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Saint Petersburg, Russia

Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
International journal of circumpolar health | Year: 2012

The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007. Source


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food. Results. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/ processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007. © 2012 Alexey A. Dudarev. Source


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Talykova L.V.,Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health | Odland J.O.,University of Tromso
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD) nationally and regionally in Russia. Objectives. The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980-2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease. Materials and methods. Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises - Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC - which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980-2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease) were analysed. Results. The total rate of ODs among workers of main shops in both enterprises who were actually exposed to harmful factors were extremely high: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100-150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH) in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure. Conclusions. As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system and the collection of occupational health statistics that require urgent, fundamental reform. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev et al. Source


Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Odland J.O.,University of Tromso
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Background. There is a paradox in Russia and its Arctic regions which reports extremely low rates of occupational diseases (ODs), far below those of other socially and economically advanced circumpolar countries. Yet, there is widespread disregard for occupational health regulations and neglect of basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises. Study design and methods. This review article presents official statistics and summarises the results of a search of peer_reviewed scientific literature published in Russia on ODs and occupational health care in Russia and the Russian Arctic, within the period 1980_2010. Results. Worsening of the economic situation, layoff of workers, threat of unemployment and increased work load happened during the "wild market" industrial restructuring in 1990_2000, when the health and safety of workers were of little concern. Russian employers are not legally held accountable for neglecting safety rules and for underreporting of ODs. Almost 80% of all Russian industrial enterprises are considered dangerous or hazardous for health. Hygienic control of working conditions was minimised or excluded in the majority of enterprises, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. There is direct evidence of general degradation of the occupational health care system in Russia. The real levels of ODs in Russia are estimated to be at least 10_100 times higher than reported by official statistics. The low official rates are the result of deliberate hiding of ODs, lack of coverage of working personnel by properly conducted medical examinations, incompetent management and the poor quality of staff, facilities and equipment. Conclusions. Reform of the Russian occupational health care system is urgently needed, including the passing of strong occupational health legislation and their enforcement, the maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, improved training of occupational health personnel, protection of sanitary_hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for research assessing occupational risk and the effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 Alexey A. Dudarev and Jon Øyvind Odland. Source


Hanssen L.,University of Tromso | Hanssen L.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Huber S.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment world-wide. Our overall objective was to assess the exposure to PFASs experienced by delivering women and their new-borns in the industrial city of Norilsk (arctic Russia) and the rural Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, with the secondary objective of evaluating the distribution of PFASs between blood cell and plasma fractions. Six PFASs were detected in every sample from Norilsk city with the plasma concentration sequence of: PFOS>PFOA>PFNA>FOSA>PFHxS>PFUnDA. In the Uzbekistani samples, only PFOS was reported above the MDL (0.08ng/mL). The median plasma concentrations of PFOS of 11.0ng/mL for the Norilsk mothers was comparable to that reported for western countries, while that for Uzbekistan was considerably lower (0.23ng/mL). Apparent increases in the maternal-cord concentration ratios for both whole blood and plasma were evident with the length of the carbon chain for both the carboxylate and the sulfonate PFASs. The median value of this ratio for FOSA in plasma was the lowest, while that for whole blood was the highest. Other than for FOSA, the observed plasma-whole blood concentration ratios for maternal and umbilical cord blood were consistent with a priori calculations using appropriate packed cell and plasma volumes for neonates and pregnant women at term. Clearly FOSA favored whole blood, and acid-base equilibrium calculations suggested that the resonance-stabilized sulfonamidate ion resides in the blood cell fraction. Thus for PFASs and related compounds with pKa values with magnitudes comparable to physiological pH, it is pertinent to measure the cell-associated fraction (separately or as whole blood). Our study illustrates that consideration of both the physico-chemical properties of the contaminants and the physiological attributes of blood matrices were helpful in the interpretation of our findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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