Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation

Drøbak, Norway

Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation

Drøbak, Norway
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Jones J.M.,Staffordshire University | Skaga N.O.,University of Oslo | SOvik S.,Akershus University Hospital | SOvik S.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014

Introduction Anatomic injury, physiological derangement, age, and injury mechanism are well-founded predictors of trauma outcome. We aimed to develop and validate the first Scandinavian survival prediction model for trauma. Methods Eligible were patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevål within 24 h after injury with Injury Severity Score ≥ 10, proximal penetrating injuries or received by a trauma team. The derivation dataset comprised 5363 patients (August 2000 to July 2006); the validation dataset comprised 2517 patients (August 2006 to July 2008). Exclusion because of missing data was < 1%. Outcome was 30-day mortality. Logistic regression analysis incorporated fractional polynomial modelling and interaction effects. Model validation included a calibration plot, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The new survival prediction model included the anatomic New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Triage Revised Trauma Score (T-RTS, comprising Glascow Coma Scale score, respiratory rate, and systolic blood pressure), age, pre-injury co-morbidity scored according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System (ASA-PS), and an interaction term. Fractional polynomial analysis supported treating NISS and T-RTS as linear functions and age as cubic. Model discrimination between survivors and non-survivors was excellent. Area (95% confidence interval) under the ROC curve was 0.966 (0.959-0.972) in the derivation and 0.946 (0.930-0.962) in the validation dataset. Overall, low mortality and skewed survival probability distribution invalidated model calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Conclusions The Norwegian survival prediction model in trauma (NORMIT) is a promising alternative to existing prediction models. External validation of the model in other trauma populations is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Lorem T.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Lorem T.,University of Oslo | Steen P.A.,University of Oslo | Wik L.,University of Oslo
Resuscitation | Year: 2010

Background: There is mismatch in age between those usually trained in CPR and those witnessing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with mean age reported at 30 and 65 years old, respectively. Two tier mass CPR self-training with manikin-DVD sets using school children has been reported. We have studied high school students as first tier and encouraged them to train older people. Methods: Four separate groups were tested: students before or after training and second tier adults before or after training with first tier students as facilitators. CPR performance was videotaped and electronically documented on a Skillmeter Anne manikin. Results: Each student reported to train mean 2.8 extra persons, and 43% were aged 50 or older. Pre-training results were poor, while first and second tier persons performed equally well after training, and within ERC guideline recommendations. Conclusions: People trained at home with a manikin-DVD set and high school students as facilitators were able to perform CPR as recommended by ERC guidelines with a reasonable percentage aged 50 or older. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hagemo J.S.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Hagemo J.S.,University of Oslo
Transfusion | Year: 2013

Increased focus on traumatic coagulopathy over the last decade has led to more aggressive use of hemostatic agents in resuscitation of the massively bleeding patient. Novel formulations of plasma factors and other therapeutics have opened for early intervention to prevent coagulopathy and may even be utilized in the prehospital setting. Careful selection of patients to receive hemostatic agents early during the resuscitation is of great importance due to the potential detrimental effects of this treatment. Several studies have identified coagulation parameters as reliable predictors of massive transfusion, even very early after trauma. Prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and viscoelastic tests such as thrombelastography (TEG) and rotational thrombelastometry (RoTEM) have proved to be of value in predicting massive transfusion when performed in-hospital. PT/INR appears to be slightly more accurate than the other parameters, with a reported sensitivity of 84.8% and an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.87. Comparison studies on PT/INR, aPTT, and viscoelastic assays do suggest that caution should be taken when point-of-care (POC) methods, as opposed to conventional laboratory analyses, are used. Novel techniques for POC measurement of fibrinogen levels are currently being developed, and preclinical data suggest acceptable agreement with conventional methods. A number of factors should be considered regarding the feasibility of POC tests in the prehospital environment. In addition to environmental factors such as temperature, altitude, and humidity, electromagnetic interference issues and operators' skills must be taken into account. Coagulation parameters appear to be a useful tool in identifying patients with increased risk of massive bleeding at an early stage. Further studies are needed to determine if prehospital intervention based on POC analyses improves outcome.


