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Laberg J.S.,University of Tromso | Baeten N.J.,University of Tromso | Lagstad P.,Norwegian Defence Research Establishment Instituttvn | Forwick M.,University of Tromso | Vorren T.O.,University of Tromso
Marine Geology | Year: 2013

High-resolution swath-bathymetry data integrated with sub-bottom profiles and single-channel seismics reveal an 18km long, up to 1000m wide and 10-15m deep crack located approx. 4km upslope from a slide scar on the continental slope off northern Norway. This crack is formed by subsidence of the sea-floor sediments to a depth of 120m due to downslope movement of an ~80km2 large sediment slab that represents the final stage of retrogressive mass wasting in this area. From its morphological freshness, the crack this is inferred to have formed sometime during the last 13cal. ka BP. These findings add to our understanding of the origin of sea floor cracks on passive continental margins where explanations as slip of normal faults or gas expulsion from the dissociation of gas hydrates previously have been suggested for the formation of cracks in similar settings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Okkenhaug G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Okkenhaug G.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Grasshorn Gebhardt K.-A.,University of Oslo | Amstaetter K.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2016

Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349 μgL-1) and Pb (7-1495μgPbL-1) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures.Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe°) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Margolis L.M.,U.S. Army | Murphy N.E.,U.S. Army | Martini S.,Norwegian Defence Research Establishment Instituttvn | Spitz M.G.,U.S. Army | And 9 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2 18O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([15N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day-1) increased (P < 0.01) from (mean ± SD (95% confidence interval)) 3098 ± 236 (2985, 3212) during MTT to 3461 ± 586 (3178, 3743) during SKI, while protein (g·kg-1·day-1) intake remained constant (MTT, 1.59 ± 0.33 (1.51, 1.66); and SKI, 1.71 ± 0.55 (1.58, 1.85)). Energy expenditure increased (P < 0.05) during SKI (6851 ± 562 (6580, 7122)) compared with MTT (5480 ± 389 (5293, 5668)) and exceeded energy intake. Protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown were all increased (P < 0.05) 24%, 18%, and 27%, respectively, during SKI compared with baseline and MTT. Whole-body protein balance was lower (P < 0.05) during SKI (–1.41 ± 1.11 (–1.98, –0.84) g·kg-1·10 h) than MTT and baseline. Muscle damage and soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits. © 2014 National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.

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