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Cure C.,University of St. Andrews | Antunes R.,University of St. Andrews | Samarra F.,University of St. Andrews | Alves A.C.,University of St. Andrews | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

In cetaceans' communities, interactions between individuals of different species are often observed in the wild. Yet, due to methodological and technical challenges very little is known about the mediation of these interactions and their effect on cetaceans' behavior. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are a highly vocal species and can be both food competitors and potential predators of many other cetaceans. Thus, the interception of their vocalizations by unintended cetacean receivers may be particularly important in mediating interspecific interactions. To address this hypothesis, we conducted playbacks of killer whale vocalizations recorded during herring-feeding activity to free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Using a multi-sensor tag, we were able to track the whales and to monitor changes of their movements and social behavior in response to the playbacks. We demonstrated that the playback of killer whale sounds to pilot whales induced a clear increase in group size and a strong attraction of the animals towards the sound source. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that the interception of heterospecific vocalizations can mediate interactions between different cetacean species in previously unrecognized ways. © 2012 Curé et al. Source


Linge S.O.,Telemark University College | Linge S.O.,Simula Research Laboratory | Mardal K.-A.,Simula Research Laboratory | Helgeland A.,Simula Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine | Year: 2014

Object. The effect of craniovertebral decompression surgery on CSF flow dynamics in patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) has been incompletely characterized. The authors used computational fluid dynamics to calculate the effect of decompression surgery on CSF flow dynamics in the posterior fossa and upper cervical spinal canal.Methods. Oscillatory flow was simulated in idealized 3D models of the normal adult and the CM-I subarachnoid spaces (both previously described) and in 3 models of CM-I post-craniovertebral decompressions. The 3 postoperative models were created from the CM model by virtually modifying the CM model subarachnoid space to simulate surgical decompressions of different magnitudes. Velocities and pressures were computed with the Navier-Stokes equations in Star-CD for multiple cycles of CSF flow oscillating at 80 cycles/min. Pressure gradients and velocities were compared for 8 levels extending from the posterior fossa to the C3-4 level. Relative pressures and peak velocities were plotted by level from the posterior fossa to C3-4. The heterogeneity of flow velocity distribution around the spinal cord was compared between models.Results. Peak systolic velocities were generally lower in the postoperative models than in the preoperative CM model. With the 2 larger surgical defects, peak systolic velocities were brought closer to normal model velocities (equal values at C-3 and C-4) than with the smallest surgical defect. For the smallest defect, peak velocities were decreased, but not to levels in the normal model. In the postoperative models, heterogeneity in flow velocity distribution around the spinal cord increased from normal model levels as the degree of decompression increased.Pressures in the 5 models differed in magnitude and in pattern. Pressure gradients along the spinal canal in the normal and CM models were nonlinear, with steeper gradients below C3-4 than above. The CM model had a steeper pressure gradient than the normal model above C3-4 and the same gradient below. The postoperative models had lower pressure gradients than the CM model above C2-3. The most conservative decompression had lower pressure gradients than the normal model above C2-3. The two larger decompression defects had CSF pressure gradients below those in the normal model above C2-3. These 2 models had a less steep gradient above C-3 and a steeper gradient below.Conclusions. In computer simulations, craniovertebral surgical defects generally diminished CSF velocities and CSF pressures. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2014.6.SPINE13950). © AANS, 2014. Source


Guzman H.M.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Gomez C.G.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Guevara C.A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Kleivane L.,Norwegian Defense Research Establishment FFI
Marine Mammal Science | Year: 2013

Vessel collision is a threat to many whale species, and the risk has increased with expanding maritime traffic. This compromises international conservation efforts and requires urgent attention from the world's maritime industry. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are at the top of the death toll, and although Central America is a wintering area for populations from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, existing efforts to reduce ship-whale collisions are meager. Herein, we evaluated the potential collisions between vessels and humpback whales wintering off Pacific Panama by following the movements of 15 whales tagged with satellite transmitters and comparing these data with tracks plotted using AIS real-time latitude-longitude points from nearly 1,000 commercial vessels. Movements of whales (adults and calves) in the Gulf of Panama coincide with major commercial maritime routes. AIS vessel data analyzed for individual whale satellite tracks showed that 53% (8 whales) of whales had 98 encounters within 200 m with 81 different vessels in just 11 d. We suggest implementing a 65 nmi Traffic Separation Scheme and a 10 kn maximum speed for vessel routing into the Gulf of Panama during the wintering season. In so doing, the area for potential whale-vessel collisions could be reduced by 93%. © 2012 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy. Source


Haakestad M.W.,Norwegian Defense Research Establishment FFI | Marandi A.,Stanford University | Leindecker N.,Stanford University | Vodopyanov K.L.,University of Central Florida
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2013

Five-cycle (50 fs) mid-IR pulses at 80-MHz repetition rate are produced using a degenerate (subharmonic) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), synchronously pumped by an ultrafast 1560-nm fiber laser. The effects of cavity dispersion and the length of a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) gain element on the output spectrum and pulse duration are investigated by taking advantage of a very broad (∼ 1000 cm-1) gain bandwidth near the 3.1-μm OPO degeneracy point. A new method of assessing the total OPO group delay dispersion across its entire spectrum is proposed, based on measuring spectral signatures of trace amounts of molecular gases injected into the OPO cavity. Five-cycle (50 fs) mid-IR pulses at 80-MHz repetition rate are produced using a degenerate (subharmonic) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), synchronously pumped by an ultrafast 1560-nm fiber laser. The effects of cavity dispersion and the length of a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) gain element on the output spectrum and pulse duration are investigated by taking advantage of a very broad (∼ 1000 cm-1) gain bandwidth near the 3.1-μm OPO degeneracy point. A new method of assessing the total OPO group delay dispersion across its entire spectrum is proposed, based on measuring spectral signatures of trace amounts of molecular gases injected into the OPO cavity. © 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Elboth T.,Fugro | Pettersson Reif B.A.,Norwegian Defense Research Establishment FFI | Andreassen O.,Norwegian Defense Research Establishment FFI | Martell M.B.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Geophysics | Year: 2012

This work investigates how a highly (super)hydrophobic surface can be used to reduce turbulence-generated drag and noise on a towed streamer cable. The work is done by analyzing full-scale drag and flow noise measurements taken on a commercial seismic streamer in combination with direct numerical simulations of turbulence-generated flow noise. The main findings are that viscous drag and flow noise can be significantly reduced on a seismic streamer that is coated to make the surface highly hydrophobic. In an ocean towing test, a 4% reduction of drag on a streamer section was measured. In a separate test on a commercial seismic vessel, a reduction in the flow noise level of nearly 50% (6 dB) for frequencies below 10 Hz was found. Based upon an analysis of numerical simulation data, it is suggested that the reduction in drag and noise can be attributed to a reduced level of shear stress and change in the kinematic structure of the turbulence, both of which occur in the immediate vicinity of the highly hydrophobic surface. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source

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