Northshore University Healthcare System

Evanston, IL, United States

Northshore University Healthcare System

Evanston, IL, United States

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Reiher A.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reiher A.E.,Northshore University Healthcare System | Mazeh H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Schaefer S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Surgery (United States) | Year: 2012

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism can be associated with symptoms related to GERD, but it is unclear which symptoms of GERD improve after parathyroidectomy. Our goal was to assess prospectively for changes in specific GERD symptoms after parathyroidectomy using a validated questionnaire. Methods: Using the GERD health-related quality of life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire, symptoms of heartburn were prospectively assessed before and 6 months after treatment of hyperparathyroidism with parathyroidectomy. This validated questionnaire includes 10 items, with a Likert scale of 0-5. Scores range from 0 to 45, a lesser score indicates fewer/less severe symptoms. Results: Pre- and postoperative surveys were available for 51 patients. Parathyroidectomy improved the overall questionnaire score (12.5 ± 1.3 vs 4.5 ± 0.9, P <.0001). Overall scores for each question improved after parathyroidectomy, including symptoms of dysphagia (P =.001) and overall satisfaction with symptoms (P <.0001). However, the number of patients taking antireflux medication before and after parathyroidectomy was not substantially different (34 vs 28 patients, P =.17). Conclusion: All symptoms of GERD improved after parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism. Despite the decrease in symptoms, there was not a change in the number of patients who remained on anti-reflux therapy. For patients with symptoms of GERD, a trial off antireflux medications after parathyroidectomy should be considered. © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


Ojomo K.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Schneider D.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reiher A.E.,Northshore University Healthcare System | Lai N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons | Year: 2013

Background: Current postoperative thyroid replacement dosing is weight based, with adjustments made after thyroid-stimulating hormone values. This method can lead to considerable delays in achieving euthyroidism and often fails to accurately dose over- and underweight patients. Our aim was to develop an accurate dosing method that uses patient body mass index (BMI) data. Study Design: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected thyroid database was performed. We selected adult patients undergoing thyroidectomy, with benign pathology, who achieved euthyroidism on thyroid hormone supplementation. Body mass index and euthyroid dose were plotted and regression was used to fit curves to the data. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10.1 software (Stata Corp). Results: One hundred twenty-two patients met inclusion criteria. At initial follow-up, only 39 patients were euthyroid (32%). Fifty-three percent of patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 were overdosed, and 46% of patients with BMI <25 kg/m2 were underdosed. The line of best fit demonstrated an overall quadratic relationship between BMI and euthyroid dose. A linear relationship best described the data up to a BMI of 50. Beyond that, the line approached 1.1 μg/kg. A regression equation was derived for calculating initial levothyroxine dose (μg/kg/d = -0.018 × BMI + 2.13 [F statistic = 52.7, root mean square error of 0.24]). Conclusions: The current standard of weight-based thyroid replacement fails to appropriately dose underweight and overweight patients. Body mass index can be used to more accurately dose thyroid hormone using a simple formula. © 2013 by the American College of Surgeons.


Helfand B.T.,Northshore University Healthcare System | Loeb S.,New York University | Hu Q.,Northwestern University | Cooper P.R.,Northwestern University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Recent studies have identified genetic variants associated with increased serum prostate specific antigen concentrations and prostate cancer risk, raising the possibility of diagnostic bias. By correcting for the effects of these variants on prostate specific antigen, it may be possible to create a personalized prostate specific antigen cutoff to more accurately identify individuals for whom biopsy is recommended. Therefore, we determined how many men would continue to meet common biopsy criteria after genetic correction of their measured prostate specific antigen concentrations. Materials and Methods: The genotypes of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with serum prostate specific antigen levels (rs2736098, rs10788160, rs11067228 and rs17632542) were determined in 964 healthy Caucasian volunteers without prostate cancer. Genetic correction of prostate specific antigen was performed by dividing an individual's prostate specific antigen value by his combined genetic risk. Analyses were used to compare the percentage of men who would meet commonly used biopsy thresholds (2.5 ng/ml or greater, or 4.0 ng/ml or greater) before and after genetic correction. Results: Genetic correction of serum prostate specific antigen results was associated with a significantly decreased percentage of men meeting biopsy thresholds. Genetic correction could lead to a 15% or 20% relative reduction in the total number of biopsies using a biopsy threshold of 2.5 ng/ml or greater, or 4.0 ng/ml or greater, respectively. In addition, genetic correction could result in an 18% to 22% reduction in the number of potentially unnecessary biopsies and a 3% decrease in potentially delayed diagnoses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms can be used to adjust a man's measured prostate specific antigen concentration and potentially delay or prevent unnecessary prostate biopsies in Caucasian men. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.


