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Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Northumbria University, officially the University of Northumbria at Newcastle, is a university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. A former polytechnic, it was established as one of the new universities in 1992. It is a member of the University Alliance. It is the second university of Newcastle, along with Newcastle University. Wikipedia.


Mann D.A.,Northumbria University
Hepatology | Year: 2014

Epigenetics is a term that encompasses a variety of regulatory processes that are able to crosstalk in order to influence gene expression and cell phenotype in response to environmental cues. A deep understanding of epigenetics offers the potential for fresh insights into the basis for complex chronic diseases and improved diagnostic and prognostic tools. Moreover, as epigenetic modifications are highly plastic and responsive to the environment, there is much excitement around the theme of epigenetic therapeutics, including not only new drugs but also more informed patient advice on lifestyle choices and their impact on pathology. This review briefly explains the molecular nature of the individual regulatory process that constitute epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, transcriptional control, and noncoding RNAs. The ways in which these epigenetic mechanisms influence liver physiology and disease will be considered in detail, particularly in the context of cancer, fibrosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The current limitations associated with epigenetic profiling and therapeutics in liver disease are discussed, as is the intriguing possibility that environmental-induced epigenetic changes may become stable and heritable. Conclusion: The aim of the review is to inform hepatologists of the emerging key epigenetic ideas of relevance to liver diseases that are highly likely to form a component of patient management and care in the next decade. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source


Curtin N.J.,Northumbria University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Dysregulation of DNA damage repair and signalling to cell cycle checkpoints, known as the DNA damage response (DDR), is associated with a predisposition to cancer and affects responses to DNA-damaging anticancer therapy. Dysfunction of one DNA repair pathway may be compensated for by the function of another compensatory DDR pathway, which may be increased and contribute to resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, DDR pathways make an ideal target for therapeutic intervention; first, to prevent or reverse therapy resistance; and second, using a synthetic lethal approach to specifically kill cancer cells that are dependent on a compensatory DNA repair pathway for survival in the context of cancer-associated oxidative and replicative stress. These hypotheses are currently being tested in the laboratory and are being translated into clinical studies. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Errington J.,Northumbria University
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Work over the past decade has highlighted the pivotal role of the actin-like MreB family of proteins in the determination and maintenance of rod cell shape in bacteria. Early images of MreB localization revealed long helical filaments, which were suggestive of a direct role in governing cell wall architecture. However, several more recent, higher-resolution studies have questioned the existence or importance of the helical structures. In this Opinion article, I navigate a path through these conflicting reports, revive the helix model and summarize the key questions that remain to be answered. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Juggins S.,Northumbria University
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

Quantitative reconstructions from biological proxies have revolutionised palaeolimnology but the methodology is not without problems. The most important of these result from attempts to reconstruct non-causal environmental variables and from the effects of secondary variables. Non-causal variables act as surrogates for often unknown or unquantified ecological factors and the method assumes that these relationships are invariant in space and time. This assumption is almost never met and examples of diatom models for water depth and summer temperature demonstrate how violation leads to spurious and misleading reconstructions. In addition, comparison of published species optima indicate that a number of models have little or no predictive power outside their current spatial setting. Finally, experiments using simulated training sets of known properties demonstrate how changes in secondary "nuisance" variables can lead to large, consistent, and interpretable trends in a reconstruction that are completely spurious and independent of any real change in the reconstructed variable. These problems pervade many quantitative reconstructions in palaeolimnology and other disciplines. Palaeoecologists must give greater attention to what can and cannot be reconstructed and explicitly address the dangers of reconstructing surrogate and confounded variables if our reconstructions are to remain credible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Dean P.,Northumbria University
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2011

A key feature of the virulence of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells via a dedicated type three secretion system (T3SS). Many bacterial pathogens, including species of Chlamydia, Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia and Yersinia, depend on the T3SS to cause disease. T3SS effectors constitute a large and diverse group of virulence proteins that mimic eukaryotic proteins in structure and function. A salient feature of bacterial effectors is their modular architecture, comprising domains or motifs that confer an array of subversive functions within the eukaryotic cell. These domains/motifs therefore represent a fascinating repertoire of molecular determinants with important roles during infection. This review provides a snapshot of our current understanding of bacterial effector domains and motifs where a defined role in infection has been demonstrated. A snapshot of our current progress relating to the molecular details of bacterial type III effector proteins with attention paid to their structure, domain organisation and functional motifs that have defined roles in the infection process. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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