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Atlanta, GA, United States

Pannu V.,Georgia State University | Mittal K.,Georgia State University | Cantuaria G.,Northside Hospital Cancer Institute | Reid M.D.,Emory University | And 8 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Centrosome amplification (CA), a cell-biological trait, characterizes pre-neoplastic and pre-invasive lesions and is associated with tumor aggressiveness. Recent studies suggest that CA leads to malignant transformation and promotes invasion in mammary epithelial cells. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), a histologically-aggressive subtype shows high recurrence, metastases, and mortality rates. Since TNBC and non- TNBC follow variable kinetics of metastatic progression, they constitute a novel test bed to explore if severity and nature of CA can distinguish them apart. We quantitatively assessed structural and numerical centrosomal aberrations for each patient sample in a large-cohort of grade-matched TNBC (n = 30) and non-TNBC (n = 98) cases employing multi-color confocal imaging. Our data establish differences in incidence and severity of CA between TNBC and non-TNBC cell lines and clinical specimens. We found strong correlation between CA and aggressiveness markers associated with metastasis in 20 pairs of grade-matched TNBC and non-TNBC specimens (p < 0.02). Time-lapse imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells harboring amplified centrosomes demonstrated enhanced migratory ability. Our study bridges a vital knowledge gap by pinpointing that CA underlies breast cancer aggressiveness. This previously unrecognized organellar inequality at the centrosome level may allow early-risk prediction and explain higher tumor aggressiveness and mortality rates in TNBC patients.


Rida P.C.G.,Georgia State University | Rida P.C.G.,Novazoi Theranostics Inc. | Cantuaria G.,Northside Hospital Cancer Institute | Reid M.D.,Emory University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2015

Cancer is truly an iconic disease—a tour de force whose multiple formidable strengths can be attributed to the bewildering heterogeneity that a tumor can manifest both spatially and temporally. A Darwinian evolutionary process is believed to undergird, at least in part, the generation of this heterogeneity that contributes to poor clinical outcomes. Risk assessment in clinical oncology is currently based on a small number of clinicopathologic factors (like stage, histological grade, receptor status, and serum tumor markers) and offers limited accuracy in predicting disease course as evidenced by the prognostic heterogeneity that persists in risk segments produced by present-day models. We posit that this insufficiency stems from the exclusion of key risk contributors from such models, especially the omission of certain factors implicated in generating intratumoral heterogeneity. The extent of centrosome amplification and the mitotic propensity inherent in a tumor are two such vital factors whose contributions to poor prognosis are presently overlooked in risk prognostication. Supernumerary centrosomes occur widely in tumors and are potent drivers of chromosomal instability that fosters intratumoral heterogeneity. The mitotic propensity of a proliferating population of tumor cells reflects the cell cycling kinetics of that population. Since frequent passage through improperly regulated mitotic divisions accelerates production of diverse genotypes, the mitotic propensity inherent in a tumor serves as a powerful beacon of risk. In this review, we highlight how centrosome amplification and error-prone mitoses contribute to poor clinical outcomes and urge the need to develop these cancer-specific traits as much-needed clinically-facile prognostic biomarkers with immense potential value for individualized cancer treatment in the clinic. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Mukkavilli R.,Advinus Therapeutics Ltd | Gundala S.R.,Georgia State University | Yang C.,Georgia State University | Donthamsetty S.,Georgia State University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Natural and complementary therapies in conjunction with mainstream cancer care are steadily gaining popularity. Ginger extract (GE) confers significant health-promoting benefits owing to complex additive and/or synergistic interactions between its bioactive constituents. Recently, we showed that preservation of natural "milieu" confers superior anticancer activity on GE over its constituent phytochemicals, 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S), through enterohepatic recirculation. Here we further evaluate and compare the effects of GE and its major bioactive constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity in human liver microsomes by monitoring metabolites of CYP-specific substrates using LC/MS/MS detection methods. Our data demonstrate that individual gingerols are potent inhibitors of CYP isozymes, whereas GE exhibits a much higher half-maximal inhibition value, indicating no possible herb-drug interactions. However, GE's inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2C8 reflects additive interactions among the constituents. In addition, studies performed to evaluate transporter-mediated intestinal efflux using Caco-2 cells revealed that GE and its phenolics are not substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Intriguingly, however, 10G and 6S were not detected in the receiver compartment, indicating possible biotransformation across the Caco-2 monolayer. These data strengthen the notion that an interplay of complex interactions among ginger phytochemicals when fed as whole extract dictates its bioactivity highlighting the importance of consuming whole foods over single agents. Our study substantiates the need for an in-depth analysis of hepatic biotransformation events and distribution profiles of GE and its active phenolics for the design of safe regimens. © 2014 Mukkavilli et al.


