Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-04-2014 | Award Amount: 6.88M | Year: 2015
Knowledge regarding the complex interplay between agricultural land use and management and soil quality and function is fragmented and incomplete, in particular with regard to underlying principles and regulating mechanisms. The main aim of iSQAPER is to develop an interactive soil quality assessment tool (SQAPP) for agricultural land users that integrates newly derived process understanding and accounts for the impact of agricultural land use and management on soil properties and functions, and related ecosystem services. For this purpose, >30 long-term experimental field trials in the EU and China will be analysed to derive regulating principles for integration in SQAPP. SQAPP will be developed using a multi-actor approach aiming at facilitating social innovation and providing options to land users for cost-effective agricultural management activities to enhance soil quality and crop productivity. SQAPP will be tested extensively in 14 dedicated Case Study Sites in the EU and China covering a wide spectrum of farming systems and pedo-climatic zones, and rolled-out across the continents thereafter. Within the Case Study sites a range of alternative agricultural practices will be selected, implemented and evaluated with regard to effects on improving soil quality and crop productivity. Proven practices will be evaluated for their potential applicability at EU and China levels, and to assess the related soil environmental footprint under current and future agricultural trends and various agricultural policy scenarios. How the soil quality tool can be utilized for different policy purposes, e.g. in cross compliance and agro-environmental measures, will also be investigated and demonstrated. A comprehensive dissemination and communication strategy, including a web-based information portal, will ensure that project results are available to a variety of stakeholders at the right time and in appropriate formats to enhance soil quality and productivity in the EU and China.
Xian Aolan Science, Technology Co., Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Date: 2015-07-08
A multidimensional liquid chromatography separation system and separation method for protein separation. The multidimensional liquid chromatography separation system for protein separation comprises a mobile-phase storage tank (2), a first liquid transfer device (3, 1-2), a second liquid transfer device (9, 1-1), a first sample introduction device (4-1, 4-2), a second sample introduction device (12), a separation device (7), a collection and storage device (10), at least two drainage devices (7-1, 7-2, 7-3) and a flow path switching device (11). When the liquid chromatography separation of each dimension is conducted, the collection and storage device collects target middle distillates needing to conduct the next step of liquid chromatography separation and stores same in a collection and storage device. During the liquid chromatography separation of the second dimension or more dimensions, all the target middle distillates from the collection and storage device are mixed with mobile phases through a sample introduction mixer of the second sample introduction device, and the amount of the mobile phases conveyed by same is adjusted and measured using the first liquid transfer device and the second liquid transfer device, so as to enable the eluent concentration in the sample introduction mixture to be lower than the critical migration eluent concentration of all the target proteins in the target middle distillates which need to be preserved in the separation of this dimension.
Xian Aolan Science And Technology Co., Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Date: 2015-03-02
A multidimensional liquid chromatography separation system has a mobile-phase storage tank, a first liquid transfer device, a second liquid transfer device, a first sample introduction device, a second sample introduction device, a separation device, a collection, storage device, at least two drainage devices and a flow path switching device. A separation method for protein separation using the multidimensional liquid chromatography separation system has the steps of: 1) preparation in advance, 2) the first dimensional separation, 3) collection and storage of the intermediate fraction, 4) the second dimensional or multidimensional separation and repeating the steps 3) and 4).
Wang Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
PLoS computational biology | Year: 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced approximately 21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target) and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1) three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI) domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2) the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3) it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5'-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg(2+)) plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA). Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago.
Liu X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014
Mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars annually and is the most consequential disease of dairy cattle. Transgenic cows secreting an antimicrobial peptide demonstrated resistance to mastitis. The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. Recent studies found that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) stimulated the integration of exogenous DNA stretches into a pre-determined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Here, we used ZFNs to target human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus, resulting in hLYZ knock-in of approximately 1% of ZFN-treated bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs). Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In vitro assays demonstrated that the milk secreted by transgenic cows had the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. Our findings open a unique avenue for the creation of transgenic cows from genetic engineering by providing a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improving the health and welfare of livestock.
Li Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
PloS one | Year: 2013
Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran) which each confer organophosphate (OP) hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case) of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.