Sanford S.D.,Northwestern University | Beaumont J.L.,Northwestern University | Butt Z.,Northwestern University | Sweet J.J.,Northshore University Healthcare System | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management | Year: 2014

Context Symptom cluster research expands cancer investigations beyond a focus on individual symptoms in isolation. Objectives We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of sleep, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive impairment in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods Patient-reported outcome measures were administered prior to chemotherapy, at Cycle 4 Day 1, and six months after initiating chemotherapy. Participants were divided into four groups and assigned a symptom cluster index (SCI) score based on the number/severity of symptoms reported at enrollment. Results Participants (N = 80) were mostly women (97.5%) with Stage II (69.0%) breast cancer, 29-71 years of age. Scores on all measures were moderately-highly correlated across all time points. There were time effects for all symptoms, except sleep quality (nonsignificant trend), with most symptoms worsening during chemotherapy, although anxiety improved. There were no significant group × time interactions; all four SCI groups showed a similar trajectory of symptoms over time. Worse performance status and quality of life were associated with higher SCI score over time. Conclusion With the exception of anxiety, the coherence of the symptom cluster was supported by similar patterns of severity and change over time in these symptoms (trend for sleep quality). Participants with higher SCI scores prior to chemotherapy continued to experience greater symptom burden during and after chemotherapy. Early assessment and intervention addressing this symptom cluster (vs. individual symptoms) may have a greater impact on patient performance status and quality of life for patients with higher SCIs.


Reinhardt D.,Northwestern University | Helfand B.T.,NorthShore University Healthcare System | Cooper P.R.,Northwestern University | Roehl K.A.,Northwestern University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Purpose Genome-wide association studies have identified an increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer risk. Some of these genetic variants are also associated with serum prostate specific antigen levels and lower urinary tract symptoms, raising the question of whether they are truly prostate cancer biomarkers or simply lead to detection bias. Therefore, we determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer risk are more strongly associated with tumor or prostate volume. Materials and Methods The genotypes of 38 validated prostate cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined in 1,321 white men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphism frequency with total prostate and tumor volumes. Results On multivariate analysis 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 8q24, rs16901979 (A) and rs6983267 (G), were significantly associated with increased tumor volume (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). In contrast, rs17632542 (T) near the PSA gene on 19q13 was associated with significantly lower tumor volume and rs10788160 (A) on 10q26 was associated with significantly larger prostate volume (p = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusions Analysis of 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer risk revealed a significant association between several on chromosome 8q24 and increased tumor volume but not prostate volume. This suggests that they are bona fide markers of prostate cancer susceptibility and possibly more aggressive disease. Other prostate cancer risk alleles are associated with prostate specific antigen and increased prostate or decreased tumor volume, suggesting detection bias due to their phenotypic influence. © 2014 by American Urological Association Educaton and Research, Inc.


