Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Norton University is a private university in Cambodia registered with the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. It was established in 1996. The University was one of the first private Cambodian educational institutions.In 2006, Tom Chandler, a 3-D modeling specialist from Monash University in Melbourne was invited to Norton as a senior visiting fellow. The aim of the fellowship was to introduce architecture and science students to specialised animation and modeling techniques and allow them to learn to digitally render their own heritage using 3-D techniques.Norton university is considered to be the Best IT Education Center in Cambodia years after its establishment, and was chosen by National ICT Development Authority , Ministry of Post-Telecommunications , International Data Group to receive the award, and that official honor in 2010. The university has two campus both based in Phnom Penh. The current Rector, and Vice Rector of Norton University are Professor Chan Sok Khieng and Professor Un Van Thouen, respectively. Wikipedia.

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Bohnert C.A.,University of Louisville | Calhoun A.W.,Norton University | Mittel O.F.,University of Louisville
AMA journal of ethics | Year: 2017

Human trafficking is a global human rights issue with long-range health consequences about which physicians are largely uneducated. Medical schools are uniquely positioned to address this gap. All future physicians, regardless of specialty, must learn to identify victims and refer them to trauma-informed treatment. Research and advocacy are needed to address the lack of rigorously evaluated curricula in this area, impact policy, and improve services for victims of this heinous form of exploitation. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Research Design Associates Inc, University for Development Studies, President University, University of Colorado at Boulder and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JAMA psychiatry | Year: 2016

Limitations of current antidepressants highlight the need to identify novel treatments for major depressive disorder. A prior open trial found that a single session of whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) reduced depressive symptoms; however, the lack of a placebo control raises the possibility that the observed antidepressant effects resulted not from hyperthermia per se, but from nonspecific aspects of the intervention.To test whether WBH has specific antidepressant effects when compared with a sham condition and to evaluate the persistence of the antidepressant effects of a single treatment.A 6-week, randomized, double-blind study conducted between February 2013 and May 2015 at a university-based medical center comparing WBH with a sham condition. All research staff conducting screening and outcome procedures were blinded to randomization status. Of 338 individuals screened, 34 were randomized, 30 received a study intervention, and 29 provided at least 1 postintervention assessment and were included in a modified intent-to-treat efficacy analysis. Participants were medically healthy, aged 18 to 65 years, met criteria for major depressive disorder, were free of psychotropic medication use, and had a baseline 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 16 or greater.A single session of active WBH vs a sham condition matched for length of WBH that mimicked all aspects of WBH except intense heat.Between-group differences in postintervention Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores.The mean (SD) age was 36.7 (15.2) years in the WBH group and 41.47 (12.54) years in the sham group. Immediately following the intervention, 10 participants (71.4%) randomized to sham treatment believed they had received WBH compared with 15 (93.8%) randomized to WBH. When compared with the sham group, the active WBH group showed significantly reduced Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores across the 6-week postintervention study period (WBH vs sham; week 1: -6.53, 95% CI, -9.90 to -3.16, P<.001; week 2: -6.35, 95% CI, -9.95 to -2.74, P=.001; week 4: -4.50, 95% CI, -8.17 to -0.84, P=.02; and week 6: -4.27, 95% CI, -7.94 to -0.61, P=.02). These outcomes remained significant after evaluating potential moderating effects of between-group differences in baseline expectancy scores. Adverse events in both groups were generally mild.Whole-body hyperthermia holds promise as a safe, rapid-acting, antidepressant modality with a prolonged therapeutic Identifier: NCT01625546.

Ghosh D.D.,Norton University | Olewnik A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2013

Modeling uncertainty through probabilistic representation in engineering design is common and important to decision making that considers risk. However, representations of uncertainty often ignore elements of "imprecision" that may limit the robustness of decisions. Furthermore, current approaches that incorporate imprecision suffer from computational expense and relatively high solution error. This work presents a method that allows imprecision to be incorporated into design scenarios while providing computational efficiency and low solution error for uncertainty propagation. The work draws on an existing method for representing imprecision and integrates methods for sparse grid numerical integration, resulting in the computationally efficient imprecise uncertainty propagation (CEIUP) method. This paper presents details of the method and demonstrates the effectiveness on both numerical case studies, and a thermocouple performance problem found in the literature. Results for the numerical case studies, in most cases, demonstrate improvements in both computational efficiency and solution accuracy for varying problem dimension and variable interaction when compared to optimized parameter sampling (OPS). For the thermocouple problem, similar behavior is observed when compared to OPS. The paper concludes with an overview of design problem scenarios in which CEIUP is the preferred method and offers opportunities for extending the method. © 2013 by ASME.