Du W.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
PloS one | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to characterize a Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs) disomic addition line 2-1-6-3. Individual line 2-1-6-3 plants were analyzed using cytological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), EST-SSR, and EST-STS techniques. The alien addition line 2-1-6-3 was shown to have two P. huashanica chromosomes, with a meiotic configuration of 2n = 44 = 22 II. We tested 55 EST-SSR and 336 EST-STS primer pairs that mapped onto seven different wheat chromosomes using DNA from parents and the P. huashanica addition line. One EST-SSR and nine EST-STS primer pairs indicated that the additional chromosome of P. huashanica belonged to homoeologous group 7, the diagnostic fragments of five EST-STS markers (BE404955, BE591127, BE637663, BF482781 and CD452422) were cloned, sequenced and compared. The results showed that the amplified polymorphic bands of P. huashanica and disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 shared 100% sequence identity, which was designated as the 7Ns disomic addition line. Disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 was evaluated to test the leaf rust resistance of adult stages in the field. We found that one pair of the 7Ns genome chromosomes carried new leaf rust resistance gene(s). Moreover, wheat line 2-1-6-3 had a superior numbers of florets and grains per spike, which were associated with the introgression of the paired P. huashanica chromosomes. These high levels of disease resistance and stable, excellent agronomic traits suggest that this line could be utilized as a novel donor in wheat breeding programs.
Chen L.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2013
Trunk kidney is a vital organ for excretion in teleosts. There have been sporadic reports of processing pathogens for the immune function in trunk kidney. However, molecular processes of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) responding to virus and viral/bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are poorly elucidated in trunk kidney. In the present study, we investigated transcriptional profiles of twelve representative immune-related genes (TLRs (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR22); RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2); NLRs (NOD1 and NOD2); adapter molecules (MyD88 and IPS-1); effector molecule type I interferon (IFN-I) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)) in trunk kidney tissue of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as Ci) injection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) utilizing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression patterns of these genes (IgM excepted) were examined post GCRV infection and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation in primary trunk kidney cells of grass carp. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR22 and CiMyD88 were increased post GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. The mRNA transcriptions of CiTLR7 were obviously activated with GCRV challenge. Remarkably, the mRNA expressions of CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2 and CiIPS-1 were largely up-regulated with GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. Interestingly, the expression tendencies of CiNOD1 and CiNOD2 were differential not only in GCRV challenge and poly(I:C) stimulation, but also in LPS and PGN stimulation. It was demonstrated that CiIFN-I induced powerful anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects in trunk kidney. In addition, the expression of CiIgM was induced at 72 h post GCRV injection in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that trunk kidney of grass carp serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering anti-viral and anti-bacterial immune responses both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Date: 2012-10-24
The present invention relates to a compound of the formula (I), wherein R_(1), R_(2) and R_(3) are each independently selected from H, OH, F, Cl, Br, methoxy and ethoxy; or alternatively, R_(1) and R_(2) together form -OCH_(2)O-, R_(3) is selected from H, OH, methoxy, ethoxy and halogens; R_(4) is OH or acyloxy; R_(5) is cycloalkoxyl, amino and substituted amino, and when R_(5) is selected from amino, at least one of R_(1), R_(2) and R_(3) is not H. The present invention further relates to a process for synthesizing a compound of the formula (I), and use of the compound of the formula (I) in the manufacture of a medicament for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IIFR | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IIF | Award Amount: 15.00K | Year: 2015
It is crucial to understand terrestrial microbial processes because they govern greenhouse gas emissions; unfortunately, the long-term microbial responses to climate change remain unclear, causing uncertainty in predictions for how they will impact future climate and atmospheric composition. The peatlands from the Tibetan Plateau, controlled by the Indian Monsoon and East Asian Monsoon systems, have been major players in climate change and carbon cycling, such that these deposits represent a truly novel potential to address the above scientific issues. This proposed research will expand the Tibetan Plateau dataset of peat-forming plant D values, a key hydrological indicator; quantify and isotopically characterise microbial biomarkers and especially those derived from organisms involved with methane cycling; evaluate the link between precipitation, vegetation, redox conditions and microbially mediated processes and especially methanogenesis. These records will be developed using cutting edge approaches exploiting gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and GC-thermal conversion-IRMS. This dataset seeks to understand methanogenic and methanotrophic processes and will be used to develop higher resolution and longer-term CH4 biogeochemical records over the Holocene and to better understand the effect of Asian monsoon change on modern and ancient CH4 biogeochemistry, and to ultimately embed them in the framework of known and hypothesised relationships between microorganisms and climate change. This work will be one of the very first applications of these novel methodologies to the study of past changes in peat biogeochemistry outside of Northern Europe. It will validate and expand on the European investigations and contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of the microbial response to climate change and its impact on CH4 biogeochemistry.