Ough M.,NorthShore University Healthcare System | Ough M.,Rush University Medical Center | Velasco J.,NorthShore University Healthcare System | Velasco J.,Rush University Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: Core needle biopsy (CNB) is used increasingly not only to diagnose breast cancer, but to determine tumor histology, grade and marker expression, select neoadjuvant therapy, and predict sentinel lymph node status. Thus, we undertook this study to evaluate the accuracy of CNB as a predictor of breast cancer histology and marker expression. Methods: We identified 209 Breast Cancer Registry cases with a preoperative CNB and reviewed all clinicopathologic data for accuracy. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical software. Results: CNB unequivocally showed cancer in 93%. Exact tumor histology concordance was 86%. Ductal carcinoma in situ on CNB was upgraded to invasive cancer in 23%. Concordance was substantial for estrogen receptor expression (88%, κ = .71), but kappa values were less than .6 for tumor grade, mitotic rate, progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, HER-2/neu, and p53 expression. Conclusions: Reliance on CNB grade and marker expression for critical decision making may be inadvisable. Further study is warranted to optimize breast cancer patient care. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Donin N.M.,New York University | Loeb S.,New York University | Cooper P.R.,Northwestern University | Roehl K.A.,Northwestern University | And 3 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate whether genetic correction using the genetic variants prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could reduce potentially unnecessary and/or delayed biopsies in African-American men.Subjects and Methods We compared the genotypes of four PSA-SNPs between 964 Caucasian and 363 African-American men without known prostate cancer (PCa). We adjusted the PSA values based on an individual's PSA-SNP carrier status, and calculated the percentage of men that would meet commonly used PSA thresholds for biopsy (≥2.5 or ≥4.0ng/mL) before and after genetic correction. Potentially unnecessary and delayed biopsies were defined as those men who were below and above the biopsy threshold after genetic correction, respectively.Results Overall, 349 (96.1%) and 354 (97.5%) African-American men had measured PSA levels <2.5 and <4.0ng/mL. Genetic correction in African-American men did not avoid any potentially unnecessary biopsies, but resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in potentially delayed biopsies by 2.5% and 3.9%, based on the biopsy threshold level.Conclusions There are significant differences in the influence of the PSA-SNPs between African-American and Caucasian men without known PCa, as genetic correction resulted in an increased proportion of African-American men crossing the threshold for biopsy. These results raise the question of whether genetic differences in PSA might contribute to delayed PCa diagnosis in African-American men. © 2014 The Authors.


Freedman N.,NorthShore University Healthcare System
Sleep Medicine Clinics | Year: 2012

Although there are several objective and subjective tests available for the assessment of daytime sleepiness in both clinical practice and research settings, none of the available tests accurately differentiate sleepiness in normal individuals from sleepiness in patients with various sleep disorders or accurately predict safety in real world situations. Typically, a combination of subjective and objective testing in combination with the clinical history is necessary to best determine the degree and clinical significance of a given patient's daytime sleepiness. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Mani S.B.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Brown H.C.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Nair P.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Chen L.,NorthShore University Healthcare System | And 4 more authors.
Foot and Ankle International | Year: 2013

Introduction: The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score has been under recent scrutiny. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is an alternative subjective survey, assessing outcomes in 5 subscales. It is validated for lateral ankle instability and hallux valgus patients. The aim of our study was to validate the FAOS for assessing outcomes in flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). Methods: Patients from the authors' institution diagnosed with flexible AAFD from 2006 to 2011 were eligible for the study. In all, 126 patients who completed the FAOS and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) on the same visit were included in the construct validity component. Correlation was deemed moderate if the Spearman's correlation coefficient was .4 to .7. Content validity was assessed in 63 patients by a questionnaire that asked patients to rate the relevance of each FAOS question, with a score of 2 or greater considered acceptable. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 41 patients who completed a second FAOS survey. In 49 patients, preoperative and postoperative FAOS scores were compared to determine responsiveness. Results: All of the FAOS subscales demonstrated moderate correlation with 2 physical health related SF-12 domains. Mental health related domains showed poor correlation. Content validity was high for the Quality of Life (QoL; mean 2.26) and Sports/Recreation subscales (mean 2.12). All subscales exhibited very good test-retest reliability, with ICCs of .7 and above. Symptoms, QoL, pain, and daily activities (ADLs) were responsive to change in postoperative patients (P < .05). Conclusion: This study has validated the FAOS for AAFD with acceptable construct and content validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Given its previous validation for patients with ankle instability and hallux valgus, the additional findings in this study support its use as an alternative to less reliable outcome surveys. Level of Evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study. © 2013 The Author(s).


PubMed | Northshore University Healthcare System, Northwestern University and Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Knee | Year: 2016

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually.Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0, 30, 60 and 90 of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer.Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles.The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation.The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading.

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