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Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency | Forrestal M.J.,1805 Newton Pl | Warren T.L.,3804 Shenandoah Pl
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. | Year: 2010

We conducted an experimental and analytical study to understand the mechanisms and dominant parameters for ogive-nose rods and 7.62 mm APM2 bullets that perforate 5083-H116 aluminum armor plates. The 20-mm-diameter, 95-mm-long, ogive-nose, 197 g, hard steel rods were launched with a gas gun to striking velocities between 230-370 m/s. The 7.62-mm-diameter, 10.7 g, APM2 bullet consists of a brass jacket, lead filler, and a 5.25 g, ogivenose, hard steel core. The brass and lead were stripped from the APM2 bullets by the targets, so we conducted ballistic experiments with both the APM2 bullets and only the hard steel cores. These projectiles were fired from a rifle to striking velocities between 480-950 m/s. Targets were 20, 40, and 60-mm-thick, where the 40 and 60-mm-thick targets were made up of layered 20-mm-thick plates in contact with each other. The measured ballistic-limit velocities for the APM2 bullets were 4, 6, and 12% smaller than that for the hard steel cores for the 20, 40, and 60-mm-thick targets, respectively. Thus, the brass jacket and lead filler had a relatively small effect on the perforation process. In addition, we conducted large strain, compression tests on the 5083-H116 aluminum plate material for input to perforation equations derived from a cavity-expansion model for the ogive-nose rods and steel core projectiles. Predictions for the rod and hard steel core projectiles are shown to be in good agreement with measured ballistic-limit and residual velocity data. These experimental results and perforation equations display the dominant problem parameters. © Society for Experimental Mechanics 2009.


Forrestal M.J.,1805 Newton P1 | Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. | Year: 2010

We conducted an experimental and analytical study to better understand the mechanisms and dominant parameters for 7.62 mm APM2 bullets that perforate 7075-T651 aluminum armor plates. The 7.62-mm-diameter, 10.7 g, APM2 bullet consists of a brass jacket, lead filler, and a 5.25 g, ogive-nose, hard steel core. The brass and lead were stripped from the APM2 bullets by the targets, so we conducted ballistic experiments with both the APM2 bullets and only the hard steel cores. These projectiles were fired from a rifle to striking velocities between 600 and 1,100 m/s. Targets were 20 and 40-mm-thick, where the 40-mm-thick targets were made up of layered 20-mm-thick plates in contact with each other. The measured ballistic-limit velocities for the APM2 bullets were 1% and 8% smaller than that for the hard steel cores for the 20 and 40-mm-thick targets, respectively. Thus, the brass jacket and lead filler had a relatively small effect on the perforation process. Predictions from a cylindrical cavity-expansion model for the hard steel core projectiles are shown to be in good agreement with measured ballistic-limit and residual velocity data. The results of this study complement our previous paper with 5083-H116 aluminum target plates in that the ultimate tensile strength of 7075-T651 is about 1.8 times greater than that of 5083-H116. We also present a scaling law that shows a square root relationship between ballistic-limit velocity and plate thickness and material strength. © Society for Experimental Mechanics 2010.


Pedersen K.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Pedersen K.O.,Sintef | Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency | Hopperstad O.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

The fracture behaviour of the aluminium alloy AA7075-T651 is investigated for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions and different stress states. The fracture surfaces obtained in tensile tests on smooth and notched axisymmetric specimens and compression tests on cylindrical specimens are compared to the fracture surfaces that occur when a projectile, having either a blunt or an ogival nose shape, strikes a 20. mm thick plate of the aluminium alloy. The stress state in the impact tests is much more complex and the strain rate significantly higher than in the tensile and compression tests. Optical and scanning electron microscopes are used in the investigation. The fracture surface obtained in tests with smooth axisymmetric specimens indicates that the crack growth is partly intergranular along the grain boundaries or precipitation free zones and partly transgranular by void formation around fine and coarse intermetallic particles. When the stress triaxiality is increased through the introduction of a notch in the tensile specimen, delamination along the grain boundaries in the rolling plane is observed perpendicular to the primary crack. In through-thickness compression tests, the crack propagates within an intense shear band that has orientation about 45° with respect to the load axis. The primary failure modes of the target plate during impact were adiabatic shear banding when struck by a blunt projectile and ductile hole-enlargement when struck by an ogival projectile. Delamination and fragmentation of the plates occurred for both loading cases, but was stronger for the ogival projectile. The delamination in the rolling plane was attributed to intergranular fracture caused by tensile stresses occurring during the penetration event. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency | Olovsson L.,IMPETUS Afea AB | Hanssen A.G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2011

The structural response of a stainless steel plate subjected to the combined blast and sand impact loading from a buried charge has been investigated using a fully coupled approach in which a discrete particle method is used to determine the load due to the high explosive detonation products, the air shock and the sand, and a finite element method predicts the plate deflection. The discrete particle method is based on rigid, spherical particles that transfer forces between each other during collisions. This method, which is based on a Lagrangian formulation, has several advantages over coupled LagrangianEulerian approaches as both advection errors and severe contact problems are avoided. The method has been validated against experimental tests where spherical 150 g C-4 charges were detonated at various stand-off distances from square, edge-clamped 3.4 mm thick AL-6XN stainless steel plates. The experiments were carried out for a bare charge, a charge enclosed in dry sand and a charge enclosed in fully saturated wet sand. The particle-based method is able to describe the physical interactions between the explosive reaction products and soil particles leading to a realistic prediction of the sand ejecta speed and momentum. Good quantitative agreement between the experimental and predicted deformation response of the plates is also obtained. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gruben G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Fagerholt E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hopperstad O.S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency
European Journal of Mechanics, A/Solids | Year: 2011

In this study, the fracture characteristics of a cold-rolled, low-strength, high-hardening steel sheet (Docol 600DL) under quasi-static loading conditions are established using five different test set-ups. In all the tests, the sheet material is initially in plane-stress states. Optical field measurements with digital image correlation were used to determine the strain fields to fracture, to calibrate the material model for the sheet material and to validate the finite element models of the tests. Based on the field measurements, a novel method for experimental determination of the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter is presented for isotropic materials and plane-stress states. These parameters were also obtained from finite element simulations. Comparisons show that the two methods give approximately the same average values of the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter up to fracture. The sheet material displays only moderate variation in ductility as a function of the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter within the investigated range of these parameters. The most critical through-thickness position in the specimens was found to be in the centre where the strains and the stress triaxiality are highest. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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