Lewis K.,Norton University
Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2012

The complexity of many large-scale systems is outpacing our ability to effectively design, analyze, and manage such systems. Projects such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Boeing Dreamliner, the Mars Science Lab, Boston's Big Dig, and the U.S. Navy's Independence warship have all been well over budget and behind schedule. While there may be a number of contributing factors, the enormous complexity of the designed systems is certainly a culprit. Large enterprises appear to be embarking on the design of such systems without a fundamental understanding of some critical principles of complex systems. These principles are emerging in the design research community and clearly illustrate that there are some elegant and simple principles that can be used to better understand, predict, and design large-scale complex systems. In this article, a number of these principles are presented in an effort to highlight the emerging research in the science of designing complex systems. An assertion is made that simplicity and complexity can and should co-exist and if simple and elegant principles are ignored, disastrous consequence may await. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Ghosh D.D.,Norton University | Olewnik A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference | Year: 2012

Modeling uncertainty through probabilistic representation in engineering design is common and important to decision making that considers risk. However, representations of uncertainty often ignore elements of "imprecision" that may limit the robustness of decisions. Further, current approaches that incorporate imprecision suffer from computational expense and relatively high solution error. This work presents the Computationally Efficient Imprecise Uncertainty Propagation (CEIUP) method which draws on existing approaches for propagation of imprecision and integrates sparse grid numerical integration to provide computational efficiency and low solution error for uncertainty propagation. The first part of the paper details the methodology and demonstrates improvements in both computational efficiency and solution accuracy as compared to the Optimized Parameter Sampling (OPS) approach for a set of numerical case studies. The second half of the paper is focused on estimation of non-dominated design parameter spaces using decision policies of Interval Dominance and Maximality Criterion in the context of set-based sequential design-decision making. A gear box design problem is presented and compared with OPS, demonstrating that CEIUP provides improved estimates of the non-dominated parameter range for satisfactory performance with faster solution times. Parameter estimates obtained for different risk attitudes are presented and analyzed from the perspective of Choice Theory leading to questions for future research. The paper concludes with an overview of design problem scenarios in which CEIUP is the preferred method and offers opportunities for extending the method. © 2012 by ASME.

Wolff J.E.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Wolff J.E.,Tufts Medical Center | Rytting M.E.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Vats T.S.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2012

Recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are traditionally treated with palliative care since no effective treatments have been described for these tumors. Recently, clinical studies have been emerging, and individualized treatment is attempted more frequently. However, an informative way to compare the treatment outcomes has not been established, and historical control data are missing for recurrent disease. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent DIPG treated between 1998 and 2010. Response progression-free survival and possible influencing factors were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were identified who were treated in 61 treatment attempts using 26 treatment elements in 31 different regimens. The most frequently used drugs were etoposide (14), bevacizumab (13), irinotecan (13), nimotuzumab (13), and valproic acid (13). Seven patients had repeat radiation therapy to the primary tumor. Response was recorded after 58 treatment attempts and was comprised of 0 treatment attempts with complete responses, 7 with partial responses, 20 with stable diseases, and 31 with progressive diseases The median progression-free survival after treatment start was 0.16 years (2 months) and was found to be correlated to the prior time to progression but not to the number of previous treatment attempts. Repeat radiation resulted in the highest response rates (4/7), and the longest progression-free survival. These data provide a basis to plan future clinical trials for recurrent DIPG. Repeat radiation therapy should be tested in a prospective clinical study. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ferguson S.M.,North Carolina State University | Olewnik A.T.,Norton University | Cormier P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Research in Engineering Design | Year: 2014

Introduced nearly 25 years ago, the paradigm of mass customization (MC) has largely not lived up to its promise. Despite great strides in information technology, engineering design practice and manufacturing production, the necessary process innovations that can produce products and systems with sufficient customization and economic efficiency have yet to be found in wide application. In this paper, the state-of-the-art in MC is explored in the context of an envisioned MC development process for both the firm and the customer. Specifically, 130 references are reviewed within the process frameworks (Sect. 3) and/or to highlight opportunities for future development in MC (Sect. 4) based on the review. This review yields opportunities in four primary areas that challenge MC development: (1) customer needs and preference assessment tools, (2) approaches for requirement specification and conceptual design, (3) insights from methodologies focused on the development of durable MC goods and (4) enhancements in information mapping and handling. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Leung E.,Norton University | Hanna M.Y.,Norton University | Tehami N.,Norton University | Francombe J.,Norton University
Current Drug Safety | Year: 2012

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are widely used to treat benign hypertension. These drugs are generally well tolerated. Serious side effects such as angio-oedema are very rare. The authors report a 64-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of liver transplant on Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, who attended Emergency department with angio-oedema only on the left side of her tongue. Her airway was patent and she was haemodynamically stable. Trauma was denied. Her physician had 2 days earlier commenced her on Lisinopril for newly diagnosed benign hypertension. Intravenous steroids and anti-histamine were immediately administered. A good response of oedema subsidence was noted. In general, angio-oedema can present in a spectrum of severity. Precipitating factors are often difficult to pre-determine and avoid. Early recognition of risk factors for and diagnosis of angio-oedema can often be life-saving. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

