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Bonesmo H.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute | Beauchemin K.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Harstad O.M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Skjelvag A.O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

To increase food production while minimizing its influence on climate change, farming systems in future will need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product (i.e., GHG intensity). To assess the level and variation in GHG emissions intensity among Norwegian dairy farms, we conducted an analysis of 30 dairy farms to calculate farm scale emissions of GHGs, expressed as CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), and CO2eq/kg carcass weight (CW) sold. A model, HolosNor, was developed to estimate net GHG emissions, including soil C changes, from dairy farms. The model requires farm scale input data of soil physical characteristics, weather, and farm operations. Based on data from 2008 the estimated level of GHG intensity was 1.02kgCO2eqkg-1 FPCM, 21.67kgCO2eqkg-1 CW sold as culled cows and heifers, and 17.25kgCO2eqkg-1 CW sold as young bulls. On average, enteric CH4 was the largest emission source both per unit FPCM and CW, accounting for 0.39kgCO2eqkg-1 FPCM, 8.34kgCO2eqkg-1 CW sold as culled cows and heifers, and 6.84kgCO2eqkg-1 CW sold as young bulls. Variation in the estimated soil N2O emissions was the source that contributed the most to the total variation among the farms; the difference between the minimum and the maximum levels was estimated to be 0.30kgCO2eqkg-1 FPCM, and 6.43 and 6.49kgCO2eqkg-1 CW sold as culled cows/heifers and young bulls, respectively. Other GHG emission sources also varied considerably among the farms; similar to the N2O emissions, higher emissions of enteric CH4, indirect energy use due to manufacturing of farm inputs, and soil C change all contributed to the higher GHG intensity of some farms. Our study estimates large variation in GHG intensity among dairy farms in Norway and indicates a sensitivity of the emissions to mitigation measures. Production of milk and beef is a complex biological system, thus mitigation options are likely to be most successful when applied in small steps. Thus, the most valuable contribution of the current work is the framework of an on-farm tool for assessing farm-specific mitigation options of Norwegian dairy and beef production. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Milford A.B.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Industrial Organization | Year: 2012

Imperfect competition among purchasers of coffee is a common problem for small scale producers. Producer-owned marketing cooperatives can reduce the market power of private purchasers and restore competition. Non-members as well as members of the cooperatives will then receive higher prices. In the present paper I carry out a theoretical and an empirical investigation into the effect of Fairtrade and organically certified cooperatives on local competition and coffee prices in Chiapas, Mexico. A theoretical model is presented which explains how the competitive effect may work in this particular setting, where cooperative membership implies certain costs that are perceived differently by different producers. Also, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, I present evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis of a pro-competitive effect of cooperatives. © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved. Source


Ovrum A.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute | Ovrum A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Health Economics | Year: 2011

This paper uses repeated cross-section data from Norway to estimate the demand for fruits and vegetables (FV) and physical activity (PA) with a particular focus on the role of socioeconomic status. Conventional econometric count data models produce results that are commonly found in empirical work; the effect of higher socioeconomic status on healthy behavior is positive and generally statistically significant, but the average partial effects are in some cases small and imprecisely estimated. For both behaviors, subsequent latent class models identify two subpopulations - or groups of people - with different sets of preferences; one group has low latent demands, but for these individuals, average partial effects of socioeconomic status are generally stronger than those predicted by the conventional models. The other smaller group consists of individuals who have high latent demands, but whose variability in behavior is poorly explained by socioeconomic status. Posterior analysis shows that individuals with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to belong to the healthier of these two groups. Proxies for time preferences, risk, self-control, and time constraints are also found to be important in characterizing high latent demand groups for PA and FV. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Ovrum A.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute | Bere E.,University of Agder
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective To assess impacts of the nationwide Norwegian School Fruit Scheme (NSFS) using nationally representative data. Design The NSFS is organized such that primary-school children (grades 1-7) are randomly assigned to one of three school fruit arrangements: (i) the child receives one free fruit or vegetable per day; (ii) the child is given the option to subscribe to one fruit or vegetable per day at a subsidized price; and (iii) the child attends a school that has no school fruit arrangement. Setting Data from an Internet survey are used to compare child and parental fruit and vegetable intakes across the three NSFS groups focusing mainly on groups (i) and (iii). The analysis was conducted using multivariate regression techniques. Subjects Parents of primary-school children (n 1423) who report on behalf of themselves and their children. Results Children who receive free school fruit eat on average 0·36 more fruit portions daily-or 25·0 % more fruits-than children who attend schools with no fruit arrangement (P < 0·001). Moreover, parents of children who receive free school fruit eat on average 0·19 more fruit portions daily-or 12·5 % more fruits-than parents of children who attend schools with no fruit arrangement (P = 0·040). No significant associations were found between the NSFS and the vegetable intakes of children and their parents. Conclusions The study shows, using nationally representative data, that free school fruit is associated with increased child fruit intake and that it may also affect parental fruit intake. Copyright © The Authors 2013. Source


Milford A.B.,Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2014

Coffee producers in many parts of the world have the option of either becoming a member of and selling their coffee to a Fairtrade and organic co-operative, or selling it to a “coyote”, the Central American nickname for intermediary purchaser. This study investigates why different producers make different choices, looking at both material and immaterial costs and benefits of the two choices. A qualitative study from Chiapas (Mexico) finds that a main reason for not choosing the co-operatives is the production requirements that follow organic certification. A survey on production costs confirms that members of an organic co-operative have more work hours than non-members in the same area. A probit analysis indicates that both coffee plot size and number of working household members influence the producers’ decision on sales channel. However, the study also finds that aspects not related to the organic production requirements can affect the choice, such as the level of trust in co-operative leadership, and the co-operatives’ payment systems. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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