country. The overall objective is to develop a data driven landscape model that can supplement, elucidate and for some purposes maybe even replace, the qualitative landscape description represented by the traditional landscape map. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lange H.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2011

In ecosystem research, data-driven approaches to modeling are of major importance. Models are more often than not shaped by the spatiotemporal structure of the observations: an inverse modeling approach prevails. Here, I investigate the insights obtained from Recurrence Quantification Analysis of observed ecosystem time series. As a typical example of available long-term monitoring data, I choose time series from hydrology and hydrochemistry. Besides providing insights into the nonstationary and nonlinear dynamics of these variables, RQA also enables a detailed and temporally local model-data comparison. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Wegge P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Rolstad J.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

Along the succession gradient of the boreal forest ecosystem, black grouse Tetrao tetrix inhabits the early and capercaillie Tetrao urogallus the latest stages. When converting old forest to clearcuts and plantations, commercial forestry has therefore been assumed to affect capercaillie negatively and to be favourable to black grouse. During a 30-year period (1979-2008) we monitored sympatric populations of the two species in a forest in southeast Norway based on annual spring and autumn censuses and radio-marked birds. During this period, the proportion of old, semi-natural forest was halved and clearcuts and young plantations increased accordingly. The grouse populations did not change as predicted. While the trend in August numbers of adult black grouse declined, males more than females, abundance of adult capercaillie remained unchanged. Number of males at leks showed similar patterns. Equally surprising, breeding success (number of chicks per female in August) of both species increased, thus indicating that the populations were regulated more by variation in adult survivorship than by recruitment of young birds. No correlations were found with changing climatic factors (precipitation and temperatures in winter and spring, snow depth and time of snow melt), except that year-to-year breeding success was positively correlated with minimum temperatures during 2 weeks posthatch. The results are explained by a combination of more flexible habitat selection than previously assumed and a changing predator regime: In the early period, nearly all capercaillie leks were located in old, semi-natural forest, but as plantations grew older (>30 years), new leks were established there. Similarly, while young capercaillie broods used old semi-natural forest almost exclusively when the study started, they frequently used middle-aged plantations, especially those with a ground cover of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus, when these became common in later years. The increasing breeding success could largely be explained by more females rearing chicks successfully, presumably due to a marked decline in the main nest predator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes. A practice of thinning of the old, semi-natural forest some years prior to final harvesting probably facilitated predation of black grouse by goshawks Accipiter gentilis. Contrary to many beliefs, our results indicate that both capercaillie and black grouse are quite tolerant to changes in forest management regimes. In our study, numerical and functional responses of predators (mainly red fox and goshawk) apparently played a more important role in regulating grouse numbers than habitat factors per se. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lahr E.C.,University of Montana | Krokene P.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Bark beetles and associated fungi are among the greatest natural threats to conifers worldwide. Conifers have potent defenses, but resistance to beetles and fungal pathogens may be reduced if tree stored resources are consumed by fungi rather than used for tree defense. Here, we assessed the relationship between tree stored resources and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica, a phytopathogenic fungus vectored by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. We measured phloem and sapwood nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and lipids before and after trees were attacked by I. typographus (vectoring C. polonica) or artificially inoculated with C. polonica alone. Tree resistance was assessed by measuring phloem lesions and the proportion of necrotic phloem around the tree's circumference following attack or inoculation. While initial resource concentrations were unrelated to tree resistance to C. polonica, over time, phloem NSC and sapwood lipids declined in the trees inoculated with C. polonica. Greater resource declines correlated with less resistant trees (trees with larger lesions or more necrotic phloem), suggesting that resource depletion may be caused by fungal consumption rather than tree resistance. Ips typographus may then benefit indirectly from reduced tree defenses caused by fungal resource uptake. Our research on tree stored resources represents a novel way of understanding bark beetle-fungal-conifer interactions. © 2013 Lahr, Krokene. Source

Solberg S.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Four alternative airborne laser scanning (ALS) canopy penetration variables were compared for their suitability for mapping of gap fraction, leaf area index and disturbances in a Scots pine forest. The variables were based on either echo counting or intensity, and on either first or first and last echoes. ALS data and field-measured gap fraction and effective leaf area index (LAIe) were gathered before and after a severe insect defoliation by pine sawflies. LAIe is a commonly used form of leaf area index that is mathematically derived from gap fraction, and includes the areas of foliage, branches and trunks, and which is not corrected for the clumping of foliage. The ALS penetration variables were almost equally strongly related to field-measured gap fraction and LAIe. The estimated slopes in the LAIe models varied from 0.94 to 2.71, and had coefficient of determination R2 values of 0.92-0.94. They were strongly correlated to each other (LAIe values of 0.95-0.98) and agreed fairly well for temporal changes of LAIe during the summer and the insect defoliation (R2 values of 0.82-0.95). Counting of first and last echoes produced penetration rates close to the gap fraction, and this penetration variable was able to penetrate tree crowns. Ground-only echoes represented mostly between-tree gaps, and canopy-first-ground-last pulses represented mostly within-canopy gaps. However, the penetration variables based on first and last echoes suffered from the problem that a second echo might be impaired both in low and in tall canopies. In low canopies, two adjacent echoes from the same pulse would be too close in time to be separated by the sensor, while in tall canopies the pulse might apparently be fragmented down through the canopy. The intensity-based penetration variables needed to be supplemented with reflectance values, or at least the ratio between reflectance of the canopy and the ground, and this ratio was estimated from the data. The study demonstrated that one might be able to distinguish between disturbance types, e.g. between defoliation and cutting, by comparing alternative ALS penetration variables. Insect defoliation was dominated by an increase in within-canopy gaps and, correspondingly, the fraction of partly penetrating canopy-first-ground-last pulses. Tree removals from cutting were dominated by increases in between-tree gaps and the corresponding fraction of ground-only pulses. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

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