Lang K.A.F.,Northside Hospital Cancer Institute
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2013

Genetic counselors have been helping patients navigate hereditary cancer risk for decades. The rapidly changing landscape of genetic testing options means the field is again at a unique time in its history. Fears that arose when BRCA testing first became available are again being voiced in light of next-generation sequencing. The origins of genetic counseling, best practices, and recommendations that have come about since those early days need to be well understood before these new challenges can be met. The role of a proper risk assessment in preventing adverse outcomes is vital as options for testing change. In addition, an understanding of how various countries have incorporated genetic testing and genetic counseling into their healthcare systems can provide lessons in moving forward and capitalizing on the new technology that is again creating a genetics revolution. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.


Pawar S.,Georgia State University | Donthamsetty S.,Georgia State University | Pannu V.,Georgia State University | Rida P.,Georgia State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ovarian Research | Year: 2014

Background: Amplified centrosomes in cancers are recently garnering a lot of attention as an emerging hub of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Ovarian adenocarcinomas commonly harbor supernumerary centrosomes that drive chromosomal instability. A centrosome clustering molecule, KIFC1, is indispensable for the viability of extra centrosome-bearing cancer cells, and may underlie progression of ovarian cancers. Methods. Centrosome amplification in low- and high- grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas was quantitated employing confocal imaging. KIFC1 expression was analyzed in ovarian tumors using publically-available databases. Associated grade, stage and clinical information from these databases were plotted for KIFC1 gene expression values. Furthermore, interactions and functional annotation of KIFC1 and its highly correlated genes were studied using DAVID and STRING 9.1. Results: Clinical specimens of ovarian cancers display robust centrosome amplification and deploy centrosome clustering to execute an error-prone mitosis to enable karyotypic heterogeneity that fosters tumor progression and aggressiveness. Our in silico analyses showed KIFC1 overexpression in human ovarian tumors (n = 1090) and its upregulation associated with tumor aggressiveness utilizing publically-available gene expression databases. KIFC1 expression correlated with advanced tumor grade and stage. Dichotomization of KIFC1 levels revealed a significantly lower overall survival time for patients in high KIFC1 group. Intriguingly, in a matched-cohort of primary (n = 7) and metastatic (n = 7) ovarian samples, no significant differences in KIFC1 expression were detectable, suggesting that high KIFC1 expression may serve as a marker of metastases onset. Nonetheless, KIFC1 levels in both primary and matched metastatic sites were significantly higher compared to normal tissue. Ingenuity based network prediction algorithms combined with pre-established protein interaction networks uncovered several novel cell-cycle related partner genes on the basis of interconnectivity, illuminating the centrosome clustering independent agenda of KIFC1 in ovarian tumor progression. Conclusions: Ovarian cancers display amplified centrosomes, a feature of aggressive tumors. To cope up with the abnormal centrosomal load, ovarian cancer cells upregulate genes like KIFC1 that are known to induce centrosome clustering. Our data underscore KIFC1 as a putative biomarker that predicts worse prognosis, poor overall survival and may serve as a potential marker of onset of metastatic dissemination in ovarian cancer patients. © 2014 Pawar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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