Hauge S.J.,Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center |
Wahlgren M.,Nortura SA |
Rotterud O.-J.,Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
Although hot water pasteurisation of carcasses is accepted as a general intervention in USA, this is not the case in Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the microbiological effects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses, both after slaughtering and dressing and following subsequent chilling and storage; (ii) to discuss hot water pasteurisation from a public health and cost-benefit perspective; (iii) to discuss the benefits of hot water pasteurisation compared with use of separate meat processing streams for high-risk carcasses; (iv) to evaluate the use of recycled hot water in a hygienic context and in relation to EU regulations; and (v) to consider the technological and sensory aspects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses. Samples were collected from 420 naturally contaminated lamb carcasses, with 50% of the carcasses (n=210) subject to hot water pasteurisation at 82°C for 8s immediately after slaughter. Surface swab samples from 4500cm2 areas on carcasses were collected at slaughter, after chilling for 24h, and after chilling for five days. The microbial analyses included Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and aerobic plate count (APC). A resuscitation step using Tryptone Soya Agar was included in the microbiological analyses. Hot water pasteurisation significantly reduced the levels of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, B. cereus and APC (all P<0.001). E. coli colony forming unit (CFU) reduction was 99.5%, corresponding to a reduction of 1.85log CFU per carcass. E. coli was isolated from 66% of control carcasses and from 26% of pasteurised carcasses. After 24h storage, the reduction in E. coli was increased to 2.02 log, and after five days E. coli could not be isolated from the pasteurised carcasses. These results suggest that surface pasteurisation could be an important and efficient procedure (critical control point) for reducing generic E. coli and thereby shiga toxin-producing E. coli on carcasses, and thus the risk for disease among consumers. The recycled water had acceptable physical and chemical parameters and no spore-forming bacteria were detected. Although some carcass discolouration was observed, after 24h the colour was acceptable. Our data provide relevant input for some of the data gaps regarding hot water pasteurisation and indicate that replacing the expensive system of separate processing of high-risk carcasses with hot water surface pasteurisation should be considered as a serious option. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 4.02M | Year: 2010
The problem and AirPath solution This project targets a large group of SMEs with a shared need. In Europe there are more than 50,000 broiler breeders who are facing a major problem concerning control of air- and insect-borne pathogens in their broiler houses, which results in high infection rates of the broiler flocks. This is partly caused by insects especially flies entering the broiler house through the ventilation system. The Airpath project seeks to solve this problem by developing a new type of barrier based on electrostatic precipitation. This is a known technology used in larger applications where cost is not a major concern such as chimneys on power plants. Hence, the technology must be further developed, scaled and adapted to the specific needs of the European broiler industry. Background of the project The project seeks to solve one of the major challenges that the poultry sector is facing concerning airborne pathogens. An example is Campylobacter which is a major problem in broiler houses (and in the consumer product). At certain times of the year (the warmer months) the breeders experience a rise of infection to more than 60-80% of the flocks. A previous study by DTU Veterinary Institute in Denmark has demonstrated that a major source of the infections is flies entering the houses through the ventilation system. DTU has demonstrated that by effectively keeping the flies out of the broiler houses, the number of infected populations will be drastically reduced. Using simple fly screens it was possible to reduce the infection rate to 15% of the flocs in the problematic period, whereas control populations not using screens showed more 50% infection rate.
Phung V.T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Khatri M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Liland K.H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Slinde E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013
Animal and muscle characteristics were recorded for 41 cattle. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of M. semimembranosus was measured between 3.0-6.4. h post mortem (PM3-6) and after 3. weeks in a vacuum pack at 4°C. Colour change measurements were performed following the 3. weeks using reflectance spectra (400-1100. nm) and the colour coordinates L*, a* and b*, with the samples being packaged in oxygen permeable film and stored at 4°C for 167. h.Significant individual animal differences in OCR at PM3-6 were found for mitochondrial complexes I and II. OCR of complex I declined with increased temperature and time PM, while residual oxygen-consuming side-reactions (ROX) did not. OCR of stored muscles was dominated by complex II respiration. A three-way regression between samples, colour variables collected upon air exposure and OCR of 3weeks old fibres revealed a positive relationship between OCR and complex II activity and also between OCR and OCR ROX. The presence of complex I and β-oxidation activities increased metmyoglobin formation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Nortura S.A, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Tine S.A and Oyvind Langsruds Company
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016
In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants.
