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Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Christophersen K.-A.,University of Oslo
Computers and Education | Year: 2013

During the last decade, information and communication technology has been given an increasingly large importance in our society. There seems to be a consensus regarding the necessity of supporting and developing school-based digital competence. In order to sustain digital inclusion, schools need to identify digital deficiencies and digital achievements. The concept of digital competence is scrutinized and discussed. This paper presents a research study including 4087 students from 24 upper secondary schools. The aim of the study was to scrutinize factors predicting students' digital competence, here operationalised as Digital judgements, To acquire and process digital information and To produce digital information. Analysis revealed substantial variation in digital competence between schools and within schools. The conditions at home, i.e. language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic aspirations did predict digital competence, and explained a substantial share of the total variation in digital competence. There are differences in what students mastered with ICT, and therefore, the students have various requirements. Further, the students attend heterogenic schools facing different kinds of challenges. Hopefully, the schools and teachers are willing to use the results from the test, and moreover, the test results can contribute to needs-based interventions and follow-ups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Ottestad G.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Throndsen I.,University of Oslo
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2015

Since 2006, the ability to use information and communication technology (ICT) has been included as a key competence in the curriculum in Norway, and specific competence aims are developed for most grades. The aim of this study was to identify students' ability to use ICT according to the competence aims, and to examine factors that can predict students' digital competence. A sample of 1793 students and 125 school leaders from 125 schools was used. The findings show variation in digital competence both between students and between schools. Results from a multilevel analysis showed that higher levels of mastery orientation and self-efficacy (i.e., motivation) and the students' family background (i.e., language integration and the number of books at home) were predictors of students' levels of digital competence. Additionally, when school leaders reported higher levels of culture for professional development among the teachers at school, increased levels of digital competence were found among students. Challenges for schools and teachers to support students' motivation and to emphasize digital inclusion still prevail. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Arnseth H.C.,University of Oslo
International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society | Year: 2013

During the last decade, the use of social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, has proliferated. The aim of this study was to examine the use of social networking in school among Norwegian 9th graders and to identify factors to predict use of social networking sites at school. The sample consisted of 918 students from 51 schools. Results showed that when students use social networking at home, use computers in student-led activities, and use computers at school, their use of social networking at school increased. Students with high prior achievements and a mastery orientation to learning used social networking at school to a lesser extent than those without. To facilitate students' uses of computers at school, our results suggest that more attention should be given to developing students' orientations towards the mastery of learning and to providing students with training in how to conduct student-led activities using computers. © Common Ground, Ove Edvard Hatlevik, Hans Christian Arnseth, All Rights Reserved.


In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to identify and categorize students based on how frequent they use ICT. In this paper, we have chosen six ICT user profiles in order to distinguish between leisure activities and school activities. Each ICT user-profile was computed by combining two dimensions (frequency of ICT use for leisure purposes and frequency of ICT use for school purposes). We tried to identify how students' perception of their ability to solve a task is related to both their gender and how frequently they use ICT. The results showed that student's self-efficacy varied between the ICT user profiles. The findings showed how an increased level of self-efficacy in ICT High-level tasks is related to both an increased level of leisure use and with an increased level of educational use. Further, our findings provided evidence in support of positive relationships (for both males and the females) between Self-efficacy in ICT and the ICT user profiles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Gudmundsdottir G.B.,Norwegian Center for in Education
First Monday | Year: 2013

The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has been influencing our society, including the educational sector. In this paper we explore students' information literacy at the completion of lower secondary school in Norway. Our aim is to measure students' information literacy at the end of Grade 10, and to identify factors explaining the variations observed. Factors relating to the digital divide, e.g., books at home, language spoken at home and academic aspirations are explored in this study. The sample consists of 3,727 students from 50 lower secondary schools located in a Norwegian city with relatively high immigration rate and various ethnicities. Through statistical multilevel analysis our findings indicate that the of books at home, the language spoken at home and the students' academic aspirations explain a very large proportion of the variation in information literacy between schools, and a considerable part of the variation between students-within-schools. © First Monday, 1995-2013.


Ottestad G.,Norwegian Center for in Education
Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy | Year: 2013

International literature and Norwegian policy documents both identify school leadership as essential in order to implement ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in teaching and learning practices in the classrooms. Data from an online survey in 2009 of 247 school leaders and 386 teachers from Norwegian primary and lower secondary schools are used to examine if conditions promoted by school leaders are associated with the use of ICT in classrooms by teachers. The research question posed in this paper is if the attitudes and behaviours of school leaders with regard to ICT in their schools correlate with the attitudes and behaviours of teachers? To answer the question, four construct variables are utilised as indicators of school leadership for ICT. These indicators are informative on school leaders' decisions and beliefs regarding their schools as ICT-using organizations. Results showed that the indicators were correlated with the time teachers spend on ICT in the classrooms and for administrative use, their use of common digital tools and with a construct measuring the teachers' attitudes towards innovative and student-centred pedagogy (life-long learning attitudes). The indicators of school leadership for ICT carry traits of perspectives from distributed, transformational and pedagogical leadership, but more research is needed in order to align the practice-based indicators with more overarching theoretical concepts © Universitetsforlaget.


Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Guomundsdottir G.B.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Loi M.,Norwegian Center for in Education
Computers and Education | Year: 2015

This paper addresses digital diversity among upper secondary students. Since 2006 digital skills and competence has been embedded as key competence in the Norwegian national curriculum. A sample of 593 Norwegian students from 43 upper secondary schools participated in a survey with a digital competence quiz and a self-report questionnaire. Analysis showed differences in students' digital competence and indication of digital diversity on both student and school level. A multilevel analysis reveals that cultural capital, language integration at home, self-efficacy, strategic use of information and average grades of the students predict 20% of the variation in students' digital competence score and 49% of the variation between schools' average digital competence score. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hatlevik O.E.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Gudmundsdottir G.B.,Norwegian Center for in Education | Loi M.,Norwegian Center for in Education
Journal of Information Technology Education | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students' digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students' conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students' family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students' level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.


Ottestad G.,Norwegian Center for in Education
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2010

Three Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, participated in the IEA SITES 2006 study. All the three countries have launched huge policy and investment programmes to promote digital literacy and readiness for the information age. In relation to the remarkable Finnish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, it is interesting to see if the Finnish school system may be better suited to ground and contextualize pedagogical practice with Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) than the Danish and Norwegian counterparts. One main difference is that the Finnish system seems to anchor decisions about and interpretations on how ICT should be utilized stronger at the local level than the two other systems. One of the general goals in the policy programmes is to get teachers to innovate with ICT in the classrooms. The Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES) 2006 indicators for two innovative pedagogical orientations, lifelong learning orientation and connectedness are utilized to compare teachers from the three nations. The main findings is that Finnish teachers are either not differing or they are scoring significantly lower on the two indicators than teachers from Denmark or Norway. The exception is Finnish science teachers who are more inclined towards using ICT in lifelong learning practices than their Danish and Norwegian counterparts. Generally, the Finnish teachers seem to be more autonomous in their pedagogical choices but may also be more conservative than the Danish and Norwegian teachers in making use of ICT. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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