Drobyshevsky A.,University of Chicago |
Drobyshevsky A.,NorthShore University Health Systems Research Institute |
Takada S.H.,University of Sao Paulo |
Luo K.,University of Chicago |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry
We hypothesized that a deficiency in the descending serotonergic input to spinal cord may underlie postnatal muscle hypertonia after global antenatal hypoxic-ischemic injury in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy. Neurotransmitter content was determined by HPLC in the spinal cord of newborns with and without muscle hypertonia after fetal global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and naïve controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, serotonin levels in both cervical and lumbar expansions and norepinephrine in cervical expansion were increased in hypertonic kits relative to non-hypertonic kits and controls, with unchanged number of serotonergic cells in caudal raphe by stereological count. Serotonergic fiber length per unit of volume was also increased in hypertonic kits' cervical and lumbar spinal cord, both in dorsal and ventral horns. Gene expression of serotonin transporter was increased and 5-HTR2 receptors were decreased in hypertonic kits relative to controls in cervical and lumbar cord. Intrathecal administration of non-selective serotonin receptor inhibitor methysergide decreased muscle tone in hypertonic kits only. Conversely, intrathecal administration of serotonin solution increased muscle tone only in non-hypertonic kits. We speculate that maturation of serotonergic system in spinal cord may be directly affected by decreased corticospinal connectivity after antenatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source
Praper T.,University of Ljubljana |
Praper T.,NorthShore University Health Systems Research Institute |
Besenicar M.P.,University of Ljubljana |
Besenicar M.P.,NorthShore University Health Systems Research Institute |
And 5 more authors.
The various steps that perforin (PFN), a critical mediator of innate immune response, undertakes to form a transmembrane pore remains poorly understood. We have used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to dissect mechanism of pore formation. The membrane association of PFN was calcium dependent irrespective of pH. However, PFN does not permeabilize large or giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) at pH 5.5 even though the monomers bind to the membranes in the presence of calcium. It was possible to activate adsorbed PFN and to induce membrane permeabilization by simply raising pH to a physiological level (pH 7.4). These results were independently confirmed on GUV and Jurkat cells. The conformational state of PFN at either pH was further assessed with monoclonal antibodies Pf-80 and Pf-344. Pf-344 maps to a linear epitope within region 373-388 of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain while the Pf-80 appears to recognize a conformational epitope. Pf-344 interacts with the EGF-like domain after PFN monomers undergo pore formation, the site recognized by Pf-80 is only accessible at acidic but not neutral pH. Thus, the Pf-80 mAb likely interacts with a region of the monomer that participates in oligomerization prior to insertion of the monomer into the lipid bilayer and thus may have therapeutic utility against PFN-mediated immunopathology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source