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Pasquali S.,University of Birmingham | Spillane A.,Melanoma Institute Australia | Spillane A.,Northern Sydney Cancer Center
Cancer Treatment Reviews

The management of melanoma lymph node metastasis particularly when detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is still controversial. Results of the only randomized trial conducted to assess the therapeutic value of SLNB, the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-1), have not conclusively proven the effectiveness of this procedure but are interpreted by the authors and guidelines as indicating SLNB is standard of care. After surgery, interferon alpha had a small survival benefit and radiotherapy has limited effectiveness for patient at high-risk of regional recurrence. New drugs, including immune modulating agents and targeted therapies, already shown to be effective in patients with distant metastasis, are being evaluated in the adjuvant setting. In this regard, ensuring high quality of surgery through the identification of reliable quality assurance indicators and improving the homogeneity of prognostic stratification of patients entered onto clinical trials is paramount. Here, we review the controversial issues regarding the staging and treatment of melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis, present a summary of important and potentially practice changing ongoing research and provide a commentary on what it all means at this point in time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

De Deene Y.,Macquarie University | De Deene Y.,University of Sydney | Skyt P.S.,University of Sydney | Skyt P.S.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology

Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called 'FlexyDos3D', has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. © 2015 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Ng J.A.,University of Sydney | Booth J.,University of Sydney | Booth J.,Northern Sydney Cancer Center | Poulsen P.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology

Kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring (KIM) is a novel real-time localization modality where the tumor position is continuously measured during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) by a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray imager. Adding kV imaging during therapy adds radiation dose. The additional effective dose is quantified for prostate radiotherapy and compared to dose from other localization modalities. The software PCXMC 2.0 was used to calculate the effective dose delivered to a phantom as a function of imager angle and field size for a Varian On-Board Imager. The average angular effective dose was calculated for a field size of 6 cm × 6 cm. The average angular effective dose was used in calculations for different treatment scenarios. Treatment scenarios considered were treatment type and fractionation. For all treatment scenarios, (i.e. conventionally fractionated and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), IMRT and IMAT), the total KIM dose at 1 Hz ranged from 2-10 mSv. This imaging dose is less than the Navotek radioactive implant dose (64 mSv) and a standard SBRT cone beam computed tomography pretreatment scan dose (22 mSv) over an entire treatment regime. KIM delivers an acceptably low effective dose for daily use as a real-time image-guidance method for prostate radiotherapy. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Sundaresan P.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Turner S.,Westmead Cancer Care Center | Kneebone A.,Northern Sydney Cancer Center | Pearse M.,Auckland City Hospital | Butow P.,University of Sydney
Radiotherapy and Oncology

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can be hampered by poor patient accrual and retention. Decision aids (DAs) containing simple, evidence-based information, may assist patients with decision-making regarding trial participation. The current DA was of use for 95% of participants. Further evaluation of the DA in a RCT is currently underway. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ge Y.,University of Sydney | O'Brien R.T.,University of Sydney | Shieh C.-C.,University of Sydney | Booth J.T.,Northern Sydney Cancer Center | Keall P.J.,University of Sydney
Medical Physics

Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first experimental investigation of adapting to tumor deformation has been performed using simple deformable phantoms. For the single tumor deformation, the A u+Ao was reduced over 56% when deformation was larger than 2 mm. Overall, the total improvement was 82%. For the tumor system deformation, the Au+Ao reductions were all above 75% and the total Au+Ao improvement was 86%. Similar coverage improvement was also found in simulating deformation tracking during IMRT delivery. The deformable image registration algorithm was identified as the dominant contributor to the tracking error rather than the finite leaf width. The discrepancy between the warped beam shape and the ideal beam shape due to the deformable registration was observed to be partially compensated during leaf fitting due to the finite leaf width. The clinical proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated the feasibility of intrafraction deformable tracking for clinical scenarios. Conclusions: For the first time, we developed and demonstrated an experimental system that is capable of adapting the MLC aperture to account for tumor deformation. This work provides a potentially widely available management method to effectively account for intrafractional tumor deformation. This proof-of-principle study is the first experimental step toward the development of an image-guided radiotherapy system to treat deforming tumors in real-time. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

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