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Gupta S.,University of Pittsburgh | Wang Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Ramos-Garcia R.,University of Pittsburgh | Shevrin D.,NorthShore University | And 2 more authors.

BACKGROUND Intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (IADT) was developed to improve the quality of life and retard prostate cancer progression to castration resistance. IADT involves regrowth of the tumor during the off cycle upon testosterone recovery. Our previous studies showed that testosterone is more potent than dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the induction of a subset of androgen-responsive genes during rat prostate regrowth. However, it is not clear if the same phenomenon would occur during androgen-induced regrowth of prostate tumors. Understanding the differences between testosterone and DHT in inducing androgen-responsive genes during prostate tumor regrowth may provide new insight for improving IADT. METHODS Nude mice bearing androgen-sensitive LNCaP xenograft were castrated and followed up for 7-10 days before being randomized into various androgen manipulations, consisting of continuous castration (C) or testosterone replacement (T) in the absence or presence of dutasteride (D), a 5α-reductase inhibitor that blocks the conversion of testosterone to DHT. Testes-intact animals in the absence or presence of D were used as controls. The expression of five androgen-responsive genes, including the tumor suppressor U19/Eaf2, was determined using real-time RT-PCR, 3 days after randomization. RESULTS In LNCaP tumors, the expression of U19/Eaf2 was higher in the T+D group as compared with T alone (2.87-fold, P < 0.05). In contrast, dutasteride treatment in testes-intact animals inhibited the expression of U19/Eaf2. CONCLUSIONS Inhibition of 5α-reductase during LNCaP tumor regrowth enhanced the expression of U19/Eaf2, an androgen-regulated tumor suppressor. This finding suggests that off cycle 5α-reductase inhibition may enhance the efficacy of IADT. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Lee Y.S.,USA Mobility | Chaysinh S.,USA Mobility | Garfield C.,NorthShore University | Hassan S.,USA Mobility | Noel M.,Motorola Solutions
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings

Parenting a Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) premature infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and transitioning this infant home can be very stressful for parents. Few studies, however, examined the needs of parents of VLBW infants during the transition to home; moreover, even less is known about information and communication technology strategies to support parents during the transition period. To address this knowledge gap, we are conducting a study that aims to develop a mobile application/service to support the parents of VLBW infants by enhancing communication with the NICU staff and access to information resources. We report findings from our preliminary study using contextual inquiry and phone interviews and discuss implications for system development. Source

Tu C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Ortega-Cava C.F.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Winograd P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Stanton M.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Active Src localization at focal adhesions (FAs) is essential for cell migration. How this pool is linked mechanistically to the large pool of Src at late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes (LY) is not well understood. Here, we used inducible Tsg101 gene deletion, TSG101 knockdown, and dominant-negative VPS4 expression to demonstrate that the localization of activated cellular Src and viral Src at FAs requires the endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway. Tsg101 deletion also led to impaired Src-dependent activation of STAT3 and focal adhesion kinase and reduced cell migration. Impairment of the ESCRT pathway or Rab7 function led to the accumulation of active Src at aberrant LE/LY compartments followed by its loss. Analyses using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching show that dynamic mobility of Src in endosomes is ESCRT pathway-dependent. These results reveal a critical role for an ESCRT pathway-dependent LE/LY trafficking step in Src function by promoting localization of active Src to FAs. Source

Schroeder G.D.,Northwestern University | Lynch T.S.,Cleveland Clinic | Gibbs D.B.,Northwestern University | Chow I.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.

STUDY DESIGN.: Cohort study. OBJECTIVE.: To determine the effect of cervical spine pathology on athletes entering the National Football League. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The association of symptomatic cervical spine pathology with American football athletes has been described; however, it is unknown how preexisting cervical spine pathology affects career performance of a National Football League player. METHODS.: The medical evaluations and imaging reports of American football athletes from 2003 to 2011 during the combine were evaluated. Athletes with a cervical spine diagnosis were matched to controls and career statistics were compiled. RESULTS.: Of a total of 2965 evaluated athletes, 143 players met the inclusion criteria. Athletes who attended the National Football League combine without a cervical spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than those with a diagnosis (P = 0.001). Players with a cervical spine diagnosis had a decreased total games played (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the number of games started (P = 0.08) or performance score (P = 0.38). In 10 athletes with a sagittal canal diameter of less than 10 mm, there was no difference in years, games played, games started, or performance score (P > 0.24). No neurological injury occurred during their careers. In 7 players who were drafted with a history of cervical spine surgery (4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, 2 foraminotomy, and 1 suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 laminectomy), there was no difference in career longevity or performance when compared with matched controls. CONCLUSION.: This study suggests that athletes with preexisting cervical spine pathology were less likely to be drafted than controls. Players with preexisting cervical spine pathology demonstrated a shorter career than those without; however, statistically based performance and numbers of games started were not different. Players with cervical spinal stenosis and those with a history of previous surgery demonstrated no difference in performance-based outcomes and no reports of neurological injury during their careers. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Howe L.L.S.,VA Palo Alto Health Care System | Sweet J.J.,NorthShore University | Sweet J.J.,University of Chicago | Bauer R.M.,University of Florida
Clinical Neuropsychologist

There are critical issues facing the neuropsychological community, such as inadequate reimbursement for services, a lack of familiarity among public policy makers regarding the science and practice of neuropsychology, and a lack of public policy awareness among professional neuropsychologists. Advocacy for the field is the most effective way to undertake positive change. Currently, a minority of psychological professionals actively engages in an advocacy process, while the majority is not involved, or is involved periodically or passively. With weak advocacy our field risks slower development in key areas, and without strong and constant advocacy we risk losing ground previously gained. The purpose of this article, and those that follow in this special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist, is to: (1) convey the importance of advocacy, (2) address and dispel unfounded mental obstacles that inhibit involvement in advocating for the specialty, and (3) aid neuropsychologists in preparing to join the advocacy process. To accomplish this, we acquaint readers with the advocacy process, delineate to practitioners how they can become involved, and encourage participation in advocacy. © 2010 Psychology Press. Source

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