PubMed | Norton University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JBI library of systematic reviews | Year: 2016

Background Childrens hospitals are by definition hospitals specialized in all aspects of childrens care, but are they and if so, how is that achieved? Are healthcare facilities more than a space in which to ask medical questions, seek answers and obtain treatment? Some suggest that the very design of a space can positively or negatively impact healing, hence the term referred to by those in the architectural community as healing spaces. To date empirical studies to provide evidence to this effect, although growing in number, are still few. What is known is that hospitals, doctors offices and dental offices alike unintentionally create an atmosphere, particularly for children, that add to an already heightened level of anxiety and fear. Designing a childrens hospital, unlike a generalist facility, presents a unique and significant challenge. Those involved in designing such hospitals are faced with the opportunity and responsibility to care for and respond to the needs of children across the age spectrum; infants to toddlers, school aged children to adolescents. As healthcare professionals and architects, it is our responsibility to create healthcare facilities that are of purposeful design; anticipating and alleviating childrens anxiety and fear wherever possible.Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of environmental design strategies in healthcare institutions such as hospitals and dental offices on event-related anxiety in the paediatric population.Inclusion Criteria This comprehensive systematic review involved children from the age of 1 to 18 years of age admitted to a healthcare facility with the primary outcomes of interest being four key design strategies: positive distraction; elimination of environmental stressors; access to social support and choice (control); and connection to nature.Search Strategy Using the Joanna Briggs defined three step search strategy, both published and unpublished studies were sought from the period of 1980 to 2010.Methods of the Review Data for each study was extracted and assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using the Joanna Briggs Institute standardised critical appraisal instruments for Qualitative data (JBI-QARI) and for the Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment (JBI-MAStARI).Results Twenty studies were reviewed, seven of a descriptive experimental design, three of mixed methodologies and thirteen of various qualitative research design methodologies inclusive of Observational, Grounded Theory, Ethnography and Phenomenology.Conclusions The design of the built environment does have the ability to impact either positively or negatively the level of anxiety and fear that children experience when exposed to a healthcare setting. The coping strategies engaged by and unique to each paediatric age group need to not only be understood but supported and reflected in the built environment.Implications for research Architects and healthcare researchers need to collaborate to establish a solid base of evidence related to this important area of interest. Irrespective of the challenges that researchers face in attempting to randomise, manipulate and control the numerous environmental variables that impact a question such as this, such challenges need not, nor should not, prevent or discourage future research. An innovative solution to the challenges faced by researchers in this field is the use of computer modelling and/ or simulation of the hospital environment. Through the use of simulated environments researchers can directly observe user preferences and/ physiological responses.Implication for practice This review highlights an insightful look into the preferences of children as consumers. Although sample sizes were small and results were not quantified in measurable outcomes, the ability for such studies to inform design should not be underestimated. Design strategies both from a practical perspective of minimal cost to construction projects warranting extensive resources are discussed.

PubMed | Anderson University, South Carolina, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Baystate Medical Center, Memorial Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to identify patient and physician factors related to enrollment onto Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trials.Prospective study of women with primary or recurrent cancer of the uterus or cervix treated at a GOG institution from July 2010 to January 2012. Logistic regression examined probability of availability, eligibility and enrollment in a GOG trial. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for significant (p<0.05) results reported.Sixty institutions, 781 patients, and 150 physicians participated, 300/780 (38%) had a trial available, 290/300 had known participation status. Of these, 150 women enrolled (59.5%), 102 eligible did not enroll (35%), 38 (13%) were ineligible. Ethnicity and specialty of physician, practice type, data management availability, and patient age were significantly associated with trial availability. Patients with >4 comorbidities (OR 4.5; CI 1.7-11.8) had higher odds of trial ineligibility. Non-White patients (OR 7.9; CI 1.3-46.2) and patients of Black physicians had greater odds of enrolling (OR 56.5; CI 1.1-999.9) in a therapeutic trial. Significant patient therapeutic trial enrollment factors: belief trial may help (OR 76.9; CI 4.9->1000), concern about care if not on trial (OR12.1; CI 2.1-71.4), pressure to enroll (OR .27; CI 0.12-.64), caregiving without pay (OR 0.13; CI .02-.84). Significant physician beliefs were: patients would not do well on standard therapy (OR 3.6; CI 1.6-8.4), and trial would not be time consuming (OR 3.3; CI 1.3-8.1).Trial availability, patient and physician beliefs were factors identified that if modified could improve enrollment in cancer cooperative group clinical trials.

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