Northwestern University is a private research university with campuses in Evanston and Chicago in Illinois, United States. Home to twelve schools and colleges, Northwestern offers 124 undergraduate degrees and 145 graduate and professional degrees.Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the City of Evanston is named, and eight other lawyers, businessmen and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Northwest Territory, an area that today includes the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855; women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan just 12 miles north of downtown Chicago. The university's law and medical schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Doha, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication.Consistently ranked as a major national and global university, Northwestern is classified as a leading research institution, attracting over $550 million in sponsored research each year. In addition, Northwestern has one of the largest university endowments in the United States, currently valued at $9.8 billion. In 2014, the university accepted 12.9% of undergraduate applicants, making Northwestern one of the most selective universities in the country.Northwestern is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference. The Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference. Wikipedia.
Muller W.A.,Northwestern University
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2011
Neither the innate nor adaptive immune system "responds" unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. This process occurs through diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in an ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders and, in some cases, through the endothelial cell itself. This review focuses on the active role of the endothelial cell in diapedesis. Several mechanisms play a critical role in transendothelial migration, including signals derived from clustering of apically disposed intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, disruption or loosening of adherens junctions, and targeted recycling of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule and other molecules from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Rinella M.E.,Northwestern University
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015
IMPORTANCE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affect approximately 30% and 5%, respectively, of the US population. In patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, half of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and malignancy, yet awareness of this remains low. Cirrhosis, the third leading cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is predicted to become the most common indication for liver transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate how to identify patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at greatest risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis; to discuss the role and limitations of current diagnostics and liver biopsy to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; and to provide an outline for the management of patients across the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. EVIDENCE REVIEW: PubMed was queried for published articles through February 28, 2015, using the search terms NAFLD and cirrhosis, mortality, biomarkers, and treatment. A total of 88 references were selected, including 16 randomized clinical trials, 44 cohort or case-control studies, 6 population-based studies, and 7 meta-analyses. FINDINGS: Sixty-six percent of patients older than 50 years with diabetes or obesity are thought to have nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. Even though the ability to identify the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subtype within those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease still requires liver biopsy, biomarkers to detect advanced fibrosis are increasingly reliable. Lifestyle modification is the foundation of treatment for patients with nonalcoholic steatosis. Available treatments with proven benefit include vitamin E, pioglitazone, and obeticholic acid; however, the effect size is modest (<50%) and none is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The association between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease is clear, though causality remains to be proven in well-controlled prospective studies. The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing and up to 50% of cases may occur in the absence of cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Between 75 million and 100 million individuals in the United States are estimated to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its potential morbidity extends beyond the liver. It is important that primary care physicians, endocrinologists, and other specialists be aware of the scope and long-term effects of the disease. Early identification of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis may help improve patient outcomes through treatment intervention, including transplantation for those with decompensated cirrhosis. © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source
Facchetti A.,Northwestern University
Materials Today | Year: 2013
Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells represent an exciting class of renewable energy technology; they are lightweight and flexible, and have a low production cost. Over the last two decades, the efficiency of these devices has improved significantly, in particular through the development of solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OPV cells. While fullerenes have been the most intensively studied acceptor materials in BHJ OPVs, research is currently underway in several groups investigating non-fullerene molecular acceptors. In this review, initial breakthroughs and recent progress in the development of polymer donor-polymer acceptor (all-polymer) BHJ OPVs are highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Northwestern University | Date: 2015-08-18
Provided herein are partially-denatured protein (e.g., albumin) hydrogels and methods of manufacture (e.g., pH induction) and use (e.g., drug delivery) thereof.
Northwestern University | Date: 2015-03-04
The present invention provides a surface-independent surface-modifying multifunctional biocoating and methods of application thereof. The method comprises contacting at least a portion of a substrate with an alkaline solution comprising a surface-modifying agent (SMA) such as dopamine so as to modify the substrate surface to include at least one reactive moiety. In another version of the invention, a secondary reactive moiety is applied to the SMA-treated substrate to yield a surface-modified substrate having a specific functionality.