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Asheim L.J.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Dahl R.E.,University of Stavanger | Kumbhakar S.C.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Oglend A.,University of Stavanger | Tveteras R.,University of Stavanger
Marine Resource Economics | Year: 2011

The short-term relationships between the supply of farmed salmon and its market and biological determinants are not fully understood. In this article an econometric model of salmon supply is estimated exploiting monthly data on Norwegian salmon aquaculture. Our estimates indicate that supply has shifted over time due to innovations in several areas. We find that the price of farmed salmon has a limited effect on supplied quantity, giving a highly inelastic short-run supply elasticity. The biomass and seasonal factors are the main determinants of shifts in salmon supply in the short term. Copyright © 2011 MRE Foundation, Inc.

Refsgaard K.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Johnson T.G.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Johnson T.G.,University of Missouri
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2010

This paper outlines the development and use of a simulation model designed to analyse multifunctional agriculture and rural development policy. The model was the core of the EU research project, TOP-MARD (Towards a Policy Model for Multifunctional Agriculture and Rural Development). The TOP-MARD project explored ways in which both market and non-market 'functions' of agriculture and farm households interact with the process of economic development and the quality of life in a variety of rural territories, and how different kinds of policy influence these relationships. A model was developed in common between 11 European research partners and then adapted to the 11 study regions. In this paper the model is applied to the Norwegian study region, Hordaland County. The study concludes that reducing agricultural subsidies can lead to improvements in regional economic performance by releasing labour and capital to uses with higher returns and by creating positive feedback to the economy by improving environmental quality and overall quality of life. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Storm H.,University of Bonn | Mittenzwei K.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Heckelei T.,Economic and Agricultural Policy
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2015

We argue that farm survival is influenced by neighboring farmers' characteristics and, in particular, by the direct payments neighboring farmers receive. The article shows empirically that these interdependencies are crucial for an assessment of the effects of direct payments on farm survival. Using spatially explicit farm-level data for nearly all Norwegian farms, a spatial probit model is estimated to explain farm survival from 1999 to 2009 controlling for spatial farm interdependence. We show that ignoring spatial interdependencies between farms leads to a substantial overestimation of the effects of direct payments on farm survival. To our knowledge, this article is the first attempt to empirically analyze the importance of neighboring interdependencies for the effects of direct payments on farm survival. © The Author 2015.

Berglann H.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2012

This paper presents a simple system for efficient regulation under asymmetric information. Each firm's income is controlled by a tax that depends on the firm's own output and on a parameter construed as a share permit. These "shares of total expected output" lower a firm's tax burden and are acquired in a competitive market. By employing this scheme, the planner only requires knowledge of marginal damage to induce the first-best outcome. Relative to a traditional cap-and-trade approach the system increases expected social welfare. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Refsgaard K.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Bergsdal H.,Environmental Systems Analysis MiSA | Berglann H.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Pettersen J.,Environmental Systems Analysis MiSA
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

This paper presents an assessment of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and associated land use for the production of milk, beef, grain and potatoes. It compares the less intensive (i.e. organic) farming system with the more intensive (i.e. conventional) food production system. The emission sources, trade-offs with land and potential for reduction of GHG emissions were analysed. The sources for farm accounts data on inputs and outputs are representative farm types constructed from data from the Norwegian Farm Accountancy Data Network. The analysis was carried out with life cycle assessment, including processes from manufacturing of inputs to farms, and on-farm production up to the farm gate. The results show that it is worthwhile considering a greater proportion of food energy from vegetable rather than from animal products, analysing grass-based meat production in more detail and reducing mineral fertilizer use. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Lamprinakis L.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute NILF | Fulton M.,University of Saskatchewan
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

This article examines the takeover of a cooperative (Dairyworld) by an investor-owned firm (Saputo) that was not previously present in the industry, determines if this takeover generates greater returns for the investor-owned firms (IOF), and on the basis of this evidence makes some inferences about the behavior and performance of cooperatives and IOFs. The empirical evidence strongly supports the conclusion that Saputo's stock price rose with its takeover announcement. This outcome is consistent with a number of explanations, including that Saputo was unaffected by hubris, a factor often suggested as the reason that many firms overbid when they undertake acquisitions. Dairyworld's poor liquidity and capital shortage problems, as well as a limited number of suitors, may have weakened its bargaining position in its dealings with Saputo. The observed increase in Saputo's stock price is also consistent with the possibility that, by taking over a cooperative, Saputo was able to decrease competition and thus increase its profits. A fruitful area for future research would be a rigorous theoretical and empirical determination of the impact that these various factors have on acquisition profitability. Such analysis is required before inferences about the behavior and performance of cooperatives and IOFs can be fully answered. © 2011 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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