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Anderson K.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo | Garner M.,Northwest ZooPath | Stedman N.,Busch Gardens Tampa
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

Capturing disease trends among different species has indisputable value to both veterinary clinicians and zoo managers for improving the welfare and management of zoo species. The causes of mortality for eight species of gazelle (addra gazelle, Nanger dama; dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas; Grant's gazelle, Nanger granti; sand gazelle, Gazella leptoceros; Saudi goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa; Soemmerring's gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii; Thomson's gazelle, Eudorcas thomsonii; and Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei) are presented from an 18-yr period (1996 2014). The leading cause of mortality for all species was trauma, followed by bronchopneumonia, and failure to thrive/maternal neglect. Nephritis and rumenitis/abomasitis/enteritis were common ancillary lesions across all species. On average, female gazelle lived twice as long as male gazelle, with an average overall adult survival time of 9.3 yr. Dorcas, Thomson's and addra gazelle females had the longest average survival time (10-13 yr). Calves up to 6 mo of age died most frequently from failure of passive transfer or maternal neglect. Thyroid carcinoma was frequently identified in Thomson's gazelle. Sand and Speke's gazelle frequently died from systemic amyloidosis, and Saudi goitered gazelle were more likely to have renal amyloidosis. Hematuria syndrome was the second most common cause of death in Grant's gazelle. The majority of lesions identified in this study that cause or contribute to mortality are preventable with appropriate management. Knowledge of disease trends in captive gazelle populations can help guide veterinary care, management decisions, and collection management planning. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Wise A.G.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Wise A.G.,Michigan State University | Kiupel M.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Kiupel M.,Michigan State University | And 5 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2010

Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV) infection is associated with an emerging, highly fatal disease of ferrets. Enhanced macrophage tropism and the resulting induction of pyogranulomatous lesions are shared with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection in cats, but are not features of ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) infection. Comparative sequence analysis of the distal one-third of the genomes of one FRSCV and one FRECV strain showed that these two ferret coronaviruses share >96% nucleotide sequence identities in the membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein genes (partial polymerase, open reading frames [ORFs] 3 and 7b). The envelope (E) protein gene showed a moderate nucleotide sequence similarity of 91.6%. In contrast, nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities observed with the spike (S) protein were only 79.5 and 79.6%, respectively. Twenty-one amino acid differences within a 195-199-amino acid C-terminal portion of the S protein were conserved between 3 strains each of FRSCV and FRECV. Both systemic and enteric strains were found to carry a single ORF 3 gene with truncated proteins observed in two out of three FRSCV strains examined. The two enteric strains analyzed each contained an intact ORF 3 gene. Phylogenetically, FRSCV is more closely related to FRECV than to other group 1 coronaviruses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wack A.N.,Fossil Rim Wildlife Center | Miller C.L.,Miami Metrozoo | Wood C.E.,Cornell University | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Haefele H.J.,Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

Melanocytic neoplasms were diagnosed in a captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and a captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) from different facilities. The first case was a 10-yr-old, captive-born male black rhinoceros that presented with a small firm cutaneous mass on the dorsal midline. Aspirate cytology results were suggestive of a melanocytic neoplasm, and histologic examination of the excised mass confirmed a well-differentiated neoplasm with much pigment production, minimal anaplasia, and no mitotic figures. Several months after mass removal, a similar mass with identical histologic features was excised from the right medial thigh. The second case was a 28-yr-old, wild-born female Indian rhinoceros that presented with a draining wound at the coronary band of a rear digit. Histologic examination of a biopsy from this lesion revealed a melanocytic neoplasm with moderate cellular anaplasia, frequent mitoses, and scant pigment production. At necropsy, the tumor was found to ablate P3 and most deep tissues of the toe. No evidence of vascular invasion or metastasis was found. These two cases represent the only melanocytic neoplasms in Rhinoceridae reported in detail in the literature. Copyright 2010 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Kiupel M.,Michigan State University | Desjardins D.R.,Michigan State University | Lim A.,Michigan State University | Bolin C.,Michigan State University | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We report an outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with a novel Mycoplasma species in ferrets. During 2009-2012, a respiratory disease characterized by nonproductive coughing affected ≈8,000 ferrets, 6-8 weeks of age, which had been imported from a breeding facility in Canada. Almost 95% became ill, but almost none died. Treatments temporarily decreased all clinical signs except cough. Postmortem examinations of euthanized ferrets revealed bronchointerstitial pneumonia with prominent hyperplasia of bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis with polyclonal antibody against Mycoplasma bovis demonstrated intense staining along the bronchiolar brush border. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 affected ferrets yielded fast-growing, glucose-fermenting mycoplasmas. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of PCR-derived amplicons from portions of the 16S rDNA and RNA polymerase B genes failed to identify the mycoplasmas but showed that they were most similar to M. molare and M. lagogenitalium. These findings indicate a causal association between the novel Mycoplasma species and the newly recognized pulmonary disease.

Divincenti Jr. L.,University of Rochester | Moorman-White D.,University of Rochester | Bavlov N.,University of Rochester | Garner M.,Northwest ZooPath | Wyatt J.,University of Rochester
Lab Animal | Year: 2012

The 2011 edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals includes new recommendations for the amount of floor space that should be provided to breeding mice. When pairs or trios of continuously breeding mice are housed in shoebox cages, they may have less than this recommended amount of floor space. High housing densities may adversely affect animal health, for example, by compromising air quality inside the cage. Hence, some institutions are carefully reevaluating the microenvironments of breeding cages. The use of individually ventilated cages (IVCs) to house research mice allows for greater control over the quality of the cage microenvironment. The authors evaluated the microenvironments of shoebox cages in an IVC rack system housing breeding and non-breeding Swiss Webster mice. Ammonia concentrations were significantly higher in cages housing breeding trios with two litters. Histopathologic lesions attributable to inhaled irritants such as ammonia were found in mice housed in breeding pairs and trios. The authors conclude that the microenvironments of cages in an IVC rack system housing breeding pairs and trios may be detrimental to animal health. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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