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Cascado D.,University of Seville | Romero S.J.,University of Seville | Hors S.,University of Seville | Brasero A.,University of Seville | And 2 more authors.
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

In this paper we discuss about the integration of Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL) with virtual worlds. The integration of sensors from the AAL environment (e.g. vital signs, motion sensors) in the Virtual World can enhance the provision of in-world eHealth services, such as telerehabilitation, and taking advance of the social nature of virtual worlds. An implementation of a virtual world integrated in an AAL environment for tele-rehabilitation is described in this paper. At this time, all of the system's modules have been developed and we are currently integrating them in a fully functional version. The system will be tested with real users during 2010 in the Sport Medical Unit of The University of Seville. This paper describes the architecture and functionalities of the system. © 2010 IEEE.


Isham B.,Interamerican University of Puerto Rico | Rietveld M.T.,European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association | Guio P.,University College London | Forme F.R.E.,CNRS Institute for research in astrophysics and planetology | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Langmuir cavitons have been artificially produced in Earth's ionosphere, but evidence of naturally occurring cavitation has been elusive. By measuring and modeling the spectra of electrostatic plasma modes, we show that natural cavitating, or strong, Langmuir turbulence does occur in the ionosphere, via a process in which a beam of auroral electrons drives Langmuir waves, which in turn produce cascading Langmuir and ion-acoustic excitations and cavitating Langmuir turbulence. The data presented here are the first direct evidence of cavitating Langmuir turbulence occurring naturally in any space or astrophysical plasma. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Bjerke J.W.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Rune Karlsen S.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Arild Hogda K.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Malnes E.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2014

The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, <4%). Summer drought and wildfires are the best-documented drivers causing browning of continental areas, but factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011-September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Fernandez-Luque L.,Northern Research Institute Tromso
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2010

Health consumers have embraced the web to obtain access to health information and to socialize and share knowledge with peers. Additionally, the web has become a more interactive and rich platform with the integration of health applications and services, such as Personal Health Records. Some of these applications provide personalized interactions based on user specific characteristics. In this paper we provide an overview of Personalized Health Applications in the Web 2.0. We reviewed the health applications integrated in Google Health, Microsoft HealthVault and Facebook. We studied the goals of the applications and also the personalized feedback they provided.


Said F.,University of Tromsø | Johnsen H.,Northern Research Institute Tromso
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

An alternative approach to sea surface wind retrieval using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) stripmap (SM) data is explored in this paper, using both the polarization residual Doppler frequency (PRDF) - the difference between the VV and HH Doppler centroids - and the normalized radar cross section (NRCS). The PRDF not only enables the possible elimination of unwanted biases present in both VV and HH Doppler estimates but also helps decrease the number of wind ambiguities down to two. In order to successfully infer the wind field from the PRDF, the use of a geophysical Doppler model function, such as the general curvature model (GCM)-Dop, is necessary. Using such a function, a simulated version of the PRDF at X-band is analyzed in terms of the sea surface wind field at various incidence angles. Simulations first show that the PRDF increases with increasing incidence angle regardless of wind field conditions. Actual PRDF measurements also exhibit strong correlation with radial components of the wind speed. An alternate SAR wind retrieval procedure, incorporating both the PRDF and the NRCS, is tested on a series of dual-polarized SM TerraSAR-X scenes carefully selected along the Norwegian coast. The geophysical model functions used for this analysis are the GCM-NRCS and GCM-Dop. A 1.13-m/s bias, with a correlation of 0.85 and a 1.86-m/s rmse, exists between the mean estimated wind speeds and in situ measurements, while a 15.43° bias, with a 0.93 correlation coefficient and a 34.1° rmse, is found between the mean estimated wind directions and in situ measurements. © 2013 IEEE.


