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Portland, OR, United States

Kubiszewski I.,Australian National University | Costanza R.,Australian National University | Dorji L.,National Statistics Bureau | Thoennes P.,Northwest Power and Conservation Council | Tshering K.,National Statistics Bureau
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2013

We estimated the value of ecosystem services in Bhutan using benefit transfer methodology in order to determine an initial assessment of their overall contribution to human well-being The total estimated value was approximately $15.5. billion/yr (NU760 billion/yr), significantly greater than the gross domestic product (GDP) of $3.5. billion/yr.We also estimated who benefits from Bhutan's ecosystem services. 53% of the total benefits accrue to people outside Bhutan. 47% of the benefits accrue to people inside the country-15 % at the national level, and 32% at the local level. Based on this and a population of 700,000 we estimated Bhutan's combined per capita annual benefits at $15,400/capita/yr. Of this $5000 is from goods and services captured in GDP and $10,400 is from ecosystem services. This is only a partial estimate that leaves out other sources of benefits to people, including social and cultural values.This study is the first phase of a larger, multiyear project and ongoing effort in Bhutan. Subsequent phases will apply more sophisticated methods to further elaborate the value of Bhutan's ecosystem services, who benefits from them, how they can best be integrated into national well-being accounting, and how best to manage them. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Paquet P.J.,Northwest Power and Conservation Council | Flagg T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Appleby A.,Hatchery Evaluation and Assessment Unit leader | Barr J.,Independent Consultant | And 9 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2011

New hatchery management strategies in the Columbia River Basin focus on conservation of naturally spawning populations as an equal priority to providing fish for harvest -a difficult balance to achieve. The Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG) assessed 178 hatchery programs and 351 salmonid populations to determine how to achieve managers' goals for conservation and sustainable fisheries. Modeling determined the best strategy, using an approach based on best available science, goal identification, scientific defensibility, and adaptive management to refocus from an aquaculture paradigm to a renewable natural resource paradigm. We concluded that hatcheries and natural populations must be managed with the same biological principles. HSRG solutions improved the conservation status of many populations (25% for steelhead trout, more than 70% for Chinook and coho salmons) while also providing increased harvest. Natural-origin steelhead trout and coho salmon spawners increased by 6,000 to 10,000; Chinook salmon increased by more than 35,000 compared to current numbers. Hatchery juvenile production decreased slightly, and in most cases production shifted from populations of concern. Overall harvest potential increased from 717,000 to 818,000 fish by focusing on selective fishing and by relocating some in-river harvest closer to where the fish originate. With habitat improvements, often the number of natural-origin fish nearly doubled.

Naiman R.J.,University of Washington | Naiman R.J.,University of Western Australia | Alldredge J.R.,Washington State University | Beauchamp D.A.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 14 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure - without explicitly considering food webs - has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management.

Rieman B.E.,Rocky Research | Smith C.L.,Oregon State University | Naiman R.J.,University of Washington | Naiman R.J.,University of Western Australia | And 12 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2015

The Columbia Basin once supported a diversity of native fishes and large runs of anadromous salmonids that sustained substantial fisheries and cultural values. Extensive land conversion, watershed disruptions, and subsequent fishery declines have led to one of the most ambitious restoration programs in the world. Progress has been made, but restoration is expensive (exceeding US$300M/year), and it remains unclear whether habitat actions, in particular, can be successful. A comprehensive approach is needed to guide cost-effective habitat restoration. Four elements that must be addressed simultaneously are (1) a scientific foundation from landscape ecology and the concept of resilience, (2) broad public support, (3) governance for collaboration and integration, and (4) a capacity for learning and adaptation. Realizing these in the Columbia Basin will require actions to rebalance restoration goals to include diversity, strengthen linkages between science and management, increase public engagement, work across traditional ecological and social boundaries, and learn from experience. © 2015, American Fisheries Society.

Cooke S.J.,Carleton University | Allison E.H.,University of Washington | Beard T.D.,National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center | Arlinghaus R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | And 11 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2016

At present, inland fisheries are not often a national or regional governance priority and as a result, inland capture fisheries are undervalued and largely overlooked. As such they are threatened in both developing and developed countries. Indeed, due to lack of reliable data, inland fisheries have never been part of any high profile global fisheries assessment and are notably absent from the Sustainable Development Goals. The general public and policy makers are largely ignorant of the plight of freshwater ecosystems and the fish they support, as well as the ecosystem services generated by inland fisheries. This ignorance is particularly salient given that the current emphasis on the food-water-energy nexus often fails to include the important role that inland fish and fisheries play in food security and supporting livelihoods in low-income food deficit countries. Developing countries in Africa and Asia produce about 11 million tonnes of inland fish annually, 90 % of the global total. The role of inland fisheries goes beyond just kilocalories; fish provide important micronutrients and essentially fatty acids. In some regions, inland recreational fisheries are important, generating much wealth and supporting livelihoods. The following three key recommendations are necessary for action if inland fisheries are to become a part of the food-water-energy discussion: invest in improved valuation and assessment methods, build better methods to effectively govern inland fisheries (requires capacity building and incentives), and develop approaches to managing waters across sectors and scales. Moreover, if inland fisheries are recognized as important to food security, livelihoods, and human well-being, they can be more easily incorporated in regional, national, and global policies and agreements on water issues. Through these approaches, inland fisheries can be better evaluated and be more fully recognized in broader water resource and aquatic ecosystem planning and decision-making frameworks, enhancing their value and sustainability for the future. © 2016 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

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