Oveland N.P.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Lossius H.M.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Lossius H.M.,University of Stavanger | Lossius H.M.,University of Bergen | And 4 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013

Background: Although thoracic ultrasonography accurately determines the size and extent of occult pneumothoraces (PTXs) in spontaneously breathing patients, there is uncertainty about patients receiving positive pressure ventilation. We compared the lung point (ie, the area where the collapsed lung still adheres to the inside of the chest wall) using the two modalities ultrasonography and CT scanning to determine whether ultrasonography can be used reliably to assess PTX progression in a positive-pressure-ventilated porcine model. Methods: Air was introduced in incremental steps into fi ve hemithoraces in three intubated porcine models. The lung point was identifi ed on ultrasound imaging and referenced against the lateral limit of the intrapleural air space identifi ed on the CT scans. The distance from the sternum to the lung point (S-LP) was measured on the CT scans and correlated to the insuffl ated air volume. Results: The mean total difference between the 131 ultrasound and CT scan lung points was 6.8 mm (SD, 7.1 mm; range, 0.0-29.3 mm). A mixed-model regression analysis showed a linear relationship between the S-LP distances and the PTX volume ( P , .001). Conclusions: In an experimental porcine model, we found a linear relation between the PTX size and the lateral position of the lung point. The accuracy of thoracic ultrasonography for identifying the lung point (and, thus, the PTX extent) was comparable to that of CT imaging. These clinically relevant results suggest that ultrasonography may be safe and accurate in monitoring PTX progression during positive pressure ventilation. CHEST 2013; 143(2):415-422 © 2013 American College of Chest Physicians.


Lockey D.J.,North Bristol NHS Trust | Lockey D.J.,Barts Health NHS Trust | Crewdson K.,Barts Health NHS Trust | Lossius H.M.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Lossius H.M.,University of Stavanger
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Advanced airway management is one of the most controversial areas of pre-hospital trauma care and is carried out by different providers using different techniques in different Emergency Medical Services systems. Pre-hospital anaesthesia is the standard of care for trauma patients arriving in the emergency department with airway compromise. A small proportion of severely injured patients who cannot be managed with basic airway management require pre-hospital anaesthesia to avoid death or hypoxic brain injury. The evidence base for advanced airway management is inconsistent, contradictory and rarely reports all key data. There is evidence that poorly performed advanced airway management is harmful and that less-experienced providers have higher intubation failure rates and complication rates. International guidelines carry many common messages about the system requirements for the practice of advanced airway management. Pre-hospital rapid sequence induction (RSI) should be practiced to the same standard as emergency department RSI. Many in-hospital standards such as monitoring, equipment, and provider competence can be achieved. Pre-hospital and emergency in-hospital RSI has been modified from standard RSI techniques to improve patient safety, physiological disturbance, and practicality. Examples include the use of opioids and long-acting neuromuscular blocking agents, ventilation before intubation, and the early release of cricoid pressure to improve laryngoscopic view. Pre-hospital RSI is indicated in a small proportion of trauma patients. Where pre-hospital anaesthesia cannot be carried out to a high standard by competent providers, excellent quality basic airway management should be the mainstay of management. © 2014 The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.


Burman R.A.,University of Bergen | Zakariassen E.,University of Bergen | Zakariassen E.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Hunskaar S.,University of Bergen
BMC Family Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Chest pain is a common diagnostic challenge in primary care and diagnostic measures are often aimed at confirming or ruling out acute ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate management of patients with chest pain out-of-hours, including the use of ECG and laboratory tests, assessment of severity of illness, and the physicians' decisions on treatment and admittance to hospital. Methods. Data were registered prospectively from four Norwegian casualty clinics. Data from structured telephone interviews with 100 physicians shortly after a consultation with a patient presenting at the casualty clinic with "chest pain" were analysed. Results: A total of 832 patients with chest pain were registered. The first 100 patients (corresponding doctor-patient pairs) were included in the study according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Median age of included patients was 46 years, men constituted 58%. An ECG was taken in 92 of the patients. Of the 24 patients categorised to acute level of response, 15 had a NACA-score indicating a potentially or definitely life-threatening medical situation. 50 of the patients were admitted to a hospital for further management, of which 43 were thought to have ischaemic heart disease. Musculoskeletal pain was the second most common cause of pain (n = 22). Otherwise the patients were thought to have a variety of conditions, most of them managed at a primary care level. Conclusions: Patients with chest pain presenting at out-of-hours services in Norway are investigated for acute heart disease, but less than half are admitted to hospital for probable acute coronary syndrome, and only a minority is given emergency treatment for acute coronary syndrome. A wide variety of other diagnoses are suggested by the doctors for patients presenting with chest pain. Deciding the appropriate level of response for such patients is a difficult task, and both over- and under-triage probably occur in out-of-hours primary care. © 2014 Burman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sundstrom T.,University of Bergen | Asbjornsen H.,University of Bergen | Habiba S.,University of Bergen | Sunde G.A.,University of Bergen | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2014