Omer M.K.,Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center |
Hauge S.J.,Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center |
Ostensvik T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Moen B.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015
The aims of this study were to investigate bacterial dynamics in the sheep meat chain, from fleece to meat trimmings, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, and to study the effects on microbial load associated with the hygienic interventions of: i) shearing sheep immediately before slaughter, ii) manual steam vacuum pasteurisation, iii) hot water pasteurisation of carcasses, followed by iv) chilling. A further aim was to provide evidence to determine whether or not unshorn sheep should be handled in a processing line separate from that of shorn sheep in Norwegian abattoirs. A total of 176 surface swab samples were collected from three sites along the value chain: i) on fleeces, ii) on carcasses at the end of the slaughter line, and iii) on carcasses after chilling for 24h, and 32 samples were collected from meat trimmings. The results showed that Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) were lower for the shorn group compared to the unshorn group, both on carcasses before chilling and after chilling (difference of 0.8 and 0.9logCFU/1000cm2 (p≤0.05), respectively) and in meat trimmings (difference of 0.5logCFU/g (p≤0.05)). Hygienic treatments were used on carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, and steam vacuum treatment reduced Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC before chilling by 1.2, 1.0, and 0.6logCFU/1000cm2 (p≤0.05), respectively, and hot water pasteurisation, in addition to chilling, reduced E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC by 0.7, 1.0, and 0.9logCFU/1000cm2 (p≤0.05), respectively, compared with untreated carcasses. The effect of chilling was shown by the significant reduction of number of carcasses where E. coli were detected; from 65% (13/20) of the shorn group before chilling to 35% (7/20) after chilling, and from 90% (36/40) to 45% (9/20) of the unshorn group. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene derived from 316 colonies of Enterobacteriaceae showed a tendency for the relative proportion of the genus Escherichia/Shigella, compared with other genera within Enterobacteriaceae, to be greater for unshorn, untreated sheep than from the other groups at the sampling locations along the meat chain. The study showed that steam vacuum and hot water pasteurisation reduced the contamination of carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, down to the level of the shorn group, and thus can replace the separate processing line for unshorn sheep. Indeed, the low microbial contamination in meat trimmings for all groups indicates that the separate processing line is unnecessary. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norwegian Institute of Food, Nortura SA, Fatland Jaeren AS and Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Center
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2015
This study investigated the bacterial dynamics along the beef chain for clean and dirty cattle in the slaughter and processing lines, using classic quantitative methods and molecular analyses. In addition, the Norwegian national guidelines for Good Hygiene Practices in Norway were evaluated. In these guidelines, cattle presented for slaughter are categorised according to hide cleanliness, resulting in separate processing lines for meat from very dirty animals and reduced prices to farmers. The study was conducted in two commercial abattoirs in Norway. Two groups were compared; 40 visually clean cattle and 40 visually dirty cattle presented for slaughter, with 20 from each group at each abattoir. The same animals were sampled at five sampling sites: hides, carcass surfaces after dehiding, just before chilling, after chilling, and meat trimmings. Meat trimmings were sampled in only one abattoir. Three hundred and sixty samples were collected by swabbing 100 cm(2) of the brisket area at the first four sampling sites, and sampling 200 g of meat trimmings at the fifth site. The results showed that the hides of dirty cattle had more Enterobacteriaceae and higher Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) than visually clean cattle (P<0.05), however there was no significant difference for Escherichia coli. For the other sampling sites, there were no differences between the dirty and the clean group. An effect of chilling/drying of the carcass surfaces was demonstrated by the significant reduction in the number of carcasses on which E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were detected; from 11% and 39% before chilling to 1% and 16% after chilling, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli were detected in only three and one of the meat trimming samples, respectively. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 643 Enterobacteriaceae colonies derived from 107 samples demonstrated that Escherichia/Shigella were dominant within this family on the hides. However, after dehiding, after grading, and after chilling, the genera Citrobacter and Enterobacter dominated. The meat trimmings were dominated by the genera Kluyvera, Hafnia, and unclassified Enterobacteriaceae. The relative proportions of Escherichia/Shigella were higher for dirty animals than for clean animals, and were higher on hides than from sampling sites further down the chain (P<0.05). The minor differences in contamination on carcass surfaces and meat trimmings between clean and dirty cattle indicate that separate processing lines in Norwegian abattoirs seem to be unnecessary.
