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Ndungu K.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Beylich B.A.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Staalstrom A.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Oxnevad S.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3–25 million t of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the > 2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150 m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67 t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200 m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100 g/kg d.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1 mg/kg d.w. at 100 m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30 m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Ferraro G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Baschek B.,Federal Institute of Hydrology | de Montpellier G.,Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models MUMM | Njoten O.,Norwegian Coastal Administration | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

Satellite services that deliver information about possible oil spills at sea currently use different labels of "confidence" to describe the detections based on radar image processing. A common approach is to use a classification differentiating between low, medium and high levels of confidence. There is an ongoing discussion on the suitability of the existing classification systems of possible oil spills detected by radar satellite images with regard to the relevant significance and correspondence to user requirements. This paper contains a basic analysis of user requirements, current technical possibilities of satellite services as well as proposals for a redesign of the classification system as an evolution towards a more structured alert system. This research work offers a first review of implemented methodologies for the categorisation of detected oil spills, together with the proposal of explorative ideas evaluated by the European Group of Experts on satellite Monitoring of sea-based oil Pollution (EGEMP). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bjerkemo O.K.,Norwegian Coastal Administration | Huisman J.,Ministry for Infrastructure and Environment
Handbook of Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2016

Preventing maritime disasters is very important. Accidental or illegal pollution from ships is a threat to the maritime environment. The Greater North Sea and its wider approaches are one of the busiest and intensively used maritime areas in the world. With the ever-increasing competition for space comes an increased risk of accidents that could result in marine pollution; the Bonn Agreement contracting parties decided to establish the BE-AWARE project to undertake the first area-wide risk assessment of marine pollution using a common methodology that allows the risk to be mapped and compared under different scenarios. Under the International Convention on Marine Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), the whole of the North Sea area is a 'special area' for oil discharges; any oily discharge that is visible as a sheen on the water is illegal. The number of oil slicks detected shows that there is still work to do to bring to justice the offenders responsible for those slicks. The North Sea Network of Investigators and Prosecutors and the Bonn Agreement work together on enforcement. The contracting parties have also undertaken to conduct surveillance of the area as an aid to detecting and combating pollution and to preventing violation of anti-pollution regulations, known as MARPOL. Satellite surveillance also plays an (still growing) important role in the detection of possible pollution at sea. The contracting parties have developed an Aerial Operations Handbook (AOH). © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Faksness L.-G.,Sintef | Daling P.,Sintef | Altin D.,BioTrix | Dolva H.,Norwegian Coastal Administration | And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Cotton C.F.,Florida State University | Cotton C.F.,Savannah State University | Dean Grubbs R.,Florida State University | Dyb J.E.,Norwegian Coastal Administration | And 2 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2015

Modes of reproduction and embryonic development vary greatly among the elasmobranchs, and prior studies have suggested that the energetic toll of embryogenesis in lecithotrophic species depletes embryonic organic matter by 20% or more. Matrotrophic species experience a lesser reduction or an increase in organic matter during embryogenesis. To investigate the maternal-embryonic nutritional relationship, we measured changes in organic matter from fertilization to near-parturition in embryos of Centrophorus granulosus and Etmopterus princeps. Embryos of C. granulosus experienced a reduction of 19.5% in organic matter, while E. princeps embryos experienced a reduction of 7.7% in organic matter over the course of embryonic development, suggesting some level of matrotrophy occurs, particularly for the latter species. Uterine villi were present in both species and developed concurrently with the embryos, increasing in length and thickness while becoming progressively vascularized. Embryos of C. granulosus were dissected to track the partitioning of water, organic matter, and inorganic matter to the liver, external yolk sac, internal yolk sac, digestive tract, and evicerated body throughout development. Mating was aseasonal for both species and spatially-mediated segregation by sex and maturity stage was observed. Ovarian cycles were concurrent for C. granulosus and consecutive for E. princeps. Size at maturity for C. granulosus was determined to be 111. cm TL for males and 143. cm TL for females, with an average fecundity of 5.3 embryos (range=4-7). Size at maturity for E. princeps was determined to be 56.5. cm TL for males and 61. cm TL for females north of the Azores and 54. cm TL for males and 69. cm TL for females near the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. Average fecundity was 11.2 embryos (range=7-18) for this species. This is the first reporting of reproductive parameters for these two species, and the information provided will be valuable for informing stock assessment models in areas where these species are fished. © 2015.


PubMed | BioTrix, Norwegian Coastal Administration and Sintef
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities.


« PennDOT selects Trillium CNG team for $84.5M CNG fueling station project | Main | Navigant Research projects annual capacity of second-life EV batteries for stationary energy storage to reach 11 GWh by 2035 » Saft won a major contract from Rolls Royce Marine to supply the specialized marine lithium-ion (Seanergy) battery system for an innovative hybrid multi-application vessel under construction in Denmark for Kystverket, the Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA). It is Saft’s second major contract signed since the end of last year in the marine segment. The high energy battery system onboard the OV Bøkfjord will help Kystverket meet its ambitious climate and environmental targets, reduce maintenance and deliver 25% fuel savings. The multi-purpose workboat is under construction at the Hvide shipyard in Denmark, where it will be fitted with a Rolls Royce hybrid power system that includes diesel gensets and a Saft Li-ion Super Phosphate (SLFP) battery system integrated into the vessel’s automation and Power Management System. The battery system will play a critical role in meeting peak power demand—for example when the vessel is using its dynamic positioning system (DPS). Not only will the battery enable the ship to operate using only one diesel engine, but by smoothing out the peaks and troughs in demand the engine will also operate at its peak efficiency point. This offers the possibility for fuel savings of up to 25% together with further operational savings resulting from the reduced requirement for maintenance of the gensets. The Saft battery system has also been sized to supply hotel loads when the OV Bøkfjord is berthed overnight in a dock that does not have a shore to ship power connection. To ensure that the OV Bøkfjord will be complete in time for delivery in summer 2016, Saft has scheduled the battery system for fast delivery in May 2016, complete with certification from DNV GL, within four months of receiving the order. The air-cooled battery system will have an energy storage capacity of 857 kWh, a nominal voltage of 647 V and a maximum voltage of 745 V. The Rolls Royce system is based on Saft’s patent-pending Li-ion Super-Iron Phosphate (SLFP) technology, which received Bureau Veritas certification in early 2015 and which is on course to receive certification from Lloyds Register and DNV GL. As a Li-ion technology, SLFP has the advantages of high efficiency, long calendar and cycling life, fast-charge capability and high power output. Compared with other Li-ion chemistries, SLFP technology is particularly well suited to civil marine applications as it delivers reliable performance over a wide temperature range, has high tolerance to electrical and mechanical abuse, and a high inherent level of safety.

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