The cervical collar has been routinely used for trauma patients for more than 30 years and is a hallmark of state-of-the-art prehospital trauma care. However, the existing evidence for this practice is limited: Randomized, controlled trials are largely missing, and there are uncertain effects on mortality, neurological injury, and spinal stability. Even more concerning, there is a growing body of evidence and opinion against the use of collars. It has been argued that collars cause more harm than good, and that we should simply stop using them. In this critical review, we discuss the pros and cons of collar use in trauma patients and reflect on how we can move our clinical practice forward. Conclusively, we propose a safe, effective strategy for prehospital spinal immobilization that does not include routine use of collars. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.


Bergum D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bergum D.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | Nordseth T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Nordseth T.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Resuscitation | Year: 2015

Background and methods: Do emergency teams (ETs) consider the underlying causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during advanced life support (ALS)? In a 4.5-year prospective observational study, an aetiology study group examined 302 episodes of IHCA. The purpose was to investigate the causes and cause-related survival and to evaluate whether these causes were recognised by the ETs. Results: In 258 (85%) episodes, the cause of IHCA was reliably determined. The cause was correctly recognised by the ET in 198 of 302 episodes (66%). In the majority of episodes, cardiac causes (156, 60%) or hypoxic causes (51, 20%) were present. The cause-related survival was 30% for cardiac aetiology and 37% for hypoxic aetiology. The initial cardiac rhythm was pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in 144 episodes (48%) followed by asystole in 70 episodes (23%) and combined ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) in 83 episodes (27%). Seventy-one patients (25%) survived to hospital discharge. The median delay to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was 1. min (inter-quartile range 0-1. min). Conclusions: Various cardiac and hypoxic aetiologies dominated. In two-thirds of IHCA episodes, the underlying cause was correctly identified by the ET, i.e. according to the findings of the aetiology study group. © 2014 The Authors.


Sollid S.J.M.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation
Journal of Patient Safety | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES: There is little knowledge about which elements of health care simulation are most effective in improving patient safety. When empirical evidence is lacking, a consensus statement can help define priorities in, for example, education and research. A consensus process was therefore initiated to define priorities in health care simulation that contribute the most to improve patient safety. METHODS: An international group of experts took part in a 4-stage consensus process based on a modified nominal group technique. Stages 1 to 3 were based on electronic communication; stage 4 was a 2-day consensus meeting at the Utstein Abbey in Norway. The goals of stage 4 were to agree on the top 5 topics in health care simulation that contribute the most to patient safety, identify the patient safety problems they relate to, and suggest solutions with implementation strategies for these problems. RESULTS: The expert group agreed on the following topics: technical skills, nontechnical skills, system probing, assessment, and effectiveness. For each topic, 5 patient safety problems were suggested that each topic might contribute to solve. Solutions to these problems and implementation strategies for these solutions were identified for technical skills, nontechnical skills, and system probing. In the case of assessment and effectiveness, the expert group found it difficult to suggest solutions and implementation strategies mainly because of lacking consensus on metrics and methodology. CONCLUSIONS: The expert group recommends that the 5 topics identified in this consensus process should be the main focus when health care simulation is implemented in patient safety curricula.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved


Fevang E.,Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation
Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine | Year: 2011

Physician-manned emergency medical teams supplement other emergency medical services in some countries. These teams are often selectively deployed to patients who are considered likely to require critical care treatment in the pre-hospital phase. The evidence base for guidelines for pre-hospital triage and immediate medical care is often poor. We used a recognised consensus methodology to define key priority areas for research within the subfield of physician-provided pre-hospital critical care. A European expert panel participated in a consensus process based upon a four-stage modified nominal group technique that included a consensus meeting. The expert panel concluded that the five most important areas for further research in the field of physician-based pre-hospital critical care were the following: Appropriate staffing and training in pre-hospital critical care and the effect on outcomes, advanced airway management in pre-hospital care, definition of time windows for key critical interventions which are indicated in the pre-hospital phase of care, the role of pre-hospital ultrasound and dispatch criteria for pre-hospital critical care services. A modified nominal group technique was successfully used by a European expert group to reach consensus on the most important research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care.

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