Boe K.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Kjelvik O.,Nortura SA
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2011
Twelve litters were offered nipple drinkers (NIPPLE treatment) as the only source of water after weaning at 32-35 days of age, and 12 litters were offered water from a water bowl (BOWL treatment). Water usage was measured using water meters and blood samples were taken from four randomly selected piglets from each of eight. The water intake was similar in the two treatments for days 1-3 and days 4-7, but significantly higher in the NIPPLE treatment for days 8-14 (P<0.05). Daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in the NIPPLE treatment. The water quality was much better in the NIPPLE treatment, especially on days 7 and 9. Plasma osmolality was higher in the NIPPLE treatment at day 1, but at day 5 osmolality was highest in the BOWL treatment. We conclude that water supply from nipple drinkers is a better alternative for weaned piglets because of higher water intake, better water quality, and improved daily gain. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Kaldhusdal M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Benestad S.L.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Lovland A.,Nortura SA
Avian Pathology | Year: 2016
Since future conventional broiler production can no longer rely upon in-feed antimicrobials (anticoccidials and antibiotic growth promoters), understanding the most important non-antimicrobial factors influencing occurrence of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry will become urgent. Solid population-based data on NE occurrence are scarce. Additionally, data on cholangiohepatitis (CPH) at slaughter is a useful indirect measurement of NE occurrence. Existing data suggest that coccidiosis and nutritional factors are among the most important determinants of NE occurrence. Dietary cereal contents and dietary level of animal proteins can both influence NE occurrence, but cereal composition may be more important because cereals constitute a larger portion of the diet. Losses associated with NE vary depending on the severity of the disease, but data indicate that the farmers’ profit may be reduced on average with as much as one third during an epidemic of clinical disease. © 2016 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Holck A.L.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Pettersen M.K.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Moen M.H.,Nortura SA |
Sorheim O.,Norwegian Institute of Food
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014
Modified atmosphere packaging containing CO2 is widely used for extending the shelf life of chicken meat. Active packaging by adding CO 2 emitter sachets to packages of meat is an alternative to traditional modified atmosphere packaging. The purpose of the study was to investigate the shelf life of chicken filets under different CO2 concentrations at 4uC storage. The inhibition of microbial growth was proportional to the CO2 concentration. Storage in 100% CO2 both with and without a CO2 emitter sachet gave a microbiological shelf-life extension of 7 days compared with 60% CO2. Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium sp., and Lactococcus sp. were the dominating species at the end of the storage period. During storage in pure CO2, the carbon dioxide dissolved in the meat and caused the collapse of the packages. The resulting squeeze of the meat lead to a severe increase in drip loss. The drip loss was reduced profoundly by using the CO2 emitting sachet in the packages. The addition of CO2 emitters can easily be implemented at industrial packaging lines without reduction in production efficiency. © International Association for Food Protection.
Mo S.S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Norstrom M.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Slettemeas J.S.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Lovland A.,Nortura SA |
And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli at the different levels of the Norwegian broiler production pyramid and identify the mechanisms responsible for the resistance phenotype. Samples from all levels of the broiler production pyramid and retail chicken meat (fillets) were included (n=649). The occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli at the different production levels ranged from 8 to 43%. All these isolates had an AmpC-phenotype, and the majority carried the blaCMY-2 gene. In addition, a few isolates with up-regulated chromosomal ampC were identified. The results show that Norway has a relatively high prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in the broiler production chain in spite of a very low consumption of antimicrobial agents. Cephalosporins have not been used in the Norwegian broiler production, and it has been hypothesised that import of breeding animals and hatching eggs may be the source of these resistant bacteria. We demonstrate that these bacteria are disseminated in the production pyramid despite the lack of selection pressure from antimicrobial agents. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.