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Evanston, IL, United States

Ciric I.S.,NorthShore University Health System
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Background: This report was conceived as a contribution to the national debate regarding U.S. health care (HC) and as a means of explaining the challenges facing U.S. HC to the international readers of WORLD NEUROSURGERY. Methods: The basic economic concepts pertinent to health care, including fundamentals of economic theories, gross domestic product (GDP), U.S. revenues and expenditures and the U.S. federal deficit and national debt, are discussed at the outset of this study. This is followed by a review of the U.S. health insurance paradigms and a detailed analysis of the escalating cost of U.S. health care. Finally, the efforts designed to reverse the paradigm of escalating health care costs will be discussed. Results: This study reveals that should the U.S. HC cost continue to escalate at the same rate, HC would consume the entire gross domestic product by 2070. The root causes for this trend are overutilization of HC, inappropriate allocation of HC costs at the end of life, defensive medicine, high-end technology and prescription drugs, failure of competitive market forces, and administrative costs, inefficiency, and waste. The proposed means of reversing this paradigm, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, are discussed in light of their economic and social impact. Conclusions: The reversal of the current paradigm of escalating cost of U.S. HC will require extraordinary leadership across the entire spectrum of HC delivery. It is concluded that neither the Affordable Care Act nor the Path to Prosperity will succeed unless the escalating cost of U.S. HC is reversed. It is hoped that this report contributes to that end. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Alshayeb H.M.,University of Chicago | Josephson M.A.,University of Chicago | Sprague S.M.,NorthShore University Health System
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2013

Kidney transplantation, the most effective treatment for the metabolic abnormalities of chronic kidney disease (CKD), only partially corrects CKD-mineral and bone disorders. Posttransplantation bone disease, one of the major complications of kidney transplantation, is characterized by accelerated loss of bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures and osteonecrosis. The pathogenesis of posttransplantation bone disease is multifactorial and includes the persistent manifestations of pretransplantation CKD-mineral and bone disorder, peritransplantation changes in the fibroblast growth factor 23-parathyroid hormone-vitamin D axis, metabolic perturbations such as persistent hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, and the effects of immunosuppressive therapies. Posttransplantation fractures occur more commonly at peripheral than central sites. Although there is significant loss of bone density after transplantation, the evidence linking posttransplantation bone loss and subsequent fracture risk is circumstantial. Presently, there are no prospective clinical trials that define the optimal therapy for posttransplantation bone disease. Combined pharmacologic therapy that targets multiple components of the disordered pathways has been used. Although bisphosphonate or calcitriol therapy can preserve bone mineral density after transplantation, there is no evidence that these agents decrease fracture risk. Moreover, bisphosphonates pose potential risks for adynamic bone disease. © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Sprague S.M.,NorthShore University Health System | Sprague S.M.,University of Chicago
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

Calciphylaxis, also referred to as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a relatively rare but well described syndrome that occurs most commonly in patients with late stage CKD. It is characterized by very painful placques or subcutaneous nodules and violaceous, mottled skin lesions that may progress to nonhealing ulcers, tissue necrosis, and gangrene with a 1-year mortality rate >50%. The pathogenesis of calciphylaxis is poorly understood. Risk factors include female sex, obesity, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, longer dialysis vintage, hypercoagulable states, and use of calcium-containing phosphate binders and warfarin. Treatment strategies for calciphylaxis are limited by inadequate understanding of its pathophysiology. Therapy is generally focused on correcting disturbances of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Additional therapy focuses on decreasing inflammation and on dissolution of tissue calcium deposits with sodium thiosulfate and/or bisphosphonates. Successful treatment generally results in improvement of pain and healing of the lesions within 2-4 weeks, but the disorder generally takes many months to completely resolve. © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Goldstein C.,NorthShore University Health System | Kuzniar T.J.,Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine | Year: 2012

By the current definition, complex sleep apnea (CompSA) refers to the emergence of central sleep apnea (CSA) during the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, new-onset CSA has been described with use of other treatments for OSA, including tracheostomy, maxillofacial surgery, and mandibular advancement device. We present a patient with CSA beginning after endoscopic sinus and nasal surgery for nasal obstruction in the setting of mild OSA. This case highlights the importance of non-PAP mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CompSA.

Freedman N.,NorthShore University Health System
Chest | Year: 2015

The data support the use of an ambulatory management strategy in patients with a high clinical suspicion of moderate to severe OSA in the absence of comorbid medical conditions. Th is approach results in similar outcomes and reduced costs for testing and treatment compared with a management strategy primarily based on PSG. Th us, an out-of-center approach utilizing HST as the first line of testing should be considered for most patients with a high clinical suspicion of OSA as long as the managing clinicians are adequately trained in how to interpret and manage the data from these technologies. © 2015 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS.

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