Northwest ZooPath

West Longview, WA, United States

Northwest ZooPath

West Longview, WA, United States
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Wise A.G.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Wise A.G.,Michigan State University | Kiupel M.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Kiupel M.,Michigan State University | And 5 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2010

Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV) infection is associated with an emerging, highly fatal disease of ferrets. Enhanced macrophage tropism and the resulting induction of pyogranulomatous lesions are shared with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection in cats, but are not features of ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) infection. Comparative sequence analysis of the distal one-third of the genomes of one FRSCV and one FRECV strain showed that these two ferret coronaviruses share >96% nucleotide sequence identities in the membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein genes (partial polymerase, open reading frames [ORFs] 3 and 7b). The envelope (E) protein gene showed a moderate nucleotide sequence similarity of 91.6%. In contrast, nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities observed with the spike (S) protein were only 79.5 and 79.6%, respectively. Twenty-one amino acid differences within a 195-199-amino acid C-terminal portion of the S protein were conserved between 3 strains each of FRSCV and FRECV. Both systemic and enteric strains were found to carry a single ORF 3 gene with truncated proteins observed in two out of three FRSCV strains examined. The two enteric strains analyzed each contained an intact ORF 3 gene. Phylogenetically, FRSCV is more closely related to FRECV than to other group 1 coronaviruses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Williams B.L.,Utah State University | Powers L.V.,Avian and Exotic Pet Service | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

Many pufferfish possess tetrodotoxin (TTX). Unaware of this fact, the owner of a 3-mo-old pet Cuvier's dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) fed the caiman a green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis), acquired from a local discount department store. The caiman was nonresponsive within an hour of consumption of the fish. The caiman was presented for veterinary evaluation but died despite intensive medical care. High-performance liquid chromatography and a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay were used to determine whether the pufferfish was tetrodotoxic and whether the deceased caiman had TTX in its system. Skin and liver of the pufferfish harbored high concentrations of TTX, and the caiman had TTX in the blood, liver, and kidney. The clinical signs and presence of TTX in the caiman suggest that the caiman succumbed to tetrodotoxicosis. The implication is that lethally poisonous species are available commercially and pose a danger to other pets and possibly small children. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Ramsell K.D.,Northwest Exotic Pet Vet LLC | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice | Year: 2010

First described in 2003, disseminated idiopathic myofasciitis (DIM) has emerged as a new disease in young, domestic ferrets. DIM is a severe inflammatory condition that affects primarily muscles and surrounding connective tissues. The disease is characterized by rapid onset of clinical signs, high fever, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and general lack of response to therapeutic intervention. Until recently DIM was considered fatal, but a few surviving ferrets indicate there may be an effective treatment protocol. DIM is suspected to be an immune-mediated disease, but the etiopathogenesis is not known. This article reviews clinical and pathologic findings in DIM patients, covers recommended diagnostic procedures and clinical management of ferrets with DIM, and discusses potential etiologies for this newly recognized disease in ferrets. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Northwest ZooPath, California Science Center and University of California at Davis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2016

Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates.


PubMed | Palm Beach Zoo and Conservation Society, University of Florida, Santa Fe College Teaching Zoo and Northwest ZooPath
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2015

The Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) is a critically endangered subspecies of the oldfield mouse. The captive population, currently maintained by 3 Florida zoos, is entirely derived from just 3 wild-caught ancestor mice. Necropsy and histopathology revealed chordoma of the vertebral column in 38 of 88 (43%) mice. The tumors were locally expansile and invasive masses of large physaliferous (vacuolated) cells with small, round, hyperchromatic nuclei, similar to the classic form of chordomas described in humans. Primary tumors rarely contained small amounts of bone and cartilaginous matrix, characteristic of the chondroid form. Neoplastic cells contained abundant granules positive by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Brachyury and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were detected in neoplastic cells by immunohistochemistry, but uncoupling protein 1 was not identified. Primary tumors occurred along the entire vertebral column--cervical, 5 of 38 (13%); thoracic, 16 (42%); lumbar, 13 (34%); and sacral, 10 (26%)--and 10 (26%) mice had multiple primary masses. Metastases to the lungs were noted in 13 of the 38 (34%) mice. Mice diagnosed with chordomas postmortem ranged from 424 to 2170 days old, with a mean of 1399 days. The prevalence of chordoma was not significantly different between males (n = 23 of 50; 46%) and females (n = 15 of 38; 39%).


