California State University, Northridge is a public university in the Northridge neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States in the San Fernando Valley. CSUN is one of the 23 general campuses of the California State University system. Cal State Northridge is the third largest university in California in terms of enrollment, just behind CSUF and UCLA.It was founded first as the Valley satellite campus of Cal State Los Angeles. It then became an independent college in 1958 as San Fernando Valley State College, with major campus master planning and construction. The University adopted its current name of California State University, Northridge in 1972.CSUN offers a variety of programs including 134 different Bachelor's degrees, Master's degrees in 70 different fields, 3 Doctoral degrees including two Doctor of Education and a Doctor of Physical Therapy, and 24 teaching credentials. CSUN enrolls more than 38,000 students and ranks 10 in the U.S. in bachelor's degrees awarded to underrepresented minority students. The university has over 200,000 alumni. Cal State Northridge is home to the National Center on Deafness, and the university hosts the International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities , which is held each year in San Diego. Wikipedia.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2010
The detrimental impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on tropical coral reefs have been studied in detail, but there have been limited efforts to determine which corals might endure these adverse conditions. This study focused on 2 Caribbean corals that have survived better than most in recent years on shallow reefs (5 to 9 m depth) in St. John, US Virgin Islands, and it used demographic models to explore their responses to disturbance. The species studied were Porites astreoides, which has weedy life-history characteristics, and Diploria strigosa, which is relatively non-weedy and in this location appears robust against environmental assaults. Populations were cen- sused on varying schedules from 1994 to 2007, and a tag-and-resurvey procedure for individual colonies was repeated annually between 1999 and 2007 (P. astreoides) or 2002 and 2007 (D. strigosa). The results were used to parameterize size-based matrix models (size classes: I, ≤40 mm; II, 41 to 80 mm; and III, ≥81 mm diameter), and bootstrap resampling was used to attach confidence intervals to population parameters and projections. In contrast to the declining population of the historically dominant coral Montastraea annularis in St. John, the intrinsic rate of population increase (k) rose gradually for P. astreoides between 1999 and 2007. For D. strigosa, while k behaved somewhat erratically from 2002 to 2007, the overall trend was also upward. For both species, k was >1 at the end of the study, showing that the populations were growing. Over the next 100 yr, projections suggest that P. astreoides and D. strigosa will increase in abundance, even when impacted by recurrent disturbances, variable recruitment, and varied success of the largest colonies; size-frequency distributions demonstrated that their populations will remain dominated by medium (>23 and >25%, respectively) and large (>20 and 24%, respectively) colonies, regardless of the conditions investigated. The success of P. astreoides and D. strigosa in St. John is strongly related to the dynamics of the largest colonies - notably their low mortality and high chance of remaining in the largest size class - and these characteristics favor sustained population growth in an era when many corals are declining in abundance. P. astreoides and D. strigosa now appear poised to experience a period of enhanced abundance on reefs in at least one Caribbean location. © Inter-Research 2010.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013
Most coral reefs differ from those visited by explorers in the 15th century and described by ecologists in the 1950s, and reports of degraded reefs and hypotheses regarding the implications of the changes abound. Tests of these hypotheses require decadal-scale ecological analyses, yet data to support these efforts remain rare. In this study, 25 yr of time-series analyses from 3 habitats in St. John, US Virgin Islands, revealed changes in coral community structure that are spatially and temporally heterogeneous, only loosely coupled with local disturbances, and equivocal in terms of the coral community structure that can be projected from the recent past. In a near-shore habitat at 7 to 9 m depth, coral cover remained ~4% between 1992 and 2011, and variation in benthic community structure was driven mostly by Agaricia. In an Orbicella annularis (formerly Montastraea annularis)-dominated habitat at 9 m depth, coral cover declined from 45% in 1987 to 7% in 2011, and varied among decades. In a second O. annularis-dominated habitat at 14 m depth, coral cover increased from 32% in 1987 to 49% in 2002, but then declined to 29% in 2011. The density of small corals also changed between 1994 and 2011, beginning with a density (colonies per 0.25 m2) of 3.5 in 1992, rising to 4.9 in 2005, but declining to 3.0 in 2011. Each genus of small corals responded in dissimilar ways over time, with genera waxing and waning in abundance on multiple occasions and in asynchronous patterns. The reefs of St. John have changed markedly since 1987, but the present results show how adjacent habitats and sympatric coral taxa translate similar environmental signals into discordant community trajectories that suggest that these coral communities will not disappear in the short term. © Inter-Research 2013 · www.int-res.com.
