Northwest Public Health Research Center

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Northwest Public Health Research Center

Saint Petersburg, Russia

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Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. Results. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/ processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007. © 2012 Alexey A. Dudarev.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Talykova L.V.,Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health | Odland J.O.,University of Tromsø
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD) nationally and regionally in Russia. Objectives. The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980-2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease. Materials and methods. Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises - Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC - which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980-2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease) were analysed. Results. The total rate of ODs among workers of main shops in both enterprises who were actually exposed to harmful factors were extremely high: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100-150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH) in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure. Conclusions. As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system and the collection of occupational health statistics that require urgent, fundamental reform. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev et al.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
International journal of circumpolar health | Year: 2012

The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Odland J.O.,University of Tromsø
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. There is a paradox in Russia and its Arctic regions which reports extremely low rates of occupational diseases (ODs), far below those of other socially and economically advanced circumpolar countries. Yet, there is widespread disregard for occupational health regulations and neglect of basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises. Study design and methods. This review article presents official statistics and summarises the results of a search of peer_reviewed scientific literature published in Russia on ODs and occupational health care in Russia and the Russian Arctic, within the period 1980_2010. Results. Worsening of the economic situation, layoff of workers, threat of unemployment and increased work load happened during the "wild market" industrial restructuring in 1990_2000, when the health and safety of workers were of little concern. Russian employers are not legally held accountable for neglecting safety rules and for underreporting of ODs. Almost 80% of all Russian industrial enterprises are considered dangerous or hazardous for health. Hygienic control of working conditions was minimised or excluded in the majority of enterprises, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. There is direct evidence of general degradation of the occupational health care system in Russia. The real levels of ODs in Russia are estimated to be at least 10_100 times higher than reported by official statistics. The low official rates are the result of deliberate hiding of ODs, lack of coverage of working personnel by properly conducted medical examinations, incompetent management and the poor quality of staff, facilities and equipment. Conclusions. Reform of the Russian occupational health care system is urgently needed, including the passing of strong occupational health legislation and their enforcement, the maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, improved training of occupational health personnel, protection of sanitary_hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for research assessing occupational risk and the effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev and Jon Øyvind Odland.


Sorokin G.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
Human Ecology | Year: 2016

In the car assembly conveyor workplaces in summertime, high air temperature up to 30-31°C is observed. The purpose of the present research was establishment of parameters of a regime of work - physiological intensity of the working process (an integrated estimation of density and rate of labor actions), time and conditions of rest protecting workers from sharp exhaustion and overheat. There has been described the method of definition of a level of physiological intensity of physical work in which the risk of thermal overheat and sharp exhaustion of workers in conditions of a heating up microclimate was prevented. Use of the method is shown in terms of development of physiologically safe regimes of work in the car assembly conveyor by air temperature in workplaces 26-31°C. There have been determined variants of admissible combinations of parameters of operating modes (physiological intensity of work; conveyor productivity; total time of regulated breaks in work) and conditions of rest (decreased air temperature in rest points; speed of air movement at rest; a share of time of rest in a sitting position). Admissible physiological intensity of work and productivity in the car assembly conveyor workplaces has been established by air temperature 26-31°C and relative humidity 40-50%. © Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk.


Hanssen L.,University of Tromsø | Hanssen L.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Huber S.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment world-wide. Our overall objective was to assess the exposure to PFASs experienced by delivering women and their new-borns in the industrial city of Norilsk (arctic Russia) and the rural Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, with the secondary objective of evaluating the distribution of PFASs between blood cell and plasma fractions. Six PFASs were detected in every sample from Norilsk city with the plasma concentration sequence of: PFOS>PFOA>PFNA>FOSA>PFHxS>PFUnDA. In the Uzbekistani samples, only PFOS was reported above the MDL (0.08ng/mL). The median plasma concentrations of PFOS of 11.0ng/mL for the Norilsk mothers was comparable to that reported for western countries, while that for Uzbekistan was considerably lower (0.23ng/mL). Apparent increases in the maternal-cord concentration ratios for both whole blood and plasma were evident with the length of the carbon chain for both the carboxylate and the sulfonate PFASs. The median value of this ratio for FOSA in plasma was the lowest, while that for whole blood was the highest. Other than for FOSA, the observed plasma-whole blood concentration ratios for maternal and umbilical cord blood were consistent with a priori calculations using appropriate packed cell and plasma volumes for neonates and pregnant women at term. Clearly FOSA favored whole blood, and acid-base equilibrium calculations suggested that the resonance-stabilized sulfonamidate ion resides in the blood cell fraction. Thus for PFASs and related compounds with pKa values with magnitudes comparable to physiological pH, it is pertinent to measure the cell-associated fraction (separately or as whole blood). Our study illustrates that consideration of both the physico-chemical properties of the contaminants and the physiological attributes of blood matrices were helpful in the interpretation of our findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Sorokin G.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Frolova N.M.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
Human Ecology | Year: 2012

In terms of works for grinding of metal products with machine and manual tools, a method of revealing and prediction of risk (R) of hand functional overstrain connected with dynamic and static efforts, combined with local vibration exposure has been stated. A risk indicator was the index of hand joint pains (IP) which generalized quantity of localizations, frequency and expressiveness of pains. Dynamics of IP and R during the years of work were predicted on the basis of an integrated estimation of fatigability of work movement complexes, a work regime and a level of local vibration.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Karnachev I.P.,Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health | Odland J.O.,University of Tromsø
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980-2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers' rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices - violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3-6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev et al.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Chupakhin V.S.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Odland J.O.,University of Tromsø
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

This study provides a historical overview of the changes in the socio-economic and health status of the population of Chukotka, from the Soviet to the post-Soviet period, with special attention paid to the circumstances of indigenous people. Past health studies in Chukotka are reviewed and key demographic and health indicator data presented. Since the 1990s, Chukotka's population has shrunk to a third of its former size due to emigration of nonindigenous and mostly younger people, with a corresponding increase in the mortality rate due to aging of the population. However, the indigenous population has remained stable. Among the most important causes of mortality are injuries. The living conditions of indigenous people continue to be a cause of concern, beset by high rates of poverty, unemployment, alcoholism, suicide and a variety of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections. The economy, general infrastructure and health care system of Chukotka have been considerably improved by the Abramovich administration in the 2000s. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev et al.


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Chupakhin V.S.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Odland J.O.,University of Tromsø
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Objectives. The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997-2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997-2010 for incidence and 1999-2010 for mortality. Two years' data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/ trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across circumpolar regions and countries. With its small population, cancer rates in Chukotka tend to be highly unstable and fluctuate widely from year to year. Even when aggregated over a decade or more, only broad conclusions regarding patterns and trends can be made regarding some of the commonest cancer sites, or with all sites combined. Chukotka experienced substantial social and economic dislocations during the period under study, which could conceivably affect risk factor distribution and the quality of medical care. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev et al.

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