PubMed | Northwest ZooPath and Colorado State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2016

Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.


Anderson K.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo | Garner M.,Northwest ZooPath | Stedman N.,Busch Gardens Tampa
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

Capturing disease trends among different species has indisputable value to both veterinary clinicians and zoo managers for improving the welfare and management of zoo species. The causes of mortality for eight species of gazelle (addra gazelle, Nanger dama; dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas; Grant's gazelle, Nanger granti; sand gazelle, Gazella leptoceros; Saudi goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa; Soemmerring's gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii; Thomson's gazelle, Eudorcas thomsonii; and Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei) are presented from an 18-yr period (1996 2014). The leading cause of mortality for all species was trauma, followed by bronchopneumonia, and failure to thrive/maternal neglect. Nephritis and rumenitis/abomasitis/enteritis were common ancillary lesions across all species. On average, female gazelle lived twice as long as male gazelle, with an average overall adult survival time of 9.3 yr. Dorcas, Thomson's and addra gazelle females had the longest average survival time (10-13 yr). Calves up to 6 mo of age died most frequently from failure of passive transfer or maternal neglect. Thyroid carcinoma was frequently identified in Thomson's gazelle. Sand and Speke's gazelle frequently died from systemic amyloidosis, and Saudi goitered gazelle were more likely to have renal amyloidosis. Hematuria syndrome was the second most common cause of death in Grant's gazelle. The majority of lesions identified in this study that cause or contribute to mortality are preventable with appropriate management. Knowledge of disease trends in captive gazelle populations can help guide veterinary care, management decisions, and collection management planning. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Kiupel M.,Michigan State University | Desjardins D.R.,Michigan State University | Lim A.,Michigan State University | Bolin C.,Michigan State University | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We report an outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with a novel Mycoplasma species in ferrets. During 2009-2012, a respiratory disease characterized by nonproductive coughing affected ≈8,000 ferrets, 6-8 weeks of age, which had been imported from a breeding facility in Canada. Almost 95% became ill, but almost none died. Treatments temporarily decreased all clinical signs except cough. Postmortem examinations of euthanized ferrets revealed bronchointerstitial pneumonia with prominent hyperplasia of bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis with polyclonal antibody against Mycoplasma bovis demonstrated intense staining along the bronchiolar brush border. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 affected ferrets yielded fast-growing, glucose-fermenting mycoplasmas. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of PCR-derived amplicons from portions of the 16S rDNA and RNA polymerase B genes failed to identify the mycoplasmas but showed that they were most similar to M. molare and M. lagogenitalium. These findings indicate a causal association between the novel Mycoplasma species and the newly recognized pulmonary disease.


Thas I.,University of Guelph | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

Fifty-three tumours were diagnosed in samples originating from 167 different black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1996 and 2009. Three prairie dogs had more than one type of neoplasm. Thirty-two of the 50 prairie dogs were from zoological parks in the USA; 17 were owned privately and one was from a wildlife centre. Ages ranged from 2-9 years (median age 5.6 years) for 41 animals in which age was known. Thirty-nine (73.6%) of the tumours were classified as malignant and 14 (26.4%) were benign. Common sites for tumours were the liver, the alimentary tract and the haemolymphoid and integumentary systems. Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenoma, lymphoid malignancies and elodontoma were diagnosed most commonly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Michigan State University, Northwest ZooPath and University of Wyoming
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2016

Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis.

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