Caro X.J.,Northridge |
Winter E.F.,North Central University
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2014
Objective A subset of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) exhibit a large fiber demyelinating peripheral polyneuropathy akin to that seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). It has been suggested that this demyelinating process is likely to be immune mediated. Because it is known that similar large fiber neuropathic lesions may be associated with a cutaneous small fiber neuropathy, we sought to determine the prevalence of small fiber neuropathy, as measured by epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD), in a series of patients with FM and clinically healthy control subjects. Methods Forty-one consecutive patients with FM and 47 control subjects underwent a 3-mm punch skin biopsy at the proximal thigh and distal leg near the ankle, for analysis of the ENFD. Patients with FM who had clinical evidence of a disorder known to be associated with small fiber neuropathy were excluded. The patients with FM also underwent pinwheel testing and vibratory testing for hypesthesia and serologic testing for a series of cytokine, circulating immune complex, and complement measurements. Results All patients with FM had evidence of stocking hypesthesia. The ENFD of patients with FM was lower than that of control subjects at both the calf (mean ± SD 5.8 ± 2.8 versus 7.4 ± 1.9; P = 0.0002) and thigh (9.3 ± 3.2 versus 11.3 ± 2.0; P = 0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between calf ENFD and age at the time of skin biopsy in patients with FM (r = -0.29, P = 0.03) but not in control subjects; however, analysis of covariance showed that this relationship could not be explained by aging alone. Serologic evaluation showed an inverse correlation between calf ENFD in patients with FM and the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) level (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). However, an inverse correlation between thigh ENFD and serum IL-2R levels did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Analysis of thigh-to-calf ENFD ratios suggested that the ENFD decline in FM is affected by both a diffuse and a length-dependent process. Conclusion The calf and thigh ENFD in patients with FM is significantly diminished compared with that in control subjects. Advancing age alone cannot explain this finding. Calf ENFD was inversely correlated, although weakly, with serum levels of IL-2R. These findings suggest that small fiber neuropathy is likely to contribute to the pain symptoms of FM; that pain in this disorder arises, in part, from a peripheral immune-mediated process; and that measurement of ENFD may be a useful clinical tool in FM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Marine Biology | Year: 2012
I tested the hypothesis that high pCO 2 (76. 6 Pa and 87. 2 Pa vs. 42. 9 Pa) has no effect on the metabolism of juvenile massive Porites spp. after 11 days at 28 °C and 545 μmol quanta m -2 s -1. The response was assessed as aerobic dark respiration, skeletal weight (i. e., calcification), biomass, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Corals were collected from the shallow (3-4 m) back reef of Moorea, French Polynesia (17°28. 614′S, 149°48. 917′W), and experiments conducted during April and May 2011. An increase in pCO 2 to 76. 6 Pa had no effect on any dependent variable, but 87. 2 Pa pCO 2 reduced area-normalized (but not biomass-normalized) respiration 36 %, as well as maximum photochemical efficiency (F v/F m) of open RCIIs and effective photochemical efficiency of RCIIs in actinic light (δF/F′ m); neither biomass, calcification, nor the energy expenditure coincident with calcification (J g -1) was effected. These results do not support the hypothesis that high pCO 2 reduces coral calcification through increased metabolic costs and, instead, suggest that high pCO 2 causes metabolic depression and photochemical impairment similar to that associated with bleaching. Evidence of a pCO 2 threshold between 76. 6 and 87. 2 Pa for inhibitory effects on respiration and photochemistry deserves further attention as it might signal the presence of unpredictable effects of rising pCO 2. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Central to evaluating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs is understanding how calcification is affected by the dissolution of CO(2) in sea water, which causes declines in carbonate ion concentration [CO(3)(2-)] and increases in bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO(3)(-)]. To address this topic, we manipulated [CO(3)(2-)] and [HCO(3)(-)] to test the effects on calcification of the coral Porites rus and the alga Hydrolithon onkodes, measured from the start to the end of a 15-day incubation, as well as in the day and night. [CO(3)(2-)] played a significant role in light and dark calcification of P. rus, whereas [HCO(3)(-)] mainly affected calcification in the light. Both [CO(3)(2-)] and [HCO(3)(-)] had a significant effect on the calcification of H. onkodes, but the strongest relationship was found with [CO(3)(2-)]. Our results show that the negative effect of declining [CO(3)(2-)] on the calcification of corals and algae can be partly mitigated by the use of HCO(3)(-) for calcification and perhaps photosynthesis. These results add empirical support to two conceptual models that can form a template for further research to account for the calcification response of corals and crustose coralline algae to OA.