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Ogden T.,University of Oslo | Ulvestad Karkl F.,Norwegian Directorate of Health | Stegenborg Teigen K.,Norwegian Directorate for Education AndTraining
Evidence and Policy | Year: 2010

In Norway, links between research, policy and practice are in a process of development, with initiatives to both strengthen the knowledge base for evidence-based policy and practice and increase the demand for research-based interventions. Examples of these initiatives from the fields of mental health, education and child welfare are provided, including institutions for research and development and the implementation of evidence-based programmes.The initiatives are set in the context of some basic facts about Norway and its research system. The implications of'importing' evaluated intervention programmes from other countries are discussed, and the relative merits of a 'what works' or broader approach to evidence-based policy and practice are assessed. evidence-based policy; evidence-based practices; transportability of EBP © The Policy Press. Source

Kristiansen A.L.,University of Oslo | Lande B.,Norwegian Directorate of Health | Sexton J.A.,University of Oslo | Andersen L.F.,University of Oslo
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Infant and childhood nutrition influences short-and long-term health. The objective of the present paper has been to explore dietary patterns and their associations with child and parent characteristics at two time points. Parents of Norwegian 2-year-olds were, in 1999 (n 3000) and in 2007 (n 2984), invited to participate in a national dietary survey. At both time points, diet was assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ that also provided information on several child and parent characteristics. A total of 1373 participants in the 1999 sample and 1472 participants in the 2007 sample were included in the analyses. Dietary patterns were identified by principal components analysis and related to child and parent characteristics using the general linear model. Four dietary patterns were identified at each time point. The 'unhealthy' and 'healthy' patterns in 1999 and 2007 showed similarities with regard to loadings of food groups. Both the 'bread and spread-based' pattern in 1999 and the 'traditional' pattern in 2007 had high positive loadings for bread and spreads; however, the 'traditional' pattern did also include positive associations with a warm meal. The last patterns identified in 1999 and in 2007 were not comparable with regard to loadings of food groups. All dietary patterns were significantly associated with one or several child and parent characteristics. In conclusion, the 'unhealthy' patterns in 1999 and in 2007 showed similarities with regard to loadings of food groups and were, at both time points, associated with sex, breastfeeding at 12 months of age, parity, maternal age and maternal work situation. © 2012 The Authors. Source

Welle-Strand G.K.,University of Oslo | Skurtveit S.,University of Oslo | Skurtveit S.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Jansson L.M.,Johns Hopkins University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2013

Aim To examine the rate and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of women in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in Norway, as well as the effect of breastfeeding on the incidence and duration of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Methods A national cohort of 124 women treated with either methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy, and their neonates born between 1999 and 2009, was evaluated in three study parts. A standardized questionnaire was administered, and medical information from the hospitals and municipalities were collected to confirm self-reported data. Results There were high initiation rates of breastfeeding (77%) for women in OMT, but also high rates of early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfed neonates exposed to methadone prenatally had significantly lower incidence of NAS requiring pharmacotherapy (53% vs. 80%), and both the whole group of infants and the methadone-exposed neonates needed shorter pharmacological treatment of NAS (p < 0.05) than neonates who were not breastfed. Conclusion Breastfed neonates exposed to OMT medication prenatally, and methadone-exposed newborns in particular, have lower incidence of NAS and require shorter pharmacotherapy for NAS than infants who are not breastfed. The results add to the evidence regarding the benefits of breastfeeding for neonates prenatally exposed to OMT medications. ©2013 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Kristiansen A.L.,University of Oslo | Lillegaard I.T.L.,University of Oslo | Lande B.,Norwegian Directorate of Health | Andersen L.F.,University of Oslo
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

In the interpretation of dietary trends, it is important to consider the potential effect of modifications in the dietary assessment method. Therefore, our objective was to explore the comparability of data obtained at two time points by a semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) which has had slight modifications over time. In the national dietary surveys among Norwegian 2-year-olds, diet was assessed by an SFFQ which underwent modifications between the 1999 survey and the 2007 survey. In the present study, fifty-nine families with a 2-year-old child participated by completing both the SFFQ in a crossover design within a month's time. With regard to the reported intake of energy and nutrients, the largest significant differences observed between the two questionnaires were for carbohydrates and added sugar. According to intake of food groups, significant differences were observed for five out of sixteen food groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients for energy, nutrients and food groups ranged from 0·43 (Ca) to 0·85 (soft drinks). Most Bland-Altman plots indicated broad limits of agreement. The differences between the two questionnaires can be explained by changes in the questionnaires, changes in the food composition databases used and random variation. Comparing differences between the questionnaires by maternal educational level, number of children and type of day care revealed minor differences. In conclusion, this study showed that at the group level there was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires, except for carbohydrates, added sugar and some food groups. Moreover, there were moderate to high correlations for energy, nutrients and food groups. Copyright © The Authors 2012. Source

Overland S.,University of Bergen | Aaro L.E.,University of Bergen | Aaro L.E.,National Institute of Public Health | Lindbak R.L.,Norwegian Directorate of Health
Health Education Research | Year: 2010

Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in upper secondary school. We employed data from a national representative study of 1444 Norwegian students, aged 16-20 years. Respondents were asked about their schools' restrictions on snus and smoking and own use of these products. We examined associations between restrictions and the use, controlling for age, gender, type of school and regional differences. We found clear consistent associations between schools' restrictions on tobacco use and less use of these products. More explicit pervasive restrictions were strongly associated with the prevalence of use. This first study on the associations between schools' restrictions on snus and the prevalence of snus use corroborate what has been found in many studies on smoking restrictions and smoking. Strict school tobacco policies may be an important tool if health authorities are interested in implementing measures to limit or reduce snus use among adolescents. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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