Mungalpara J.,University of Tromsø | Thiele S.,Copenhagen University | Eriksen O.,University of Tromsø | Eksteen J.,University of Tromsø | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

In the absence of an experimentally determined binding mode for the cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists, we have rationally designed conformationally constrained analogues to further probe the small peptide binding pocket of CXCR4. Two different rigidification strategies were employed, both resulting in highly potent ligands (9 and 13). The information provided by this cyclopentapeptide ligand series will be very valuable in the development of novel peptidomimetic CXCR4 antagonists. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Fernandez-Luque L.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Karlsen R.,University of Tromsø | Krogstad T.,University of Tromsø | Burkow T.M.,University of Tromsø | Vognild L.K.,Northern Research Institute Tromso
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

Health consumers have embraced the web to obtain access to health information and to socialize and share knowledge with peers. Additionally, the web has become a more interactive and rich platform with the integration of health applications and services, such as Personal Health Records. Some of these applications provide personalized interactions based on user specific characteristics. In this paper we provide an overview of Personalized Health Applications in the Web 2.0. We reviewed the health applications integrated in Google Health, Microsoft HealthVault and Facebook. We studied the goals of the applications and also the personalized feedback they provided. © 2010 IEEE.


Karlsen S.R.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Jepsen J.U.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research | Odland A.,Telemark University College | Ims R.A.,University of Tromsø | Elvebakk A.,University of Tromsø
Oecologia | Year: 2013

The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. © 2013 The Author(s).


Johansen B.E.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Karlsen S.R.,Northern Research Institute Tromso | Tommervik H.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Polar Record | Year: 2012

The overall objective of this paper is to present and discuss the most recently developed vegetation map for Svalbard, Arctic Norway. The map is based on satellite images in which several Landsat TM/ETM+ images were processed through six operational stages involving: (1) automatic image classification, (2) spectral similarity analysis, (3) generation of classified image mosaics, (4) ancillary data analysis, (5) contextual correction, and (6) standardisation of the final map products. The developed map is differentiated into 18 map units interpreted from 37 spectral classes. Among the 18 units separated, six of the units comprise rivers, lakes and inland waters, glaciers, as well as non- to sparsely vegetated areas. The map unit 7 is a result of shadow effects and different types of distortions in the satellite image. The vegetation of the remaining eleven units varies from dense marshes and moss tundra communities to sparsely vegetated polar deserts and moist gravel snowbeds. The accuracy of the map is evaluated in areas were access to traditional maps have been available. The vegetation density and fertility is reflected in computed NDVI values. The map product is in digital format, which gives the opportunity to produce maps in different scales. A map sheet portraying the entire archipelago is one of the main products from this study, produced at a scale of 1:500,000. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Northern Research Institute Tromso and National Veterinary Institute
Type: | Journal: Acta veterinaria Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in Eurasian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) is a multifactorial disease, associated to infectious agents such as Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) and various species of bacteria, but environmental factors may also be necessary to initiate the disease. Little effort seems to have been invested in addressing the herder`s experience with this disease. An information letter with a link to an online questionnaire was sent to 410 herding community representatives in Norway and Sweden.Sixty-three herders responded, 76% of these having reindeer in Norway and 24% in Sweden. Thirty-three herders (55%) responded that they had seen this disease during the preceding year (2010) and 23 (38%) that they had seen it in previous years (2009 or earlier). The majority (67%) claimed that only 1-5 animals in their herd were affected at one time, whereas three herders (7%) responded that more than 30 animals had been affected. No environmental factor could be singled out as significantly associated with the appearance of IKC, but when categorizing the number of contact herds for each herd (i.e. sharing pastures, corrals etc.), IKC was observed more often in herds with many (>25) contact herds. The questionnaire revealed that a veterinarian is not always available for reindeer herders, but also that a veterinarian seldom is contacted for this disease. None of the herders practiced isolation of a diseased animal from the rest of the herd when IKC was observed. Slaughter was the action most commonly initiated by the herders in response to IKC, whereas the veterinarian usually prescribed antibiotics, usually an ophthalmic ointment, alone or combined with systemic treatment. The herders claimed that IKC and other diseases had less importance than predators concerning loss of animals.IKC is to be considered a common disease, observed in 55% of the herds (2010), typically affecting 1-5 animals, although larger outbreaks (>30 animals) occur. The herders usually slaughtered affected animals rather than consulting a veterinarian for medical treatment.

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